Lorraine

Lorraine

Flagge der Region Lorraine

Wappen der Region Lorraine

Lage der Region Lorraine in Frankreich
base data
prefecture Metz
population

- entire (1999)
- density

Rank of 9 of 26

2.310.376 inhabitants
98 Einwohner/km 2

surface

- entire
- Portion of France

rank 14 of 26

23,547 km ²
3.7%

Départements Meurthe et Moselle (54)
Meuse (55)
Moselle (57)
Vosges (88)
Arrondissements of 19
cantons 157
municipalities 2,337
president of the regional advice Jean Pierre Masseret HP
ISO 3166-2 - code FR-M

Lorraine (frz.: Lorraine [lɔˈʀɛn]) is a historical landscape in the east of France at the upper run of Maas, Mosel and Saar. It is today one of the political regions of France, which consists of the Départements Meurthe et Moselle (54) , Meuse (55) , Moselle (57) and Vosges (88). Capital is Metz.

Table of contents

history

in the Steinzeit are provable already first settlement traces.

Work on []

Emergence Lotharingiens

of 843, after death emperors Ludwigs, was divided the Frankish realm in the contract by Verdun among its sons. The central realm fell with at Lothar I. and received from this his new names Lotharii Regnum (“realm of the Lothar”, also Lotharingien). It extended from low landing (today the Netherlands and Belgium) over Burgund up to the emperor city Rome in Italy. 855 this realm in the Prümer division was again divided. Lothar II. the Lotharingien received the part between Maas and Rhine , to the North Sea Coast and Besançon, strictly speaking. This karolingische Lotharingien covered the Saarland, Luxembourg, Trier and (Germans ) the Mosel, Wallonie except the today's Lorraine still, the Niederrhein with Aachen, Cologne and Duisburg and the south of the Netherlands within the range Maastricht, Eindhoven, Breda. After death Lothar II. Lotharingien was divided first between the east Franconia realm and the west Franconia realm (contract ofMersen. The rich east with Utrecht , Cologne and Strasbourg , above all however with the emperor city Aachen, fell to the east Franconia realm, 870. 876, after the death of the eastFrankish king Ludwig of the German, tried the westFrankishTo conquer king Karl the bald one also the eastern half Lotharingiens. In the battle with other oh one it was struck however by Ludwig III., a son of Ludwig of the German.

877 Karl the bald one died, and his son Ludwig of the Stammler died likewisealready 879. Thereupon Ludwig III. tore. also the western part Lotharingiens actually (contract of Ribemont, 880). From now on completely Lotharingien belonged to the east Franconia realm. Between 900 and 911, and in the east Franconia realm under Ludwig the central power disintegrated to the childmaster duchies formed. Also Lotharingien became duchy. After becoming extinct the Karolinger in the east Franconia realm (911) the duchy followed Lorraine again the west France. After king Heinrich I.the central power in the east Franconia realm had restored, submitted to it 925also the lothringische duke Giselbert. Heinrich integrated the duchy Lorraine as the fifth master duchy into the east Franconia realm and restored thereby territorial conditions of the yearly 880. The Karolinger from the west France tried several times to recover Lorraine. 942 Ludwig hadIV. after the war of 940 without Lorraine do.

allocation in upper and Niederlothringen

959 was divided the duchy into two duchies: Upper Lorraine (the today's Lorraine, the Saar, Luxembourg , Trier, Prüm and Koblenz covers) and Niederlothringen (in the north). tried to take in 978 king Lothar of France again Lorraine, after Otto the large one had died (assault on Otto II. in Aachen). 980, retaliation course Otto II. to short before Paris. France stopped (provisionally) its conquest attempts. (Well-being)in 12. Century was changed the course of the border between upper and Niederlothringen: Luxembourg, Trier, Prüm and Koblenz fell at Niederlothringen. In the course of the development of territories within the holy Roman realm of German nation approx. 1210-1360 disintegrated to Niederlothringen into the duchies Luxembourg, Jülich and Brabant as well as countless further rule. In upper Lorraine bar split itself a duchy off , a large part of the country likewise remained however under the name “duchy Lorraine” a political unit with the capital Nancy with the duchy. Metz, Toul and (Verdun) became free realm cities; the bishops of Metz, Toul and Verdun acquired likewise smaller realm-direct territories.

1380 came it to the reunification of the German half of the duchy bar with the duchy Lorraine. 1430-1473 acquiredthe dukes of Burgund the largest part of Niederlothringens, i.e. the hen gau, Brabant, Limburg, Luxembourg, Holland, sea-country and funds. These parts of Niederlothringens fell later (1477) into the burgundische inheritance and thus to the German prince house Having castle, later at Spain and/or. the Netherlands and became alienated from the Roman-German realm. The remainder of Niederlothringens (Niederrhein, Aachen, Trier) remained with the realm, the name Niederlothringen is however no longer common. The name “Lorraine” was limited now to upper Lorraine and/or.on the there duchy Lorraine. 1475 conquered duke Karl the bold one of Burgund also the duchy Lorraine, whereupon Berne explained the war to it, it 1477 in the battle with Nancy defeated and the independence of Lorraine within the holy Roman realmGerman nation repaired.1542 were loosened to the good one in the contract by Nuremberg the connection of Lorraine to the realm by duke Anton, which could prevent a spreading of the reformation to Lorraine in the years before.

increasing influenceFrance

1552 sold Moritz of Saxonia in a Komplott against the emperor the Vikariat over the three (by the majority französischsprachigen) realm cities Metz, Toul and Verdun at France (contract of Chambord). 1552-1556 came it to the war between the holy Roman one Richly and France around these three cities. The new emperor Ferdinand I. adjusted the war and the cities remained French. Also the bischöflichen territories fell at France. In the course of the Fronde Lorraine on go-eat Richelieus occupied. In Westfäli peace of 1648 it remained unconsidered and only in peacetime by Vincennes 1661 the departure of the Frenchmen was specified. Strategically important places remain with France, which received a land connection from Verdun and one from Toul in the Elsass,whereby Lorraine was split up into three unconnected territories.

When duke intended Franz Stephan of Lorraine to marry Maria Theresia who should become after the will of her father heiress to the throne of Austria (pragmatic sanction), protested France, a how/as-those-strong thatAustrian power on the Rhine feared. Thereupon Franz Stephan exchanged its country in the contract of Vienna 1735, which terminated the Polish succession to the throne war, for the Grand Duchy of Toskana. He married 1737 and became 1745 at the side Maria Theresias as Franz I. German emperor. The Polish king Stanislaus I. Leszczynski kept Lorraine on lifetime, after its death awarded to 23. February 1766 fell it as agreed at France.

The German-language part of Lorraine was in 18. Century like the neighbouring German-language territoriesStarting point from emigrations to Eastern Europe. Many Lotharingian ones settled in the today's Vojvodina and thereafter among the Danube swabia were ranked. In the settlement Batsch Sentiwan (Prigrevica Sveti Ivan) e.g. became. up to driving the people Germans out from Yugoslavia after that The Second World War Lothringi (Moselfränki) related dialect spoken.

industrialization, Elsass Lorraine, the First World War

around 1850 began the industrialization in the region Nancy. 1850 were opened the railroad line Nancy Metz, to 1851/52 the continuous railroad line of Reims over Nancy afterStrasbourg and of Metz over Saarbruecken to Mannheim. After the victory of Prussia and its allied one in the French-German war 1871 the by the majority German-language areas in the northeast of Lorraine as well as Metz as well as the Elsass became as realm country Elsass Lorraine the again based German Reich incorporates. An efficient heavy industry developed on both sides the border within the range Metz, Diedenhofen, Nancy. 1893 were opened the Marne Rhine channel by Reims over Nancy and the Zaberner Steige to Strasbourg.

In „the large war” 1914 - 1918, the First World War, Lorraine was scene of dreadful battles, like the battle in Lorraine (1914) and the battle around Verdun (1916). After the defeat of the German Reich 1918 became the northeast part of Lorraine by the Versailler contract of the GermanRichly separately and again part of France. Afterwards the French language was considered legally as exclusive office and school language, also to the by the majority German-speaking population.

the Second World War

after the surrender of France at the beginning of the Second World War in the waragainst „the third realm” Lorraine was occupied 1940 by troops of the realm-German armed forces. The Département Moselle was subordinated to a boss of the civil administration as „CdZ area Lorraine “and treated actually like realm area, a formal integration of the area inthe German Reich did not take place however.

1944/1945 were released Lorraine from allied armed forces from German occupation and the National Socialist regime. The region Lorraine became again part of the Republic of France.

See also: List of the dukes of Lorraine

population

the region Lorraine has today approx. 2,3 millions inhabitants.

The southern, central and western parts of Lorraine belong from age to the French, the northeast parts of Lorraine to the German language area. The French language, those the deutschlothringischen populationmeanwhile in the northeast of Lorraine of France as office and school language, however the German language (Middle Franconian dialects) was ordered at that time as far as possible displaced. In some (rural) areas however still - predominantly of the older generation - the German dialects become (lothringisch, moselfränkischen and Rhine-Frankish) spoken.

economics

the region Lorraine furnishes 3.4% French GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (40.4 billion euro). Emphasis of the economic life is followed the service sector, of the industry. The mining industry lost its earlier meaning.

education

in Lorraine give it two universities, in Nancy and in Metz.

Lotharingian crosses

Lotharingian crosses was the indication of the house Anjou, which prevailed until 1473 in Lorraine. Admitsbecame it particularly as symbol of the French government-in-exile under Charles de Gaulle.

see also

 

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