Louvre

Louvre from above
Louvre with pyramid
Louvre von der Champs-Élysées gesehen
Louvre of the Champs Élysées seen
Louvre at night
Besucherandrang im Louvre
crowd of visitors in the Louvre

the earlier French king residence Louvre in Paris is today the world-wide largest museum (frz. Musée you Louvre), its collections beside that British museum in London, the Uffizien in Florenz, the Eremitage in pc. Petersburg and the museum ensemble on the museum island in Berlin to most meaning the world-wide belong. The building lies in the center of Paris between the right Seine bank andthe Rue de Rivoli. Its inner court lies in a line with the Champs Élysées and forms thereby the origin of the so-called historical axle.

Table of contents

history

of the Louvre was over centuries a large-scale building site. Nearly each ruler, king and emperor converted, extended or reconditioned the Louvre.

The Louvre was original in 12. Century under Philippe Augustsa trutziger functional structure (Donjon) to the protection of the right Seine bank. As the city in the second half 14. Century rapidly and the city in addition by a further internal wall ring grew was protected, left Karl IV.the castle to a habitableResidence changes. As main domicile of the French king the palace serves 16 however only starting from that. Century under Heinrich II, now in the style of the Italian Renaissance. Also in the following centuries the Louvre is transformed after the needs of the respective rulersand above all enormously extends. As the king yard with Louis XIV. after Versailles , keep-drew the building moved however. The city Paris transfers the building, partly still in the carcass and without roof, the Académie française draws in to king in accordance with ACago, othersBuilding parts are used of artists as dwelling and work space. Also Cabarets and stands are in that ever more to purging walls. Only the revolution gave a new meaning to the Louvre as the first public museum of France (opening 1793). Here becamethe art treasures of the king and the noble one gathered, if they had not been geplündert and had not been made money. With Napoleon however ruler draws Napoleon III. into the palace and its nephew.completes the building and in particular thoseFront to a large extent in its current form. 1873 are the career of the Louvre finally past as center of lay power, the president of the republic pull into the Elysée palace, a wing, the Tuilerien palace fall 1871 (municipality rebellion) a fire to the victim and become1882 abgerissen.

The former president François Mitterrand let the Louvre overhaul completely into the 1980er year. Not so much outside changes in the foreground, as a transformation of the showrooms and the usually underground research establishments and laboratories stood. In addition the palace accommodatessince that time two further museums, the Musée kind Décoratifs with the Musée de la mode et you Textile.

Henri Loyrette is the momentary successor and thus a director of the Louvre

architecture

the Louvre pyramid with sunset

The today's klassizistische building originated in to the majority in 17. Century. The building consists of three wings, which are designated after Denon , Sully and Richelieu.

In 19. Century was connected to the Louvre with the palace of the Tuileries and tooits current form developed (architects:Louis Tullius Visconti and Hector Lefuel).

In the year 1989 the architect Ieoh Ming Pei, which is responsible among other things also for the MIHO museum in Japan, built a glass pyramid in the inner court of the Louvre,which consists of glass squares (according to Dan Brown “Sakrileg” are it 666, a Paris travel guide (Gabriele Kalmbach: Paris and environment) mean however it are 673). This serves today as main entrance for the Musée you Louvre. Have at first as greenhouse and Käseglocke scoffed,those Parisians in the meantime to it gets accustomed.

At present „the Grand Louvre runs “- project, within whose framework among other things the gallery is restored d'Apollon. The conclusion is intended for 2006.

collection

Rubens-Saal
carrot LV hall
Blick auf den Denon-Flügel durch die Pyramide
view of the Denon wing by the pyramid

thoseCollection of the museum covers nearly 30,000 exhibits in seven departments, which are presented on a surface by over 60.000 m ². Thus the Louvre is the largest museum of the world. The museum is visited annually by over 5 million humans.

ThoseIn addition, art collections of the Louvre are qualitatively singular: Closely to be pushed high points issued by 2,500 years of European culture history. The Greek and Roman antique collection, the Italian Renaissance painting, the Netherlands painting 16 rises up out. and 17. Century as well as the FrenchPainting 15. to 19. Century.

14 goes to history

of the collection the earliest beginnings of the collection to in. Century back. At that time the duke accumulated Jean up Duc de Berry (1340 - 1415), a brother Karl V., oneCollection from paintings, Tapisserien and book painting, from which some still in the today's exhibition are to be seen.

The actual founder of the collection is however king Franz I.(1515 - 1547), that as the first large collecting tank and Mäzen upOf France throne applies. It furnished also 1517 a domicile to the greisen Leonardo da Vinci to the Loire . After its death 1519 its pictures - under it probably also the Mona Lisa - arrive into the collection of the king, toofor this time still in the lock Fontainebleau one keeps.

Cardinal Richelieu, the 1624 Ministers under Ludwig XIII. becomes, a large private collection develops on public expenses, which changes 1636 to the majority into the possession of the crown. 1660 draw the collection theninto the Louvre over. Also under Ludwig XIV. precious works, among other things by Tizian and Raffael, are acquired, during under Ludwig IV. hardly new pictures of the collection to be added.

The fact that the collection of the public is not accessible too more generally leads Criticism, on which 1750 in the palace you are opened Luxembourg the first picture gallery of France. 1779 are already closed it however again, there the palaces as dwelling later Ludwig of the XVIII. one uses. The pictures move back in the depot of the Louvre.

In the course of the French revolution the collection is made accessible then for 1793 for the first time in the Louvre. Napoléon Bonaparte receives the express instruction to seize famous works of art abroad. Soon already the Louvre knows the works of art from Rome, Venice, Berlin, Vienna and many other European cities any longer do not seize. Under Napoléon 15 branch museums develop in completely France, in which pictures of the collection are to be seen. After the case of the empire 1814 the booty art of the allied ones becomesthe Louvre fetched back, whereby the national element of the collection steps again into the foreground. According to the fall of the second empire 1870 the collection is then finally separated and put under state control from the crown. For the collection it is helpful thatsince 1972 the death duty can be performed also in the form of works of art.

famous ones of works in the Louvre (selection)

picture gallery

literature

  • Heinfried wiper man, “architectural guide Paris”, Gerd Hatje publishing house Ostfildern 1997, ISBN 3-7757-0606-2, S. 35
  • kind - the art magazine: 02/1989
  • Sylvia Jurewitz Freischmidt: Ladies of the Louvre - of France regent inside Maria de´ Medici and Anne d´Autriche, Casimir Katz publishing house 2005, ISBN 3-92582598-3

Web on the left of

Commons: Louvre - pictures, videos and/or audio files



coordinates: 48° 51′45 " N, 2° 20 ′ 11 " O

 

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