Ludwig Rubiner

Ludwig Rubiner (* 12. July 1881 in Berlin; † 27./28. February 1920 in Berlin) was a poet, literary critic and essayist of the expressionism.

To its most important works belong the communist manifesto “the poet reaches into the policy” (1912) and the drama “to force lots” (1919). With its “crime film-therefore-nice” (1913) Rubiner is seen as a forerunner of the Dadaismus.

Table of contents

school and University of

Ludwig Rubiner originate from a eastJewish family from Galizien. His father William Rubiner pulled to Berlin, where Ludwig to 12. July 1881 to the world came. Rubiner visited the Evangelist High School and wrote themselves 1902 at the medical faculty of the citizens of Berlin university. Already short time it changed later to the philosophical faculty and studied to at the end of of 1906 music, history of art, philosophy and literature. During the university time it became member of the citizens of Berlin free studentses, where it held lectures on Tolstoj , Strindberg and Wedekind and itself with theatre performances busy. Its intolerance the Spiessbürgertum of the university life opposite brought it to sit down with the citizen of Berlin to avant-garde environment in connection.

1903 he became acquainted with Erich laborious, Paul Scheerbart, René Schickele, Ferdinand hard head, William duke and Herwarth Walden , which with its literary circles and magazines is to be ranked among the most important representatives of the expressionism. The friendship with Walden made it for Rubiner possible to begin its literary activity.

first works

its first poem to the heights 1904 in the anarchist magazine the fight appeared. 1906 it already began like its father a newspaper activity as a critic and published to 1911 glosses, theatre criticisms and poems in the magazines the present, morning, the democrat, the theatre, the storm and Pan. Usually literary topics and personalities, essays over writers, composers and painter, discussions of individual works out of literature and music, as well as explanations concern of art exhibitions short writings over.

Rubiner as critics

for the German literature discussed Rubiner of works of Else Lasker pupil, max of Brod, Ernst Blass, Arthur Holit, Peter Hille and Heinrich man. In the articles, which act of music, it wrote over Debussy, Pfitzner, beautiful mountain, bunch, Busoni and Puccini. Which concerns the painting, he described the artists of the citizens of Berlin new secession, Matisse and Rousseau.

it wrote the libretto for the opera Waldens of the night watchmen to 1906, on which it tried to steer Mahlers attention. The cooperation with Walden lasted to at the end of 1910, when they wrote the introduction together for the Schlesinger' opera leader to the madame Butterfly Puccinis.

Between 1908 and 1909 Rubiner traveled to different European cities and countries: a half year he spent in Italy (Pisa and Florenz), went to Weimar and finally was in Russia, Austria and in Switzerland.

Rubiner as translators

of the beginning of its activity as literary critics it was particularly interested in fremdsprachige literature, in the French and Russian, because it controlled both languages. it wrote 1907 an essay over Joris Karl Huysmans, 1909 one over Fjodor Sologub, of which it translated also several poems. In addition it translated a narration of Paul Verlaine and wrote an essay, this time over the Belgian writer remote and Crommelynck. Further translations are Michael Kusmins novel acts of the large Alexander (1908) and the novellas evenings on the property yard with Dikanka (1831-1832) of Nikolai Gogol. These works in the magazines of two rulers, the fantasy, the present, the looking stage, the theatre and the democrat were published. In his translations also his Mrs. Frida Ichack cooperated , which became acquainted with Rubiner 1908.

in France

1910 Rubiner under the alias “Ernst Ludwig Grombeck” published the detective story the Indian opals. From 1911 to 1918 it cooperated in Franz Pfemferts magazine the action . In November 1912 it pulled to Paris, where it lived with Carl Einstein, Mitarbeiter of the magazine the democrat, in a small hotel.

Here it mediated between the German and French literature: it wrote regularly for the magazines the looking stage, March and the action article over the most important French events of the time, which it saw in the artist restaurant Cafè you Dôme. In the artist colony Fleury, which was created by the Dutch painter Kees van Dongen, became acquainted with Rubiner Mark Chagall . This placed its pictures in first German autumn-resounds Waldens out, and Rubiner closed an important friendship with him.

Rubiner as social critics

1912 did to Rubiner without the culture criticism and turned to the social criticism . In Paris he wrote the political-literary communist manifesto of the poets reaches into the policy, which appeared in the same year in the action. 1913 it published the crime film-therefore-nice, which it together with hand, American dealer Livingstone cock and the coworker of the magazine the action, Friedrich Eisenlohr, wrote. It translated and wrote the preface for the adventure novel of the vagrant Vidocq (1920), which lived in France during the French revolution.

Starting from 1914, already again returned to Berlin, written it articles for the magazine the white sheets, in which it cooperated until 1919. it wrote the Pantomine for the silent movie the rebellion, which is contained in the collection the cinema book published by briefly Pinthus to 1914.

exile in Switzerland

with outbreak of war went to Rubiner with its wife voluntarily into the exile to Zurich. During this time it became the soul of a strong group of banished intellectual ones and led the magazine time echo in the four booklets of 1917. In Switzerland it maintained close relations with the magazine the white sheets: 1916 it published there the poem collection the himmlische light, which appeared also as book in the same year. 1916 it published the communist manifesto the change of the world in the magazine the goal.

1917 are a very creative year: it led its magazine time echo, in which it, still actively as literary critics, whom exchange of letters of Tolstoj under the title published revolution days in Russia. This concerns the letters, which wrote Tolstoj its most intimate friends lately its life over the events of the Russian revolution.

In the action it published the writing by program the fight with the angel, in which of Pfemfert published collection the action book of five poems of acclamations to the friends and finally the Anthologie humans in the center, in which Rubiner collected the before published essays. it translated and published 1918 together with its Mrs. Tolstojs diaries the communist manifesto the renewal in the magazine the forum.

To 24. December 1918 he got a Austrian passport in Zurich, and to 30. January 1918 it left Switzerland and returned over Munich to Berlin, where it lived in the old dwelling of Busoni.

back in Germany

1919 he began to work as a lector at the publishing house Gustav Kiepenheuer in potsdam. It published for the second time the essay collection humans in the center then two Anthologien comrades of mankind. Seals for world revolution and the community. Documents of the mental world turn and the drama force lots, which wrote Rubiner between 1917 and 1918 in Switzerland. In this year Rubiner published also the essay the cultural position of the actor in the magazine free one German stage.

In the spring 1919 it created Rudolf Leonhard, Franz young and Alfons Goldschmidt the federation of proletarian culture in Berlin as well as Arthur Holit, after Soviet sample. The federation did not develop within the communist party. It wanted to support the fight of the revolutionary masses for release from the civil economic and education monopoly with the introduction of the proletarian culture to. Also the proletarian theatre belonged to the federation, a whose goal was it to give to the proletarian culture a public: the performances took place in the factories and in industriellen circles. The performance ended with the premiere of the drama liberty of harsh ore wreath/ring to 14. December 1919. The federation went to 1920 apart because of diversities of opinion, without specifying the drama force lots.

Lately its life worked Rubiner as well as its wife on the translation of the novels and narrations of Voltaire. Under the title of the poets Voltaire it had published one year before in the white sheets an essay over Voltaire, which it selected as preface for the whole volume.

Rubiners death

at the night between that 27. and 28. February 1920 died Rubiner due to a sechswöchigen lung illness in citizens of Berlin a private hospital, some days after the society young Germany it an honour title as appreciation of its literary activity lent. At the 3. March he was buried in Berlin white lake. The grave speeches were held by Franz Pfemfert and Felix Holländer.

Of the Website the Ludwig Rubiner homepage with friendly permission of Barbara Barnini.


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