Ludwig joke gene stone

Ludwig Josef Johann joke gene stone (* 26. April 1889 in Vienna; † 29. April 1951 in Cambridge), important philosopher 20. Century, creator of innovative approaches for the philosophy of the logic, the language and consciousness.

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Ludwig joke gene stone was that youngest from eight children industrial magnates Karl joke gene stone, which predominantly operated steel plants. It was catholic educated, although three of its four grandparents came from Jewish families. As it drewitself its brothers and sisters by extraordinary musische and intellectual abilities out. His brother Paul about became a famous pianist. However a mental instability faced these abilities: Three (Hans, Rudolf, Kurt) its nine brothers and sisters committed suicide. Also Ludwig joke gene stone put timeits life (in particular after the experiences of the First World War) to the day and proved depressive behaviors with one another in the human as on the one hand herrisch and disputatiously, on the other hand than sensitive and uncertainly. All contemporaries describe joke gene stone as an extraordinarily impressing personality.

LudwigJoke gene stone intellectual education began with domestic private instruction in Vienna, at 1903 visited it then the six-form high school in Linz. To 28. October 1906 registered Ludwig joke gene stone at the technical university Berlin, the today's technical University of Berlin.It had wanted original to study with Ludwig Boltzmann in Vienna. For Berlin joke gene stone decided, because its material school report permitted it the registration at the university only after a further study. In Berlin busy itself joke gene stone, so the sister Hermine intheir family memories, „much with aerotechnical questions and attempts. “Nevertheless then philosophy pulled it into its spell. Hermine joke gene stone noted: „To this time or somewhat later suddenly philosophy seized it, i.e. thinking about philosophical problems, so strongly andso completely against its will the fact that it heavily under the double and conflicting internal appointment suffered and as splits itself occurred. “

After the conclusion diploma as an engineer 1908 joke gene stone went to Manchester, where it at the university at the departmentfor engineering sciences tried to build an aircraft engine. It gave this plan up however soon. Then he worked on „improvement suggestions for airplane propellers “, a project, for which he to 17. August 1911 the patent received. Finally however philosophy dominated: Not leaston suggestion God praise Freges, which it visited 1911 in Jena, began joke gene stone a study in Cambridge at the Trinity college, where it itself intensively with the writings Bertrand Russells busy, in particular with the work „Principia Mathematica “, toA goal had of deriving the mathematical axioms from logical principles a goal, which pursued also God praise Frege. Russell does not point itself to the first meetings however at all impressed from joke gene stone: „After the lecture a heated German came, over with meargue. ... Actually it is pure waste of time to talk with it. “(Russell 16. November 1911). After two weeks Russells should not even have changed opinion however: „I begin to like it; it knows itself out in the literature,is very in music pleasant, in handling (an Austrian), and I believe, really intelligently. “(Bertrand Russell at petrol LINE Morrell, 29. November 1911). Already soon Russell joke gene stone held for nothing less than a genius, and joke gene stone developed fast from the pupilto the instructor Russells, which shook its basic assumptions. Russell was the opinion, joke gene stone is better suitable finally than he to continue its logical-philosophical work.

Among other things with Russells support was selected joke gene stone in November 1911 into the elitäre secret company Cambridge Apostles. In He found his first loving there to David Pinsent. They acquired together a timber building in Norway. But joke gene stone felt not domestic therein and left it soon again.

In the year 1911 joke gene stone began with the work on its first philosophical work,the logical-philosophical paper. Also during its time as a soldier in the First World War, in which he participated as a Freiwilliger in the Austrian army, he continued to work on until he finally completed the work in the summer 1918. It appeared however only 1921 in an incorrect version in the magazine annals of nature philosophy. 1922 finally a bilingual expenditure under that today admitted titles of the English translation published: Tractatus Logico Philosophicus. Apart from two smaller philosophical essays and a dictionary forElementary schools the logical-philosophical paper the only work of joke gene stone published during lifetimes remained.

early work

with the logical-philosophical paper (Tractatus) carried out joke gene stone „linguistics turn “in philosophy, the turn to the language: Philosophical problems to understand is calledsubstantially also to understand the function mode of the language. The core of joke gene stone early philosophy exists in an image theory of the meaning: the meaning of a word exists in a thing, which represents it. Sentences can have a structure similar to the structure of the reality.If the words in one form „for punctuation marks “(under what literally words in their sequence are to be understood) the same structure as their things or articles in the reality, „a true “sentence is present. „Wrong “are sentences, in their punctuation marks the words instand for permitted way to each other, without their articles in the reality repeated however the same structure. „Sinnlos "sind Sätze는, 안으로 Satzzeichen eine unmögliche Weltanordnung vorgestellt wird (etwa를 deren: “Small as larger is alike”). Joke gene stone developed Frege in the follow-up of God praise and Charles S. Peirce in the logical-philosophical paper „the truth tables in such a way specified “, which are missing today in no text book to the logic. „It completely actually concerns, the representation of a system “(from a letter of joke gene stone at Ficker, the publisherthe magazine „burners “). According to joke gene stone the logic of all realization is the basis - and marks at the same time their border: „The borders of my language are the borders of my world “. In this sense the logical-philosophical paper begins with the sentence: „The world is everything,which the case is “and closes with that much quoted sentence: „About which one can be silent not speak, over it must one. “

transition period

house joke gene stone

with the publication of the logical-philosophical paper believed joke gene stone, its contribution for philosophy performed outto have, and turned other activities. First it visited 1919/1920 the teacher educational establishment in Vienna. Afterwards it for some years people school teacher became „in one of the smallest villages, it is called draft brook and lies four hour south of Vienna in the mountains “(Letter at Russell), was however soon in educational regard overtaxed (as also contentwise). After it had acknowledged the school service in April 1926, it worked some months as a gardner assistant in a monastery. From 1926 to 1928 it provided together withthe architect Paul Engelmann for its sister Margarete Stonborough in Vienna a house (house joke gene stone). Joke gene stone was responsible thereby for interiorarchitectural organization of the house. Besides it was bildhauerisch active and provided a Büste in styles of the Viennese of artist Drobil. Also with these practical activities the referred function of joke gene stone showed up. Its goal was not generally social nature, it went to it not improving „the world “, but it went being it over „soul welfare “, it strove intellectualand psychological purity and clarity on. Later joke gene stone wrote retrospectively: „The work on philosophy actual like often the work in architecture - actually more/a work on one. At the own view. To it, like one thoseThings sees (and which one requires of them). “

End of the 1920er years began to concern itself joke gene stone again intensively with philosophical questions. It was located in contact to some members of the Viennese of circle, whose discussions it affected considerably (althoughin a way, the joke gene stone was not called, since it the opinion was that it had not been understood correctly). By a lecture of the intuitionistic mathematician L. E. J. Brouwer it became - so at least after a report of harsh ore Feigl- turned finally lastingly up-shaken and again to philosophy. During these „transitional phase “represented joke gene stone at short notice a view, which can be described as a form of the verificationism: The knowledge of the meaning of sentences accompanies with the knowledge thatrelevant verification or procedures of taking evidence.

late work

1929 returned joke gene stone as a philosopher to Cambridge, where it attained a doctorate first with Russell and moorlands in a verbal „examination “over the Tractatus. There it its inheritance during the First World War deflectedand on its brothers and sisters, was first precarious its financial situation had distributed, so that it was dependent on scholarships. To beginning of the 1930er years received it a training order. Between 1936 and its second loved Francis Skinner several journeys undertook joke gene stone to Norway,Vienna and Russia.1939 it was appointed as the successor George Edward of moorland. During the thirties joke gene stone gave numerous courses and lectures. He, its new thought, again and again tried which he developed among other things in argument with his first work, inBook form to write and provided numerous manuscripts and Typoskripte. Important intermediate steps were „The Blue Book “(Typoskript of an English dictation) and „to The bend Typescript “. Despite its intensive efforts it did not succeed to joke gene stone however to terminate its book project. Only postum appeared inYears 1953 the philosophical investigations, by which it arrived fast at world fame. Because this work affected philosophy history still lastingly as the logical-philosophical paper (Tractatus). It is considered as one of the Hauptwerke of languageanalytic philosophy (see also following essay).

Joke gene stoneGravestone in Cambridge

during the Second World War became joke gene stone again practically actively. He worked as a Freiwilliger in a medical research group, which examined the Wundschock in such a way specified, and developed equipments for the continuous measurement of pulse, blood pressure, respiration rate and - volumes. Servedit itself the experiences, which it had made during the development of its aircraft engine.

it took its lectures to 1944 in Cambridge. After the Second World War joke gene stone continued its philosophical investigations and worked among other things on philosophy thatPerception and about certainty and doubt. In addition, to many cultural and science-theoretical topics joke gene stone illuminating contributed. it wrote 1939: „Humans today believe, the scientists are there to instruct them the poets and musicians etc.,to please it. The fact that these have to teach it something does not come them into the sense. “

In October 1947 joke gene stone terminated its activity at the university and lived from then on withdrawn and spent some time into Ireland. Joke gene stone diedin the year 1951 at cancer. Since joke gene stone rejected it to go into English hospital it lived the last weeks in the house of its physician, who had accepted it with itself. As its Mrs. Wittgenstein on the day before its deathcommunicated, its English friends it on the next day would visit, he said: „Legends it them that I had a wonderful life. “

therapy vs. Metaphysik - for the interpretation of late philosophy

if two philosophers to their opinion overJoke gene stone to be asked, then one receives frequently not two, but four different answers: two different over joke gene stone early work (are mostly still relatively similar) and two different over its late work (often strongly contradict themselves). Reasons for it are underother one the elitäre attitude of joke gene stone, which was particularly in the early phase ready frequently not to give detailed explanations. In the late phase it was among other things joke gene stone high requirement, which prevented it from it, liquid readable, structured clear actuallyto write longer papers. „After some attempts failed to weld together my results to such a whole one I saw that this would never succeed to me. That the best, which I could write only philosophical remarks would remain; that my thoughtssoon, if I tried, they, against their natural direction erlahmten to further-force in ‚a' direction. “

Joke gene stone can quite write; the usually short dialogues of its late work are stylistic brilliant. Its entrance is traditionless only; particularly the late joke gene stone has in philosophy historyand a new does not donate therefore forerunners to think unparalleled kind. One must learn it like a foreign language, in which one becomes liquid only with the time.

Only few philosophers have so biting judged of the Philosophieren howJoke gene stone in its later thinking. It regarded the “large philosophical problems” in the long run as “mental disorders “, which would develop among other things, by one philosophiere. They became thereby fixed ideas which do not release one any longer. Usually, because one itself inan unacceptable linguistic usage ran. „It is a main source of our lack of understanding that we the use of our words surveyed “is not called it in the philosophical investigations, the Hauptwerk of its late philosophy.

Example: The similarity of the sentences „I has a chair “, „Ihas an impression “, „I have toothache “seduced to the view, one „has “impressions or feelings in the same way like „chairs “(spacetaking articles, whose possession one can by sales or Einäscherung lose) - whereby the picture forces oneself upon, words like „impression “, „feeling “or also „thought “, „would have to stand for number “like “chair” for - if not visible, then invisible -, spacetaking somehow: approximately for „ideas “or what one sees through “checking” in its “internal one” can. Joke gene stone aims at it off, such automatic pictures tookastrieren, by it e.g. their emergence in consciousness lifts. Its Philosophieren has, as it says, with „the discovery “(and thus defusing) „nonsense “to do, due to its understanding “dents” smooth themselves - „with the Anrennen to the borders of the language “-got.

Up to this point itself the interpreters are still united, bend then however, the conclusions, the joke gene stone pull to obey differently. „“, He says, leaves its to philosophy „everything, how it is “- place „everything only “and explainand conclude nothing. „There everything openly “is not appropriate, is „for anything to be explained. “

“One wanted to set up theses in philosophy, it could over her to the discussion never come, because all would agree with them. “Over it, as this Wittgenstein Diktum is to be understood,disintegrate the interpreters into two camps. The one party stressed, joke gene stone is not by any means because of it, to us connections of the world hidden (so far) too „explains “; it wants to solve releasing adjustments or paradoxes of thinking excluding evils or swindles. In the following is this Lesartthe entzaubernde or therapeutic view mentioned. Another Lesart finds against it, joke gene stone has nothing world-explaining thing, but quite determining in the view approximately to the borders of sense observes. In addition its new kind of the clearing-up and reason is crucial: the grammardescription. Whereby joke gene stone understands something by „grammar “over word use standards going out, which one can translate with „customs “, „way of life “(or „program “). It calls it „grammar “, if it concerns thereby something regulating, learn-cash, on user „straightened “(sic!) will could. Behindthis grammar cannot be decreased/gone back after joke gene stone; it is absolute. This view, which reads descriptions of grammar (sense containment) with the late joke gene stone mainly, is called in the following metaphysical (there it it around „the last things “goes: what add groundlessly is).

After thatone does not do justice to solution-orient-therapeutic entrance joke gene stone late work, by trying to read the direct description from something absolute one. Joke gene stone described such a thing nowhere, but sketched - on the contrary - procedures (never prescribed, only suggested) for the solution ofspirit-end absolute heating absolute, whose root it saw in the unhinterfragten acceptance of certain pictures. By “picture” he understood the solidification of a certain view to something natural one, Unhinterfragbarem, evenly “absolute one”.

Example: Stone time men beta-practiced their wives “with clubs”, before her her toBegattung into “their cave” pulled. This today often quoted picture is justified by no vouchers. Nevertheless it controls our fancy, which we notice to the fact that it seems to us less ridiculously than e.g. the conception of a stone time man, who writes a dear poemor Gänseblümchensträusse for the Angebetete picks (although this two is just as possible for variant after what we know about the Steinzeit, as the “clubs” -). - Something similar the conception: Numbers stand for articles. One must be able to measure the time like the area(the presence of Emphase or Modaloperatoren always points after joke gene stone to a picture: something Verabsolutiertes).

Joke gene stone solution procedure now e.g. develops. Comparison objects, in order to break the spell of a “picture”. A philosophical problem due to in such a way the understanding end picture is aboutmeasuring time. The problematic picture is here that of the meter staff, that takes what it misses, already: Area. How is it so however possible to measure time? With which “meter staff”, the time past such as future- would already take? Time cannot be measured thus at all! What then however is one hour? Joke gene stone solves the feeling of dizziness, by presenting another “comparison object”: one is to compare time fairs with space fairs not by meter staff, but pacing down. Joke gene stone legend not,stress therapeutically the adjusting, time fairs are pacing down area; he present only as example another comparison article: one can time fairs also parallel to space fairs by pacing down - instead of meter staff use - see. Thus separate the cramp. „The actual discoveryis those, which makes me able to break the Philosophieren off when I want. ... now by examples a method is shown, and one can break the number off of these examples. - Problems are solved (difficulties eliminated), not a problem “. Philosophical investigations §133

for „the metaphysical " adjusting is this entrance of joke gene stone a Weiterung of abilities, which only once - above all the method of the accepting illustration of language plays, their want to be acquired „grammar “(e.g. those the “meter staff use”). But hasJoke gene stone preferentially on the one hand the use connection of some central terms represented and so the meaning for instance of „importance “or „rule “for its approach on the other hand e.g. illuminates, during it. with „language play “or „family similarity “also specific termspartly drew for its method using language plays invented for their illustration sufficiently and determined. The nature of such and all terms illuminates according to joke gene stone constantly from the representation of their use connection or language play. To which last also views after the philological or, interpretations, comparisons of development stages and criticism belonged to historical-critical method.

„The metaphysical “adjusting are accordingly the opinion, „language play “are a core term of the late philosophy of joke gene stone; Life reality disintegrates after joke gene stone unhintergehbar into such recordable „automatic control loops “, and in philosophy go itaround it to represent their grammar - paradigmatisch or in the interaction of heterogeneous examples -. This happens then with results astonishing sometimes. About illuminate from the clarified use connection of „dream “that with it nothing private, but only a certain interhuman process can be meant.Or it proves that expressions of the first person singular would not have a logical value.

It concerns to the Metaphysikern furthermore the elucidation of the conception of the world of each way of life term-drawing after their joke gene stone understanding. „One could introduce oneself “, quotes her for this joke gene stone over thoseCertainty, „that certain sentences of the form of the experience sets would have solidified and as line for, the liquid experience sets not solidified function; and that this relationship changed with the time, in which liquid sentences solidify and become liquid firm. “The metaphysical attitude looks on the straight rigid sentences, in order to distinguish on the basis their acute sense from acute nonsense: Obvious to state as for instance that „stones cannot think “- in addition, less obvious, to what extent one e.g. meaningfully about „artificial intelligence “talkcan. Also culture sciences or psychotherapeutische procedures draw from this beginning.

Out „therapeutic “view mutilate the Metaphysiker thereby the late philosophy of joke gene stone. It was a matter to it not of it, „correct “from „wrong one “, permitted from non-permitted linguistic usage to distinguish „sense “from „nonsense “by it provingrepresented, what „is correctly “, „permitted “or „meaningful “. If joke gene stone speaks about the meaning of words, this has the purpose in accordance with the therapeutic view not to create a correct regulation from terms to but that, to solve an intellectual cramp like itfor example in the following statement to the expression comes: „Which is now the nature of “well”? There must be a determining characteristic nevertheless, otherwise nevertheless everything is relative! “

The discussion of the term „language play “stands in close relationship with that of theTerm „meaning “: In the philosophical investigations it means in § 42: „The meaning of a word is its use in the language. “In the sentence standing before it joke gene stone notices directly however restrictivy: „One can for a large class of cases of the usethe word meaning - if also not for all cases of its use - explain this word in such a way: The meaning of a word is its use in the language “. The interpretation of this text passage throws a further impact light on the different entrances ofTherapist and Metaphysikern.

The metaphysical adjusting are the view that joke gene stone made here a regulation of „importance “(the nature of the term marked by this letter string). Accordingly they try to extract a consistent position out joke gene stone works. Even if definitions,as they recognize, with joke gene stone nearly always „classically “by the indication of determining characteristics did not take place, but as - often by the dozen - illustrating is represented, in its similarity or Zusammenklang the certain term then „appears “(family similarity, a in the long run openProcedure, which does not plan sharp borders), became in the long run also thereby always something - and, that was even joke gene stone punchline: also always sufficiently - determines. § 42 of the philosophical investigations would be to be thus quite understood as definition; the restrictive „not for allCases “is to be read rather as index on further regulations of „importance “by the author, approximately in part of II of the philosophical investigations, where joke gene stone in the beginnings of a philosophy of the psychology describes „the secondary meaning “as a certain formexperiencing „the primary “, in the use existing. Since there would be none over „primary “and „secondary “going out use of the term „meaning “in late works of joke gene stone, the trailers „of the metaphysical interpretation “are inclined to the view that joke gene stone does not plan another also and„Meaning determined “to that extent exhaustively.

In contrast to it „therapeutically the “adjusting, joke gene stone do not represent it into § 42 by any means around went determining core and nature of „importance “. The restriction „for all cases “is not no reference to other placesin thinking the author to lend but emphasize that the following regulation does not outline anything Immerwährendes, but a possible article with the potential, thinking cramps a causing picture, as it with it is compared, aspects of solution. So it could e.g. relaxing work,to be seen the meaning of “conception” or “toothache” not as by “chair” or “car” in something spacetaking of trying but parallels between with „conception “or „toothache “meaning and regulated process forms („plays “: their courses…) see wanting. In accordance with thatsolution-orient-therapeutic attitude does not read the crucial question here, how different regulations of the meaning term complement each other or add, but whether articles sketched by „the therapist the “are able - by comparing what confuses one, with them -, aspects of solutionappear to leave.

relationship from early to late work

the conflict of the late philosophy interpretations is passed also to the estimate of continuity into joke gene stone thinking. „The therapists “are inclined to the acceptance of a break between the absolute position of the logical-philosophical paper(Tractatus) and the relaxing procedures of the philosophical investigations. For „the Metaphysiker “rise both works the same negative Metaphysik, which itself in the early work as letztliche Gegenstandslosigkeit of sense-donating logic („my basic idea is that “the logical constants do not represent”. That itself the logicthe facts does not leave represented. “TLP 4,0312), in the late work in the Unhintergehbarkeit life-lay all carrying practice (“grammar”) shows. They continue to identify in joke gene stone early such as late work a gegencartesianische refusal of the dualism of more privately „interior world “and more publicly „to external world “as well as subject-centered thinking at all,not least by omitting any theory of knowledge or Transzendentalphilosophie.


  • Ludwig joke gene stone expenditure for work in 8 volumes Frankfurt/Main, 1984 (inexpensive expenditure for paperback, also individually available)
  • Ludwig joke gene stone lectures on the philosophy of the psychology 1946/47 Frankfurt/Main,1991 (complete rendition of its last lectures, noted of three of joke gene stone listeners; they obtain a very alive picture of the unusual training style; from the English)
  • Ludwig joke gene stone logical-philosophical paper 1921
  • Ludwig joke gene stone philosophical investigations 1953
  • Ludwig joke gene stone on the certainty 1970 Suhrkamp



  • William tree: Ludwig joke gene stone, Colloquium publishing house, Berlin 1985, (heads 20. Century; Bd. ; 103), ISBN 3-7678-0645-2
  • Brian McGuinness: Joke gene stone early years, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M., 1992, ISBN 3-518-28614-5 (very in detail)
  • Ray Monk: Joke gene stone. The handicraft of the genius, Klett Cotta, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-608-94280-7 (at present the best biography, with many quotations from letters and diaries)
  • short Wuchterl, Adolf Hübner: Joke gene stone. With self certifications and picture documents, Rowohlt, Reinbek, 1998, ISBN 3-499-50275-5 (briefly,inexpensive, to read relatively „easily “) [work on


  • joke gene stone to the introduction, June US publishing house, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-88506-330-1 dock book wood
  • Ludwig joke gene stone , Campus publishing house, Frankfurt/New York 2006, ISBN 3-593-37858-2 Joachim joke gene stone
  • trained many photos. An introduction,Reclam, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-15-008564-0
  • William Vossenkuhl “Ludwig joke gene stone”, row “philosopher”, publishing house C.H. Beck, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-38931-7
  • Howard O. Mounce Wittgenstein's Tractatus. At Introduction. Blackwell, Oxford 1990, ISBN 0-631-12556-6 (introduction for college students exzellente - with the book haseveryone times begun)
  • Ernst M. Long Ludwig joke gene stone: “Logical-philosophical paper” UTB 1996 Schöningh, Paderborn (introduction to main theses, which it makes for one possible to deal independently with the text)
  • Ernst M. Long Ludwig joke gene stone. Philosophical investigations, a commentated introduction, Schöningh, Paderborn 1998, ISBN 3-8252-2055-9 (treats also part of II)

comments, Monographien, anthologies

  • Gordon P. Baker, Peter M. Hacker: Analytical Commentary on the „Philosophical Investigations “, Blackwell, Oxford 1985ff (several volumes, the probably most thorough and most comprehensive comment on the philosophical investigations, however without the treatment of part of II - the authors are the joke gene stone of “Popes” and disintegrated over their Hauptwerk into those “therapeutically further above”/“metaphysical” characterized camps)
  • Peter M. Hacker: Joke gene stone in the context of analytic philosophy, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M.1997, ISBN 3-518-58242-9 (founded overview of the “metaphysical” position, which sees an inheriting of the agelsächsisch analytic philosophy tradition in joke gene stone)
  • Gordon P. Baker: Wittgenstein's method. Neglected aspects, essay on joke gene stone, Blackwell, Oxford 2004, ISBN 1-405-11757-5 (collection first usually in French of published essaysto the far “therapeutically above” characterized position, which aims at spirit cramps not by analysis, but reinterpretation it causing pictures)
  • Erich Ammereller, Eugen Fischer (Hrsg.): Joke gene stone RK work. Method into the philosophical investigation, Routledge, London 2004, ISBN 0-415-31605-7 (anthology for the method of joke gene stone)
  • Michel Ter rake:Beyond The internal and The Outer. Wittgensteins's Philosophy OF Psychology, Dordrecht, Kluwer, 1990, ISBN 0-7923-0850-6
  • Duncan judge: Joke gene stone RK His Word, Continuum, London 2004, ISBN 0-8264-7473-X (further alternative interpretation of joke gene stone Spätphilosphie)
  • Eike of Savigny: Joke gene stone “philosophical investigations”. Frankfurt/Main: Monastery man 1988f.

see also

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