Ludwig XVIII. (France)

Ludwig XVIII.

Ludwig XVIII. (* 17. November 1755 in Versailles; † 16. September 1824 in Paris) was born as a fourth son of the Dauphin Ludwig Ferdinand (1729 - 1765) and its wife Maria Josepha of Saxonia; Count of Provence(1755), duke of Anjou, count von Maine, Perche and Senonches and Pair of France (1771), duke of Alençon and Pair of France (1774), duke of Brunoy and Pair of France (1775);1814 - 1824 king of France (nominal since 1795).

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Ludwig XVIII. daughter of the king was Vittorio Amadeo III. since 1773 with Luise of Savoyen. from Piemont Sardinien, marries.


it governed after its older brother than“eight tenth”, after the death of its nephew, and as a king Ludwig XVII already never deceased to that as a child. governed. He spent the French revolution and the Napoleoni wars in the exile, in cure country, where he stood under the protection of the Russian emperor, to it 1814 to France returned.

Its rule was interrupted by the cent Jours (one hundred days ) Napoléons.

restoration and Charte Constitutionnelle

English caricature of Ludwig XVIII. (1823)

With announcing the Charte constitutionnelle at the 4.Juni 1814 the restoration of the Bourbonen was final. TheirEmergence is the result of struggles for power. Individual personalities attained crucial weight regardless of the structural contrasts between universal monarchy and pluralem state system, between in a revolutionary manner legitimized empire and hereditary monarchy of God grace, between a pure power conflict and an ideologically determined front position:

Zar Alexander with its decision ofDecember 1812 to in-carry the war over the borders of its realm to Central Europe;

Metternich with its on the containment of Russia considered diplomacy;

Napoleon with its refusal of serious negotiations and its to last imperturbable confidence on the superiority of its military Könnens;

Talleyrand and the French senatewith their faith in the interspersing barness of a revolution without sufficient power basis; and finally

Ludwig XVIII., whose personal achievement was never appreciated of the restoration appropriately with the penetration after its conceptions of the historiography in the reason.

Ludwig XVIII. the senate condition placed on the head, byit their democratic legitimacy basis by its dynastischen requirement for legitimacy, originating from the revolution, replaced. By the assumption of a large part of the central regulations of this condition its restoration won at the same time one expressed liberal a character.

The changes in the ownership structures by the French revolution remained generally speaking andWhole one untouched, also the management system one did not change.


  • William bringing man: Louis XVIII. of France in the exile. Bright castle 1796-1798, long, Frankfurt/M. 1995, ISBN of 3-631-48525-5
  • peoples Sellin: The robbed revolution. The fall Napoleon and the restoration in Europe, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht,Goettingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-36251-X

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Napoleon I.
List of the rulers of France successor
Karl X.


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