Ludwig van Beethoven

of these articles is occupied with the composer Ludwig van Beethoven, further meanings of Beethoven under Beethoven (term clarifying)

Ludwig van Beethoven (* 16. December 1770 in Bonn; † 26. March 1827 in Vienna) was a composer the Viennese classical period. It is considered today as the composer, who style-pounds the music of these led to their highest development and - particularly in its late works - also overcame. Therefore many see the Wegbereiter of the romance in it.

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827); Painting of Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820

table of contents


Ludwig van Beethovens birth house in Bonn


Ludwig van Beethoven was the son of a musician family,their ancestor (farmer and craftsman) from Mecheln in the flämischen Brabant came. “Van” in the name not the local origin witnesses on from noble origin, but shows (probably the landscape praying Uwe). Beethovens grandfather, that also Ludwig van Beethoven, was a kurkölnischer Kapellmeister was called in Bonn. 1740 were born its son Johann, which sang as tenor in the Bonn yard chapel. Johann married Maria Magdalena Keverich originating from honour broad stone. Their first son came in the night of 16. December upthe 17. December 1770 in the Bonn lane 20 to the world. It became to 17. December baptized and after his grandfather Ludwig designated.

Beethovens father was impressed of the young Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who already appeared with 6 years as a composer.With the goal likewise of making from Ludwig such a miracle child the father began to inform it in the piano play. Those very strict attitude of the father obstructed however the development of the boy, that sometimes in the middle in the night from the bedwas gotten, in order to practice piano. That had the consequence that Beethoven was often tired at school and suffered from lack of concentration. With eleven years had it on urge of its father the school to leave.

Also otherwise Beethovens was lifenot easily. Its father was alcoholic, its nut/mother was very often ill, and of its six brothers and sisters only two survived. While Beethoven had a strained and reserved relationship to its father, he loved his nut/mother much. As it with supposed, noticed parents this got sick to five years at a tympanic cavity inflammation not. The illness could do never correctly sound, among other things because it was never treated. This could have been a reason for its later deafness.

Colleague of Beethovens father to Bonn yardit recognized Ludwig's gift and ensured for the fact that the father finally decided itself to put the further musical training of its son into the hands from other musicians to. Among Beethovens most well-known promoters and teachers in Bonn ranked in the next years ChristianGod praise Neefe (piano, organ and composition) and Franz Anton Ries (violin). 1782 were it Neefe, which published so “variation pour the le Clavecin as first works of Ludwig - sur une Marche de Mr. Dressler ". In the same year Beethoven becameNeefes representative as yard organist. It received a firm employment as - more paid - yard organist at the age from 14 years. With the count Waldstein as with the family Breuning it acquired itself influential sponsors and friends. In the excellent Bonn one Yard chapel played it viola, while it continued to train always at the same time in the piano play. Also as a composer it was active, but most at that time developing remained ungedruckt, and/or. in later compositions were processed.


Sonate OI. 109 (it acts, as the picture title lets assume, in order to continue the Hammerklaviersonate

) around its training, Ludwig van Beethoven did not travel itself 1787 to Vienna. In the bag it had a recommendation letter in Bonn residing Cologne cure prince max of Franz, youngest brotherby emperor Joseph II. Beethovens a goal was it to study with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Many composers such as Joseph Haydn made at that time the capital of Austria the musical center of Europe.

From the study with Mozart nothing became. Mozart was by the workat the Don Giovanni and because of other concerns so much taken up that it did not worry about Beethovens training. In addition it came that Beethoven began already two weeks after its arrival in Vienna again the home journey, because its nut/mother heavilyhad become ill.

Briefly after Beethovens return to Bonn died its nut/mother.

In the year 1789 Beethoven began a study at the University of Bonn; fast it came, there in particular by Eulogius cutter, into contact with the ideas of the French revolution. Its enthusiasm for the revolutionary ideals is reflected also in its later works again, which act of liberty and humanity, particularly in its only opera Fidelio.

he said the words to 1793: “Well-being do where one can; Liberty over everythinglove; Truth never, also even to thrones do not conceal. “

With 22 years Ludwig van Beethoven undertook a second study trip to Vienna, from which he did not return again to Bonn. Its father died, and the cure principality found 1794 by the French Invasion its end, and thus also Beethovens official position. Mozart had already died, but Joseph Haydn and Antonio Salieri accepted Beethoven as composition pupils, in addition give and Johann George Albrechtsberger. Recommendations and talent provided for it admission to thatfirst houses of Vienna; Baron van Swieten and the princess Lichnowski became its special sponsors.

Career as a pianist

as a manufacturer artist it stepped first 1795 before the public: as Virtuose with the lecture of its first piano concert, as a composer with thatPublication of its three first Trios (OI. 1) and the three Haydn dedicated Klaviersonaten. Its chamber music was called perfectly new. It became beyond that also as a master of the improvisation admits. According to an anecdote it determined before a concert,to be correct the fact that the wing a half-tone was too deeply been correct and played - there the time any longer was not sufficient in order the instrument again - its C major concert (first piano concert OI. 15) short hand in Cis Dur. The attention, which its being ablealready excited, still increased by 1796 an undertaken art journey to Prague, Dresden and Berlin. There one tried to hold it; there it had acquired itself however in Vienna as an artist a respected and secured position andin this plentiful getting along found, remained it now and its whole later life for its new homeland through faithful. Later journeys than Virtuose not possibly became by its hearing suffering. This hard fate affected determining Beethovens the whole following life way, there thoseartistically arranging activity from now to always exclusive its life filled out and the exercising into the background stepped. For approximately 1800 its life accepted a regular shape. Through the winter he dedicated himself in the capital to informal maintenances andthe concern around the performance of its works; in the summer it lived usually several months withdrawn in one of the villages into of Vienna environment, only with the elaboration of its compositions busily. A large circle of friends and Verehrern surrounded it. Smaller journeyswithin the Austrian state interrupted occasionally the uniformity of its life. it received a call to 1809 as a Kapellmeister to Kassel. There several of its highranking sponsors did together, among them his pupil ore duke Rudolf, around him by a lifelongTo bind pension at Vienna.

Physical suffering

Ludwig van Beethoven Büste into the rain citizens Walhalla

Ludwig van Beethovens physical Leidensgeschichte employs scientists until today.

Analyses, which the US-American Argonne published national Laboratory in Chicago at the beginning of of December 2005, confirm that itfrom youth under a heavy lead poisoning suffered . The laboratory analyzed one the head bone Beethovens with a modern x-ray unit, identified recently by California scientists. Subsequently, it compared the values with a strange head fragment from the time at that time. Therefore sufferedthe large German composer probably already before its 20. Lebensjahr under the poisonous influence of lead.

According to historical reports changes of its personality came to light in this age with Beethoven. At the same time the young Beethoven began, over stomach and intestine complaints toocomplain.

It is not clear against the fact whether also the loss of Beethovens hearing is to due to the increased lead values. With approximately 30 years first signs of a Otosklerose became apparent with it, which worsened inexorably. Around its by it more badly becomingAural acuity to adjust, he let his piano cover with up to 4 strings. Up to the year 1819 Beethoven was completely ertaubt, so that he could give no more concerts and direct also more. It held conversations with so„Konversationsheften mentioned “, which was rather toilsome.

During a cure stay 1802, which had made him again more optimistic, it wrote the lines a friend:

„I want to reach the fate into the throat, completely not down-bend am it me certainly “

andcomposed almost the 2 rushing over from joy of life and amusement. Symphony in D major, whose success was only moderate however. When its Schwerhörigkeit, connected with tormenting ear noises, became but again worse, he wrote despaired its „Heiligenstädter will “.


BeethovensSuccess in Vienna brought it with itself that it was umschwärmt by women. It gave also instruction, and many of its pupils were very talented pianist inside. Particularly in a friendly manner it was accepted in the family Brunswick. Three sisters (Therese, Josephine, Charlotte)and a brother (Franz) were without regulated education grown up on the Hungarian goods of the family, however much had read, music instruction had had and in their own fantasyful way had near-gotten themselves, which interested it. When they became acquainted with Beethoven end of the 1790er years,they were mutually from each other inspired. Beethoven remained to instruction in their house in the first time not only the agreed upon hour, but daily four to five hours. Therese and Josephine played distinguished piano and fell in love both in the interesting,impetuous, passionate man, and Franz admired it uncommonly. From mutual letters of brothers and sisters and Beethovens to a friend much is well-known over this time in its life.

When the family left, gave and dedicated after 18 days again to Hungaryit the two sisters the four-handled variations over „I think yours “. Beethoven visited the family in Hungary, and the friendship of all grew with one another.

Thus he learned also its cousin, who very young countess Giulietta Guicciardi, a talented, delightful,erotisch extremely attractive creature, and fell in love with all its passion with it. Giulietta was surrounded by men, who were inspired by it that this famous artist likewise belonged to it, found her interesting and pleasantly. With its feelings it playedhowever only or could deal and did not want at all with it. It fell in love with a much younger man, denied later, anything at all from Beethovens feelings and suffering to have known and pushed this time from its memory. For Beethoven was it hell, and also for this reason he wrote „the Heiligenstädter will to full despair “.

Reliably the unverbrüchliche friendship and affectionate warmth of Brunswick brothers and sisters did to him nevertheless well. Josephine became from the nut/mother to an unloved man (Joseph count Deym)married and got from it four children. The friendship with Beethoven and instruction with it were nevertheless continued. When 1803 count Deym died unexpectedly, they did not need for each other in their feelings longer restrainable. The noble Josephine hesitated however,to marry a civil one. And Therese wrote full concern Charlotte:“However legend me, Pepi and Beethoven, which is to become from it? It is to be on their hat! I believe regarding it underlined you in the piano excerpt the certainWords: Their heart must have Kraft no say, a sad obligation, if not the saddest of all. “ In Beethovens of increasing deafness, on the other hand they saw Josephines of physical fragility likewise to its attractionable nature obstacles: Two patient, which would be from thembecome? To a marriage it did not come, but they made, Beethoven for far together music spent several times summer holidays in a place in their proximity. The Klaviersonate Appassionata developed in this time. But in the year 1810 Josephine married the estnischen baronStackelberg. Thus they and Beethoven lost sight of each other, and Josephine came into very bad living conditions. In its diaries Therese wrote year later (1817):“Whether Josephine does not suffer punishment because of Luigi's? Pain! - its wife - which would have itnot from this Heros made! “ and 1847: “You were for each other born and lived both them would have still united “ (all quotations after R. Roll and, a.a.O. S. 251 - 253).

After Josephines Therese and Beethoven approached themselves turn to Stackelbergas before. Therese met however Pestalozzi in Switzerland and found their regulation in the establishment of children's homes and kindergartens in Hungary, never married and came up completely in this social activity.

The famous letter Beethovens „to the unsterbliche loving “it wrote 1812. Whether Therese or somebody else was the Empfängerin, is not clarified until today (conditions 2005). Often it is assumed that it concerns thereby rather Antonie Brentano.

The further Lebensjahre

Beethoven-Maske Plastik: Hedwig Buschmann (1872-1950) Foto: Wanda von Debschitz-Kunowski (Beethoven-Haus, Bonn)
Beethoven mask
plastics: Hedwig shrub man (1872-1950)
photo: Wandaof Debschitz Kunowski
(Beethoven house, Bonn)

in the first decade 19. Century became Beethoven - it lived now in the new Empire of Austria - one of the most famous musicians Europas (to its large Bekümmernis was certainly Gioacchino Rossini with its operasmore popular). Its of the revolutionary spirit fulfilled symphonies belonged soon to the durable existence of the common orchestral concerts.

To 8. December 1813 became the 7. Symphony with overwhelming success uraufgeführt. It was praised 30 years later of smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wagner than „Apotheose of the dance “.

During the Viennese of congress Beethoven recognized that this meeting of the rulers of Europe should lead only to further suppressions. He estimated the human and mental values of humans. In its youth it was inspired by Schiller, in the later life turned ititself Goethe too, with whom it led also a correspondence. Thus it toned also several works of Goethe, for example the play music to Egmont.

When 1815 one of its brothers died, he took its son Karl to itself. Soon turned out,that the relationship Beethovens with its nephew under no good star stood. Beethoven set the young man with its high and every now and then covered moral requirements in such a manner under pressure that Karl undertook a Suizidversuch. This failed, was for the composerbut a large load, because the attempt of the self selbsttötung nevertheless was at that time a punishable crime.

Despite (or perhaps straight because of) these immense private difficulties Beethoven composed one of its most important works, the Missa Solemnis in this time (1822), which does not let anything from the desolate surrounding field suspect in its size and beauty, in which it developed.

The end

of Beethoven died 1827 in Vienna at chronic lead poisoning.

About twenty thousand humans participated in his funeral. Even the militaryhad to be used for the maintenance of the order. A Obelisk with its name decorates its original grave on the Währinger cemetery, which was in the meantime long umgewidmet and today Währinger thrust blank park is called. In the 2. Half 19. Century became it inPresence of Anton Bruckner exhumiert, in order to find on the Viennese cent ral cemetery its final Ruhestätte.

A bronze statue (of Hähnel models, from Burgschmiet poured) was established to it 1845 in its father city, another (of Zumbusch) 1880 in Vienna.

Beethoven had ordered,that after its death its body is to be performed an autopsy, so that the physicians can determine, why he became so early deaf. The head was split with the first Autopsie into several parts.

The composer

Beethoven monument in Bonn


Beethoven applies todayas Vollender of the Viennese classical period. In particular in for this epoch the fundamental forms of the symphony, the Klaviersonate and the caper quartet he created works, whose music-historical influence is hardly to be overrated.

In the first period of its work it closeditself still on the closest at Haydn and Mozart on, until he found to his completely own style. Which distinguishes it now before these predecessors, which for their part already the language of the instruments too enrich development had led, is first thosefurther arrangement of the taken over forms to larger, the new ideas appropriate dimensions. Under its hands the Menuett extended to the many saying Scherzo, the final, before Beethoven usually only cheerfully and lively running exit, becameit for the peak point of the development of the whole work and exceeds the first sentence in force and width pretty often. The other new was the everywhere recognizable unit of a recapitulatory thought. Which it in individual works (z. B. into the KlaviersonatenPathétique and Appassionata, Les Adieux, in which “Eroica “and in that minister when info. never) already by the title made clear, can to the majority of its instrument valley works be applied: that in the individual parts represented the soul conditions infor an internal relationship and therefore the works as clay packings stand to each other to quite actually designate are.

Beethoven monument in Frankfurt/Main

its sketch books show, also like much untiring work and repeated attempts he its works the shape to give searched,in that they it finally satisfied. One is astonished, like O. Jahn (“collected essays”, S. 243) wrote:

... over its kind, „not only individual motives and melodies of turning and of moving but the smallest elements the same back and forthto out-lure and from all conceivable variations the best form; one does not understand, how from such musical crumbling work an organic whole can become…. And these sketches make pretty often the impression unsichern varying and groping, then afterwards again the admiration growsbefore the trueful ingenious self criticism, which, after it keeps everything examined, finally with sovereign certainty the best. “ (O. Jahn, a.a.O., S. 243)

First epoch of the individual work

you began with the publication of the first three Klaviertrios OI. 1 (1795) andended approximately with the years 1800-1802.

The 1. Symphony belongs to. In the age of 29 years Beethoven took it in attack and completed it at the beginning of the yearly following on it. Them became with large success to 2. April 1800 uraufgeführt.In this time the piano compositions, both in the form of the concert and the Sonate and variation, were innovative not only in the technology, but also in the cut of the sentences and the whole one.

Second creative period

you began approximately into thatYears 1800-1802 and lasted until 1814. Here above all the symphonies belong.

Eroica and Fidelio

with the 3. Symphony found Beethoven finally for the form of the large symphony. Originally it carried the title „for Sinfonia grande, intitolata Bonaparte “(designated after Napoleon).After it experienced however that Napoleon itself to 18. May 1804 the emperor crown had put on, erased it in large rage the name from the title page. Its new heading was called now „Heroi symphony, composed around the memory of a large man toocelebrate “, today they with its Italian title Eroica are mostly called. Uraufgeführt became it in August 1804 in the Viennese palace of the prince Lobkowicz, she was now also dedicated to which.

1805 were uraufgeführt Beethovens only opera , Fidelio. It had,like also many other works, “Leonore” experiences and was called original some revisions. In the third and lasting version (with the E-Dur-Ouvertüre) it came 1814 on the stage. Beethoven took no new paths of dramatic organization with it. Their special positionit has still by the rich and deep, humanly interesting and affecting material and the quality of its music.

Symphonien No. 5 C-moll, No. 6 F major and No. 7 A major

its 5. Symphonie did not become in the past also „fate info. ever “called, it developed in a heavy life phase of the composer (over the four famous initial tones Beethoven was to have said: “In such a way the fate pounds to the gate”, however this was occupied in the meantime as the later legendarische writing up). To 22. December 1808 became ittogether with the 6. Symphonie (Pastorale), which fourth piano concert and parts the C majors fair uraufgeführt. The Pastorale is not in the actual sense program music, as she is falsely often designated, but after Beethovens of own statement “more expression of the feeling than painting”.Thus the Symphonie is still on the soil of the classical period and is not not Vorbereiter or signpost/guide to the Symphoni seals of the romance. Franz Liszt, which wrote the first symphonischen seals, referred with the development of this new Category rather on the Ouvertüren Beethovens, as for instance Coriolan or king Stephan. However the nature-referred topic of the Pastorale represented a basic element of the following epoch of the romance, to the epoch of symphonischer seals absolutely. Likewise the art put the romance thatAccent on the internal of humans, thus its feeling and its convicition. Under the criterion, which probably also Beethoven for its Pastorale had taken, this could very probably be regarded as Romantikvorläuferin. But the form extension speaks on five sentences likewiselike the installation course of instruments (e.g. Piccolo), which are not domestic in the classical symphony orchestra. Still more clearly however led the 9. Symphonie the romance.

Last creative period

in the years 1814-1818 erlahmte Beethovens production temporarily. In this short period stepped only, z isolates larger compositions completely. B. the Sonate in A (1815), the “song circle” and. A., out. Illness and bitter domestic wrong restrained its fantasy. After overcoming of this time of the discouragement it was changed in some respect. Its feeling was complete compartmentation against the external world still inside light, consequently the expression frequently still moved and more directly than in former times, on the other hand the unit of contents and form every now and then does not complete more in such a way as usual, but affects of a subjective moment strongly.

The Hauptwerkethis third epoch are the “Missa solemnis” (1818-22), which regarded Beethoven even as its most completed work, and which ninth symphony in D-moll (1823-24). In addition belong to this time: the Ouvertüre “to the consecration of the house”, OI. 124 (1822), the Klaviersonaten OI.106 in B major (1818), OI. 109 in E major, OI. 110 in A flat major (1821) and OI. 111 in C-moll (1822), several smaller pieces for piano and singing and finally the last large caper quartets OI. 127 in E flat major (1824), OI. 130 inB major and OI. 132 in A-moll (1825), OI. 131 in cis moll and OI. 135 in F major (1826). The late Streichquartete decreases/goes back on Beethovens occupation with the Kompsitionstechniken Johann Sebastian of brook, particularly its joints technologies. Nevertheless these pieces point not inthe past, but far into the future. Particularly its op.133 („large joint “) was extraordinarily modern for its time and became in entire 19. Century hardly understood. Many drafts, among them to a tenth Symphonie in C-moll and to a string quintetin C major [1] were in the deduction of the composer.

9. Symphony

1824 completed Beethoven the 9. Symphony. The last sentence with the choir final to Schillers desert „to the joy “, in which Beethoven processed a people way, has this workvery popular made. The music expresses the struggle of a people heart, which longs itself from troubles and suffering after the day of pure joy, which it in full clarity and purity did not grant nevertheless. The first three sentences with theirgrandiosen architecture, instrumenting and topic processing became pointing the way for the Sinfoniker of the romance up to Gustav of meals. The premiere of the 9. Symphony took place together with parts „of the Missa Solemnis “to 7. May 1824. Beethoven wanted, there it the performanceto no longer even lead could, the conductor by indication of the speeds support. The orchestra had been however instructed not to consider this.

Symphony No. 10 (reconstruction)

Beethoven has still briefly before his death to his 10. Symphony worked, these howevernever completes. There are many sketches and notes of it over the first sentence.Barry Cooper prepared these sketches to a reconstruction of the first sentence. Also to a third sentence, one with “Presto” strong Scherzo called, exists to sketches outthe year 1825 [2].

Beethovens legacy

since the second half 20. Century took place one „Demythisierung “Beethovens. The titanium Beethoven became z. B. with Mozart, Bach and Schönberg posed on a stage. However Ernest Ansermet Beethovens contrasted singularlystrong and understandable music over the hero life (5. Symphony) and a community of loving humans (9. Symphonie) and their tonal and classical music language with Hauers and beautiful mountain Atonalität, which it already due to the destruction of the basic principle of the sense donationby fassliche interval relations rejected.


see also: Category: Ludwig van Beethovens works

of standing and monuments

Beethoven – Sitzplastik in der Bonner Rheinaue
Beethoven - seat plastics in the Bonn Rheinaue

see also: Beethoven monument

see also


  • O. Jahn: Leonore or Fidelio? and Beethoven and the expenditure of its works. In: Collected essays, Leipzig 1866
  • Beethoven, Luwig van. In: Meyers encyclopedia. 1888, (S. 604 - 607)
  • Romain roll and: Beethovens master years. 1930
  • Felix Huch: Beethoven, Lübbe, ISBN 3-404-61094-6
  • Fritz Zobeley: Ludwig van Beethoven in self certifications and picture documents. Rowohlt publishing house, 1995, ISBN 3-499-50103-1
  • May pool of broadcasting corporations Solomon: Beethoven. Second, RevisedEdition. Schirmer trade Books, PAPER-bake 2001, ISBN 0 .8256.7268.6
  • Klaus Kropfinger: Beethoven. MGG prism. Publishing houses Bärenreiter/Metzler 2001, ISBN 3-7618-1621-9
  • Eberhard J. Wormer: Bipolar. Life with extreme emotions. Depression and Manie. - A manual for concerning and member, Munich2002, S. 131-138
  • Jost Hermand: Beethoven - work and effect, Cologne Weimar Vienna, 2003, ISBN 3-412-04903-4

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