The Evangelical-Lutheran church is in the context of the reformatorischen denomination family theologically of the Evangelist reformed churches and the university Universities of churchesto separate. These three denomination types in nationalchurch organization are constituent members of the Evangelist church in Germany. The lutherischen free churches, among them the independent Evangelical-Lutheran church (SELK), belong due to their strong lutherischen confession connection not to the Evangelist church in Germany.
Table of contents
, to designation
the designation Lutheraner is originally one polarize-mix designation from catholic side (adversus Lutheranos, et alios hostes Ecclesiae Johann hit a corner, 1520) for the identification of the Protestanten as Ketzer.
Churches and/or. Municipalities become often “Lutheri” churches and/or.Municipalities or “Evangelical-Lutheran” churches and/or. Municipalities mentioned. In many so-called “university ores” churches could retain above all the lutherischen municipalities usually their traditional service form. In the course of the driving out of German Lutheranern from the former east areas of the German Reich developedmany originally reforms coined/shaped municipalities to university ores municipalities lutherischer coinage. This constellation is to be found for example frequently in the Rhine country.
Bible and confession writings
the Bible takes rank in lutherischen theology norma standard to (standardizingStandard), while the Lutheri confession writings norma normata (standardized standard = of the Bible standardized standard) are. The holy writing, old and new will, as the infallible word of God has the authority in the lutherischen church. According to the Konkordien formula(Fiber plastic of the summary term) “God word is the only guide and rule of all teachings… , which keins humans writings, but subjected demselbigen everything is to be directly respected. “The confession writings have nevertheless a very high Dignität, “because (!) it outGod word taken and inside firmly and probably created " (fiber plastic of the summary term) are.
The confession writings (BSLK) are:
- The old-church Glaubensbekenntnisse
- the apostolische Glaubensbekenntnis
- the confession of Nicäa Konstantinopel (325/381 n.Chr.)
- the Athanasianum
- Augsburger confession (Approx.-Confessio Augustana)
- the written defense of theAugsburger of confession (Apologie of the APPROX.)
- the small Katechismus Martin Luther
- the large Katechismus Martin Luther
- the Schmalkaldi articles Martin Luther
- the Konkordienformel (Fiber plastic-Formula Concordiae)
not all lutherischen churches have the Konkordienformel in their confession conditions. Therefore does not become between konkordienlutherischen andkonkordienlutherischen churches differentiated.
Sola gratia, sola fide, sola scriptura, solus Christ
in four latin formulas can be summarized the basic ideas of the Luthertums a little:
- “sola gratia “: Lutheraner believe that Errettung only from the grace and/or.Quality of God happens out and not due to the actions, which we exercise.
- “sola fide “: Lutheraner believe that alone the faith leads to it, to apply before God as fair.
- “sola scriptura “: Lutheraner believe that the Biblethe only basis and thus the exclusive measure for setting up, judging or condemning theological teachings and Lehrmeinungen are.
- “solus Christ “: Lutheraner believe that alone the person, working and the teachings Jesu Christi the basis forthe faith and the Errettung of humans to be know.
Lutheraner reject the Marienverehrung of the Roman-catholic church, the papacy and the hierarchical condition jure divino (after göttlichem right) within the church. In some lutherischen churches there is an office for bishop in apostolischer Sukzession.
in the Evangelist service is the lecture of central importance.
Lutheri churches usually exercise the child baptism , but do not reject also baptism briefly before the Konfirmation or later expressly not. Communion services becomeregularly in the form of the German fair, which decreases/goes back to the Liturgiereform by Martin Luther from the year 1526, celebrated. The present Christi in the holy communion is understood as material operational readiness level. Also children may - at least within the VELKD -participate in the communion.
Lutheri churches are synodal and episkopal organized. At the point of the Synode in each case a Synodalpräsident or a Präses manages . At the point of the lutherischen regional churches a bishop stands ora Bischöfin, which has or the surgery right and the training supervision.
Lutheri world league
in Germany and in some Scandinavian countries lutherische churches, in nationalchurch or free-church organization form, have public status. The special of the lutherischen regional churches in Germany is the connection to the state. This becomes among other things clearly in the church tax system(Introduction of the church tax by the tax office) and for example with the withdrawal from the regional church. The withdrawal takes place with the district court and/or. with the register office. The close connection of church and state, results from the historical connection of „throne and altar “. Thatlutherische monarch was at the same time bishop (summus episcopus). It determined also long time the denomination of its subjects (cuius regio, eius religio). Therefore is to be stated for Germany Fnur a very much limited separation between regional church and state. Ratherexist due to the historical conditions close, contractually regulated, relations between regional church and state.
The Lutheri free churches have public status, do however without the introduction of church taxes. They understand themselves as voluntariness churches, i.e. their Kirchglieder pays voluntarily a Kirchgelddirectly to the municipality. This passes a certain amount on to the all municipality church cash. Likewise a church withdrawal takes place directly not with the district court, but with the Pfarramt in written form. The organization form as voluntariness church does not have a theological quality and experiences also noneReason from the same. It grew historically and today as existence form was affirmed.
In other countries, for example in the USA, it is due to the stricter separation from church and state one of various churches.
Common church and roof federation of the lutherischen regional churches in Germany at the same time is the united Evangelical-Lutheran church of Germany (VELKD). The member churches of the VELKD are member churches of the Evangelist church in Germany (EKD), to which also the reformed churches and the university Universities of churches belong.A common membership in EKD and VELKD is not compelling however. The lutherischen regional churches have full church and communion community with the reformed and university Universities of churches due to the Leuenberger Konkordie.
Lutheri free churches
a special form under LutheriChurches form the Lutheri free churches (confession churches). The lutherischen free churches are today to a large extent in the independent Evangelical-Lutheran church (SELK) united; most other lutherischen free-church municipality in Germany belong to the Evangelical-Lutheran free church.
The lutherischen free churches are often regarded as more conservative.„Conservative “means here however above all that she feels bound to the lutherischen confessions in particular, which are summarized in the Konkordienbuch of 1580. In addition it rejects the Leuenberger Konkordie .
Some lutherische confession churches united in the international Lutheri advice.Some among them belong both to the Lutheri world league and the international Lutheri advice. The Evangelical-Lutheran church of Australia is in both federations assoziertes member.
the lutherischen regional churches take part at the Ökumeni advice of the churches. InGermany co-operate both the lutherischen regional churches and the independent Evangelical-Lutheran church in the working group of Christian churches also with catholic and orthodox churches.
Numerous one Members of Lutheri churches and free churches cooperate in the Evangelist alliance .
- Martin Chemnitz (1522-1586) was with its work over the council of Trient one the responsible Lutheraner of the 2. Generation. It was above all howeverone the author of the Konkordienformel.
- Paul Gerhardt (1607-1676) became primarily by its church songs admits, which - as with hardly someone else - which lutherischen faith a style gave.
- Johann Sebastian of brook musical masterpieces are deeply verwurzelt inlutherischen faith.
- In 19. Century animated minister Fliedner in Kaiserswerth the old Christian mechanism of the Diakonissen again.
- In 20. Century supplied Dr. Hermann would sit with its work to church, communion and writing understanding an important contribution to true Ökumenizität beyond of theÖkumenismus.
- Philipp Melanchthon
- to church history
- of confessions
- confession writings of the Evangelical-Lutheran church
- Confessio Augustana
- Nicäi Glaubensbekenntnis (325/381 n.Chr)
- apostolischeGlaubensbekenntnis (approx. 200 n.Chr.)
- athanasianische Glaubensbekenntnis (approx. 250 n. Chr.)
- that Augsburger confession (APPROX. = Confessio Augustana) (1530 n. Chr.)
- the written defense Augsburger of the confession (Apologie APPROX.) (1530/31 n.Chr.)
- the small Katechismus Dr. Martin Luther (1529 n. Chr.)
- the large Katechismus Dr. Martin Luther (1529 n. Chr.)
- the Schmalkaldi articles Dr.Martin Luther (1537 n. Chr.)
- of the force of the Pope (De potestas papae) of the Philipp Melanchthon as appendix to the Schmalkaldi articles
- Lutheri churchesin Germany