martyr (v. Greek martys - a witness; martyrion - certification) are member of religions, which endure over the confession sake of their faith, innocently and not in the connection of own force practice or war guidance, abusing or death.
In the broader sense becomealso humans martyrs calls, who suffer over a not necessarily religious idea because of, about sake (socially or disputed suppressed ) a political conviction, a death usually by force by their opponents.
The word meaning mixes itself since how/as-those-strong militarilyactive Islam in 20. Century with the translation of the Islamic term „Schahid “(literally „a witness “), a pleasure in the military faith fight (Dschihad), as „martyrs “.
The word a blood witness is a translation of Philipp of Zesen for the word martyr. It becamein particular also of the national socialists uses; thus e.g. became. annually to 9. November Germany far „the blood witnesses of the movement “meant, the others at the Hitlerputsch from 1923 took part Nazis received „the blood medals “. The blood witness cult of the NSDAP determined alsothe date for the Pogrome of 9. November 1938, with which more than 400 Jewish Germans were murdered and 1400 synagogs were burned.
Table of contents
the Christian martyr term
emergence of the term
the firmly coined/shaped term martyr meets first time in the report the Martyriumthe Polykarp of Smyrna from the third quarter 2. Century n. Chr. The exact emergence of this firmly coined/shaped term is not clarified yet.
As safe it is considered that in the writings of the new will martys always the word and/or. A faith witness,of the faith in Jesus the Christ certification puts down, designation. Persons, who are pursued for their faith and death to die, do not become in the new will yet as martyrs designated, even if they are killed because of their word certification. Of the neutestamentlichenTerm of the witness and/or. the certification ago the martyr term cannot therefore be derived even if what later by the term martyr and/or. Martyrium is described, after the thing already in the new will meets (e.g.Apg 7,54-60: Death of the Stephanus).
In order to explain, how it comes to the designation of this happening as Martyrium, one considers different influences:
- The conception of the Martyrium can be already proven in the Spätjudentum. However the martyr is not called such also there. The Martyriumthere consequence of the loyalty is to the law (Thora) and the death of the martyr can be interpreted as Sühne for the Jewish people. The lateJewish conceptions coined/shaped, do not explain probably the conception of the Christian Martyrium with however not, howit to the connection of this conception with the term martyr to come could.
- Often one accepts an influence of the philosophy of the Stoa, in particular the philosopher Epiktet. The Martyrium is here a particularly intensive case of the certification of the philosopher: the truePhilosopher lives in the attitude of the Ataraxie, the indifference in relation to all external, sinnlich physical influences on the own life. That can also mean in case of the argument with a ruler, who must contradict the philosopher here, death to accept. Showitself contentwise and formally numerous parallels between the conception one represented by Epiktet „philosopher Martyriums “and the Christian martyr term. One cannot prove however that and like this conception the Christian martyr term affected.
- The term martys can in the antiqueGreek beside the word witness also designate the act witness. In this sense the term was taken up also by Epiktet. In this use it meets also in the writings of the new will (e.g. Mk 6,11; Process card 9,5; Mt 10,18; 1Petr 5.1). Thereforeit is also possible that the Christian martyr term can be derived from the general Greek of its time ago. Then however must be explained, how the conception of the act certification, lying to reason, developed by own death.
Before thatMartyr death in the Martyrium of the Polykarp by the term of the Martyriums is designated, develops Ignatius of Antiochien (first third 2. Century n. Chr.) a theology of the Martyriums: The death of the martyr corresponds to suffering and death Christi. By thatDeath becomes the martyr younger the Jesu, he acquires in death with Jesus Christ the completion and Auferstehung. If one considers the fact that Polykarp already states the Kreuzigung Christi before Ignatius as a certification against the erring teachings of the Doketismus then could itselfexplain, how it comes in the time between Ignatius and the Martyrium of the Polykarp to the development of the martyr term.
Martyr death was called blood baptism, should even the baptism, if this had not taken place yet, replaces and immediately to the full sea-lyingnessleads
the first Christian martyr was Stephanus, which was gesteinigt because of its faith (Apg 7.54-60). Its murder was the signal to a large pursuit of the Christians in Jerusalem, in which Saulus took part particularly eagerly.
Of the Martyrien more numerouslyearlyChristian martyr (e.g.Polykarp, Perpetua and Felicitas, martyr of Scili, Cyprian, Maximilianus, Marcellus) are martyr reports and/or. delivers literarily worked on documents of the process. For the first centuries these often valuable historical sources represent; the later Märtyererberichte(starting from that 4. Jhd.) are predominantly legendary against it.
On suggestion of Pope Johannes Paul II.(Apostoli letter: Tertio millennio adveniente of 10. November 1994) provided the catholic church at the end of the second millenium a documentation of all blood witnesses, around of themDo not turn out for certification into oblivion to leave. The German Martyrologium 20. Century registers life pictures of 700 faith witnesses. In developing the work over 130 specialists participated.
the Islamic martyr term (schahid)
also in the Islam means the wordMartyr: „that, which puts a certification down “. Today martyr is used only in connection with military affairs, the Islam continues to see however the Märtyrertum, as attitude and attitude in the life, much. Thus it means in an authentic utterance of the prophet thatein jeder zu den Märtyrern dazugehört, der sein eigenes Heim, sein Vermögen, seine Familie (...) verteidigt. The Märtyrertum is connected with death. So it can give also martyr, who is not even hurt (likewise contents of an utterance of the prophet).
The Shiite direction of the Islam knows the cult around the Schuhada („martyrs “), particularly in memories of the grandson Muhammads, which is fallen in the fight. In the memory of it some Shiites themselves strike themselves and add themselves injuries. To an extremebecame this „martyr cult “with „the Hassasinen “(Sinan the old person of the mountain, Assassinen).
In 21. Also Islamic persons see themselves century increasing as „a freiwillige martyrs “, who are trained and used as fighters in „suicide commands “for act of terrorism ions. These authorsgo to the right understanding of some Muslims not through suicide into death, but die in the fight and/or. in „the faith war “(Dschihad) against the disbelieving ones. Also act of terrorism ions in the name of the aluminium Kaida of network belong to it. Because of the military possibilities lackingand the limited number of weapons and ammunition are to fight martyrs in the name Islam potential enemies by suicide assassination attempts. „The martyrs mostly carry “an explosive belt at the body and lead this at selected places to the explosion. They do not take considerationon civilian, possibly also Muslim victims. The authors are admired of their trailers as „martyrs “, and often the members from different sources receive financial remunerations.
This understanding of the militant, extremistic „Salafiya Jihadiya “contradicts the orthodox, Sunni Islam and has itselfin 20. Century develops. The well-known salafitische scholar Scheikh aluminium-Albani, which belongs theologically to the same school, called suicide assassination attempts in a Fatwa unislamisch and multiple murder, since the aggressors kill themselves also and indifferent one is forbidden attacking.
Martyrs of contemporary history (20. Century)
humans, those due to their convictions as Ketzer were killed
- Konstantin of Mananalis, Apostel of the Paulikianertums,around 680 one gesteinigt.
- Simeon Titus, Apostel of the Paulikianertums, is burned 694.
- The Albigenser was destroyed in the Albigenserkreuzzügen.
- January Hus, Czech Reformator, is burned 1414 in Konstanz.
- Jeanne D' Arc, French Freiheitskämpferin, is burned 1431 in Rouen.
- Hans Böhm (Pauker of NIC reading living), is burned 1476 in peppering castle.
- Johannes van Es and Hendrik Vos, 1523 in Antwerp burned Augustinermönche, those the reformation anhingen
- January van Woerden, 1525 in Woerden of executed Reformator
- Felix Manz, Täufer, drowned with Zurich 1526
- Balthasar Hubmaier, Täufer, in Vienna 1528 one burns.
- Adolf Clarenbach and Peter Fliesteden, 1529 in Cologne burned Reformatoren
- Jörg blue skirt, Täufer, 1529 in Klausen/South Tyrol executed
- almost 2000 Täufer of the reformation die up to the year 1530 martyr death
- Jakob Hutter, Täufer, 1536 in Innsbruck are executed.
- Luigi Pasquali, Waldenser - Prediger, 1560 in Rome burned
- in Gorinchem, (the Netherlands) became 1572 nineteen catholic of clergymanremoved by the Protestanten and elsewhere for religion reasons erhängt.
- Giordano Bruno, 1600 in Rome on the heap of failure burned
- martyr… [Year]: the yearbook for Christian pursuit today; Hg. for the international society for human rightsand for the working group for freedom of religion of the Germans and Austrian Evangelist alliance and the working group freedom of religion of the Swiss Evangelist alliance on behalf of Idea; Wetzlar: Idea, starting from 2002; partly also: Bonn: Publishing house for culture and science;ISSN 1614-5038
- Helmut Moll(Hrsg.):A witness for Christ. The German Martyrologium 20. Century. 2 volumes; Schöningh Paderborn 1999-2000; ISBN 3-506-75778-4
- Hermann Rieke Benninghaus: A witness for the faith. Publishing house Hermann Rieke Benninghaus DIN complaint: 2005
- Hermann Rieke Benninghaus: I give certification. Life pictures of faith witnesses. Publishing houseHermann Rieke Benninghaus DIN complaint 2005
- Christine Schirrmacher & Erwin Damson: Martyr today. A documentation for world-wide discrimination and pursuit of the Christians. Idea documentation 16/1999 Wetzlar: idea 1999
- Harald school TZE & Andreas Kurschat (Hrsg.): “Your end looks on…” Evangelist martyrs 20.Century. Evangelist publishing house Leipzig 2006; ISBN 3-374-02370-3
- DC talc: The true Jesus Freaks, part: 1: Reports of humans, who were ready to go for their faith up to the extreme one; And Gerth Asslar trained 2001; ISBN 3-89437-717-8