the Münzherstellung in the course of the time

is essentially based the minting for 2000 years on the same principle.

One engraves first on a Unterstempel a picture negative. This Unterstempel, also front or Avers mentioned, is let in in an anvil or a wood block. One puts a piece metal (gold, silver, copper or alloys) on the Unterstempel. Mentioned, one holds and strikes the metall lump, also Schrötling with a holding chisel it with a hammer into the Unterstempel inside. In the holding chisel a picture is likewise engraved. One calls this picture the back or written undertakings of a coin.

At the beginning of the modern times the traditional, still manual Münzfertigung originating from the antique one was outdated. The 1486 in Tirol “born” gulden groschens, soon already valleys mentioned, and similarly large coins could be struck with hammer and hand stamp only laboriously and often also imprecisely, and also the new coin/shape medals required more Kraft, than them forge ever apply could. Technicians and inventors built new embossing apparatuses, but the screw press became generally accepted. This very day it is to be found in modified form in embossing institutes and in the metalworking industry.

The screw press, also screw, balance, fly press or Anwurf mentioned, is a child 16. Century. Competitors were the Klippwerk and the roller coinage, from which the bag work developed. With the Klippwerk the Oberstempel in a rail or a pipe moved off on and. With the help of a stirrup the Oberstempel could be moved. Rotating the stamp and above all injuries when coining/shaping with the hammer occurred less frequently than with the traditional manual method. The Klippwerk, which made a holding of the Oberstempels with the hand redundant, not however manual slamming shut on the Oberstempel, was used particularly with smaller species of money.

From the roller coinage it is only so much said that two engraved steel rollers were turned against each other. In addition one used human muscle power, water power or Göpelwerke, which were moved by horses. Between the rollers one pushed thin metal strips, the Zaine. On them front and back of the coin marked themselves. Subsequently, the coin from the metal strip had to be cut or struck. The procedure had the disadvantage that weakly bent coins developed, which were easily oval. Collecting tanks recognize with the roller and/or on the bag work with its “mushroom-shapedly” curved stamps coined/shaped coins immediately. It was not possible, the curved, to provide oval coins at the edge with samples or inscriptions. That was however important, in order to protect high-quality gold and silver coins against illegal weight decrease and other manipulations.

Of 17. up to 20. Century did much however in the technology of the coin coining/shaping. In 17. Century was it still another substantial innovation the fact that one pressed the Oberstempel on Schrötling and Unterstempel by means of the spindle work and 2-12 men and so that at one blow could coin/shape a larger quantity of coins. This procedure guaranteed a strong, springy coinage with Kraft, which corresponded to the weight of up to 30 tons.

The quantity of coins, which can discharge such machines, increased enormously. One achieved larger numbers of items in 19. Century by the use of the elbow lever work of UHL horn. With this system the Oberstempel is pressed against the Schrötling under increasing pressure.

The use of steam engines furnished the next large progress. In late 18. Matthew Boulton and James Watt , the inventor of the steam engine, rollers and embossing machines with Dampfantrieb built century. Steam turned the rollers, which formed the metal ingots to münzdicken plates, and with its assistance one punched the blanks and led the embossing hammers. These machines produced 60 coins in the minute.

Dieter Fassbender called 1983 still another quantity of 100-300 pieces per minute, Christopher May pool of broadcasting corporations and Renate Kingma spoke of 400-500 coins, which per minute develop.

The all-newest development describes Klaus Jopp. According to it machines from prefabricated metal bands punch 20,000 blanks per minute starting from the year 2002 of the valid European currency euro.

Coins were also poured very rarely. Admits are the Roman would eat and Chinese coins, which were manufactured in the casting procedure.

see also: Münzprägeanstalt


  • Dieter Fassbender: Encyclopedia for Münzsammler. 1983
  • Christopher May pool of broadcasting corporations: Miracle world money. 1978
  • Renate Kingma: Coins and money. 1985
  • Klaus Jopp: The country needs new valleys. In: The time. 42/Oktober 1998, S. 61

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