Mac OS X

Mac OS X

base data
developers: Apple
version: 10.4.6 (3. April 2006)
Family tree: \ BSD
\ Darwin
\ Mac OS X
architectures: PowerPC, x86
license: APSL and Apple EULA
other: Price: 129
Language: German, uvm.
Compatibly too: Mac OS and FreeBSD

Mac OS X is the current version of Mac OS, Apple - operating system for Macintosh - the computer. The first commercial version of Mac OSX appeared in March 2001.

Table of contents

The name

the abbreviation OS means operating system (English. Operating system), the letter X stands on the one hand for the Roman number of 10 and refers to the follow-up of earlier Macintosh operating systems such as Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9. On the other hand followsMac OS X of the tradition of other Unix derivatives, whose name ends almost exclusively with an X, like for example AIX, IRIX, A/UX, Sinix, HP-UX and Xenix.


regarding the correct discussion of theNamed there is some uncertainty. In of Apple official use the X is spoken as the number 10, thus as „Mac OS Ten “[mæk ˀoʊˀɛs tɛn]. Some use the halfGerman discussion „Mac OS ten “, others again speak thatX also as letter X (dt. [ɪks], English. [ɛks]) out. The abbreviation OS (operating system) is always spelled (dt. [ˀoˀɛs], English. [ˀoʊˀɛs]).


Architecture of OS X

architecture consists of four layers:

Mac OS X is a successor of the NEXT step system bought up by Apple. Around the basis of the new system faster and more favorablydevelop to be able, their development under an open SOURCE - license one placed, which software free in the later version 2.0 than license is however only recognized of the Free software Foundation. Around a publication under an open SOURCE license on legal way toomake possible, had the system by all original UNIX-code lines to be cleaned, since the owner at that time of all rights at AT&T UNIX permitted no more publication of the UNIX source code. Since this task had been carried out some years before also with the distribution BSD, it offereditself on to exchange the Daemons and servers contained originally originating from 4.4BSD in NEXT steps against their successors from 4.4BSDlite (of UNIX code settled new publication of BSD on all modern BSD derivatives are based perfectly) or its meanwhile published derivatives NetBSD and FreeBSD.The Kernel revised in relation to NEXT steps perfectly, while NEXT step set pure Mach still on a Microkernel, sets Mac OS X on a Hybridkernel in such a way specified, again some functions in the Kernel are integrated, however not so many howwith a monolithic Kernel. As basis for the XNU baptized Kernel was used further Mach and supplemented with parts of the monolithic FreeBSD - Kernels. This basic system carries the project name Darwin.

In addition the API von OpenStep was developed further and through Cocoa converted. With carbon a program library was integrated, which makes the same program interfaces available under the new system and Mac OS 8/9 and it thus made possible to write programs which are executable in both versions. The Desktop Environment Aquacompletely and applies with the concept of Sheets and Drawers was again-sketched, to the representation of sceen contents by Quartz and/or. since the 2005 system version 10,4 of the hardware-accelerated representation of sceen contents by Quartz of extremes as at present (January 2006) the most progressive, appeared Desktop Environment. These under prop. guessing eras licenses published system parts form together with the Darwin Mac OS X. published as free software.

By Darwin Mac OS X orders over abilities such as storage protection, preemptive multitasking, multi-user ability, extended memory management and symmetricalMulti-processing (SMP). Although Mac OS X is based on Unix, it can be used like a usual single place operating system. When desired OS X does not even ask when starting for name and password. As usual is the case for Unix, becomes however neverthelesssafety-relevant actions the password requires.

Mac OS X hides its Darwin core from the user. This happens partly around confusion to prevent to protect partly in order the user to change and destroy fundamental system functions. Of course professional users can howeveralso over a terminal program root - access attain.


the most remarkable change to the predecessors (Mac OS 9) is the new surface Aqua (latin for water). It is by light effects such as reflections and hard shadows on various Oberflächenelementenas switching surfaces or fading in menus at water drops remind. The needle strip optics is likewise salient window-background and the photo realism of the Icons.

As a further appearance for windows there are also Brushed Metal (brushed metal). In Apple the human interface Guidelines recommends Applethe use of this Design for programs, which represent a part of the hardware or certain equipment (z. B. a digital camera or DVD Player).

Completely new elements in Aqua opposite older surfaces are so-called Sheets and Drawers. Sheets are thatTo problem separate that to a user is often not evident, to which document a straight opening dialogue box belonged. A Sheet is a kind dialogue window, which is attached directly to the header of the document concerned, and which thus to the inseparableA component of the document concerned becomes. Drawers are drawers, which by one click on the appropriate switching surface in the symbol border on the left of or on the right of the main window are driven out and elements contain, which one does not need durably for the program operation - in of Apple Mail program(Version 1 - with version 2 the Drawer was made a firm program section) for example the file structure is in a Drawer.

A further characteristic of Aqua is the kind of the representation of the sceen contents. Here Apple uses its own technologynamed Quartz. This representation of two-dimensional elements is based on the pdf - format. The advancement of this technology named Quartz of extremes accelerates the representation, as each window computes as texture regarded and so no longer only from the main, but also from the diagram processorwill can. Windows can be scaled and transformed thereby into real time.


Mac OS X offers the network characteristics typical for Unix. In addition also a comprehensive support of SMB for co-operation with computers, those belongs under Windowsrun. In particular problem-free server releases can be produced, so that by Windows computers data under Mac OS X can be accessed. There are however reports that this support under tigers functions no longer in such a way as with Panther. Under the name Bonjour (sinceApril 2005, before rendezvous) supports Mac OS X Zeroconf, it users makes possible network connections and - services to use, without having to configure it before. Under the name Mac OS X server drives Apple a variant out of the system, alsoadditional services and tools for the server enterprise is equipped.

an adjustment and a re-translation need compatibility for an older Mac OS written programs, in order to be executable under Mac OS X. For this purpose Apple published carbon program library mentioned, which makes the same program interfaces available under Mac OS X and Mac OS 8/9 and it thus made possible to write programs which are executable in both versions.

Around older, not adapted programs under Mac OS Xuse to be able, gives it the Classic environment. This is in as run time environment loaded Mac OS 9 within Mac OS X, in which such programs can be normally used. Practically all older software for Mac OS can in this wayare used. The Classic environment corresponds the Blue to box of Rhapsody.


the native programming and application interface (API) for Aqua programs is called Cocoa and out those by open steps developed. Cocoa programs become usually in Objective Cwritten, more rarely however in Java, for which likewise Cocoa libraries exist. Since Mac OS X 10,4 these more are also not maintained. With AppleScript Studio exists beyond that also the possibility of writing programs in simple AppleScript and/or with Objective Cto extend or other languages.

Except Cocoa and carbon a Java and a BSD are - to environment at the disposal. Apple supplies with since Mac OS X 10,3 also its own version to that X-Window-system - environment with (X11), so that also many graphic programsfrom the Unix and Linux - world to be used know. Besides the most important Unix programming languages (z stand. B. Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby or Tcl) and - Tools (for instance GCC or Autoconf) to programming for the order. Some these languages offerBeing thing to the access to operating system APIs, whereby for example Python programs with native user surface can be developed (well-known as PyObjC). This being thing also Bridge called, there it the own instructions and classes in Objective C „bridge “, D. h. translate.


Mac OS X publicly beta

to 13. September 2000 published Apple a beta version of Mac OS X for 20 dollar.

Mac OS X 10,0 (Cheetah)

this first version of Mac OSX appeared to 24. March 2001 and had developed in many respects not yet completely. It was altogether rather slow, however because of their stability high in a so early stage was praised. 10.0.4 was the last version.

Mac OS X 10,1 (Puma)

Mac OS X 10,1 appeared to 26. September 2001. As free update was made available of Apple. The performance was improved, and missing features, like for example a playing of DVDs, were added. Thoselast version was Mac OS X 10.1.5.

Mac OS X 10,2 (Jaguar)

Jaguar (13. August 2002) was published according to opinion of many the first really useful version of Mac OS X. With Quartz it those accelerated extremesUser surface on suitable diagram maps uncommonly, and also altogether was faster it than their predecessors. The last version of Jaguar was Mac OS X 10.2.8; afterwards there were however still some safety actualizations. Since this version the kinds of robbery cat are official product designations, thosealso are imprinted on the packing and data media. One cannot talk thus no more about code names or project names.

Mac OS X 10,3 (Panther)

Panther became to 24. October 2003 imported. It brought functions such as Exposé, iChat AV or the user listing coding also. The Finder was revised and some Inkonsequenzen and inconsistencies of the previous version was eliminated. In addition the user surface experienced some changes in look and feel, altogether became the elements somewhat more simply. The system speed was continued to increase. Is also newto have to log out itself the fast user change, which makes possible, to change the user account without. To 15. April 2005 was published the last version, Mac OS X 10.3.9.

Mac OS X 10,4 (tiger)

the version 10.4, also tigercalled, appeared to 29. April 2005. The new characteristics are a 64-Bit-Optimierung, an improved SMB - support, a new programming interface with name core image (and/or. for video's treatment core video) for the paging of graphic computations to the GPU of the diagram map. Which Microsoft announced and Google for Windows already offers, Apple now on file system level introduced, the so-called system-far meta data search Spotlight, it scans the computer for files due to of meta data. A new addition of Exposé in tigers is Dashboard. Dashboard is a new level, which can be faded in over the Desktop, in which the user its Widgets (small applications) immediately for the order has (z. B. Pocket calculator, world clock, weather forecast). This Widgets can loaded by the user from the Internetand its needs to be adapted. A further innovation is the Automator, with whose assistance of the users its as Automator programs in few Mausklicks provides working processes. In addition tiger contains of safari of 2,0, which RSS (Really simple Syndication) supports, the video codec H.264 by QuickTime 7 as well as new versions of AV and Mail iChat. The Finder can provide now also intelligent files and fuel files. The Design became still more simply, the needle strips majority from the system was removed, and most 3D-Elementemore matte objects yielded. The current version 10.4.6 runs also on the new Macs with Intel processor. Updates are offered separately as PowerPC or Intel version.

Mac OS X 10,5 (leopard)

the next Mac OS X version became to 6. June 2005 for at the end of of 2006 or at the beginning of of 2007 announced. It is, as also Mac OS X 10.4.6 (tigers), beside PowerPC - Macs also on Macs with Intel - processors to run. To 5. April 2006 has Apple its new software boat Campin a beta version presented, the component of leopard will is. It makes the comfortable installation possible of Windows XP on Intel Macs. Data concerning the further function range were not given yet.


in the past was maintained that MacOS X owing to its Unix underbody a safe operating system is, which saves virus scanners and their pedantic configuration and handling to its users. Newer investigations doubt the security of the Unix underbody. It seems possible that in very old UNIX system components, in othersUNIX systems were revised, still old weak points to contain. Further in discussions the assumption is expressed that relative security was based in the past on the small spreading of OSX, which made it allegedly uninteresting for aggressors.


to 13. February 2006 was published the first computer virus for Mac OS X 10,4 (only for PowerPC) in the forum of an US-American rumor side. Up to then this operating system was considered as completely from viruses and worms unloaded.

So far itself the professional world is with thatClassification yet do not unite whether it actually concerns with this parasit a worm (kind of the spreading), a virus (infection of program tapes) or a Trojan horse (kind of the camouflage). Also the designation of the parasit is so far not yet clear.The company Sophos designated it OSX/Leap A (first published Mac OS x worm).

The parasit must be implemented by the user willentlich, what relates its danger compared with many parasits of other operating systems substantially. It causes no real damage, but spreads only aspacked image file (name:latestpics.tgz) camouflaged with the file transfer function of the Videochat software iChat.

To 2. March 2006 published Apple a system update, which was to protect the unbedarften user against such dangers. When the occurrence discrepancies between passive and active file content, pointsince then, Mail and safari before the transmission iChat at this circumstance and the risk outgoing of it.

Andrew what, which wrote the first technical description of the “damage routines”, called it OSX/Oomp A after the examination routine, which protected the worm before the Reinfektionis.The German description of the technical functions of the first Mac OS x Wurms is to be found here.

see also

Wikibooks: MacOS manual - learning and teaching materials


  • Mandl, Daniel: The basic book to MacOS X of 10,4 tigers. SmartBooks, Kilchberg/Switzerland, 2005, ISBN 3-908497-23-X
  • Bartosh, barrel: Essential Mac OS X Panther server administration. O' Reilly, ISBN 0-596-00635-7
  • Rael thorn celebration, Kevin Hemenway: Mac OS X Hacks. O' Reilly 2004, ISBN 3-89721-363-X
  • Klaus M. Rodewig: Program under MacOS X SmartBooks, Kilchberg/Switzerland, 2005, ISBN 3-908497-20-5
  • James Duncan Davidson: Configure to Mac OS X Panther and administer. O' Reilly 2004, ISBN 3-89721-379-6
  • Andreas's army: Panther for professionals. Midas publishing house, pc. Gallen 2004, ISBN 3-907020-59-6
  • Bob LeVitus: Mac OS X Panther for Dummies.mitp, Bonn 2004, ISBN 3-8266-3120-X
  • dock Surendorf: UNIX for Mac OS X-user. Galileo press, Bonn 2004, ISBN 3-89842-385-9



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