under design one understands the way of the connection in the building of shoes about shoe shank (upper section) and shoe soil (sole). The design is very crucial for the price, the durability, repairability and passport inherent stability of the shoe. It applies beside the used material as main criterion to the assessment of quality of a shoe and is characteristic of some shoe models (z. B. for Mokassins and Opanken).

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the construction ways (designs) of the shoes having either from delivered procedures or new technical possibilities developed. So for example fastening the run sole with a lateral Flechtnaht is as already with the shoe model of the Opanke usually, since celtic time (500 - 100 v. Chr.) delivers, whereas sticking the sole together with the shank represents, only a procedure arisen into the 1920er years, because the invention of the appropriate adhesive took place via the Italian Rampichini only 1911. Or the “moulding on procedure” after the development of appropriate thermoplasischer plastics only since the 1950 years spreading found.


Legende für die Querschnittzeichnungen (Querschnitt)
original hand design: Framework-sewn with Einstechdamm (handin-stung) (cross section)

specialists differentiate in…

  • Original design
original machine design: Framework-sewn with tear lip (original Goodyear)
design varied: Framework-sewn with Gemband (Goodyear varies)
one speaks the soil attachment of an original design if with the original machines, tools and materials happens, how it was intended during the introduction of this design.
Example : With the original zwiegenähten design (machine-sewn variant in Eppler procedures) a tear lip (from the inside outward cut) at the fire sole ensures for the shank attachment with the Einstechnaht and the external shank outward to the intermediate or run sole is changed and with the Doppelnaht with the sole connected there (both happens with the Eppler machine). Zwiegenähte designs, where the shank is not outward turned over, but cut off before, or where instead of the tear lip a Gemband is used, do not correspond to the original design.
  • varied design
marks an original design or a combined design (see below) with other tools and materials is implemented.
Example : If with the frame-sewn design instead of a Einstechdamms (handframe-sewn original design) or a tear lip (Goodyear sewn original design) a Gemband under the fire sole is stuck. To that extent nearly all represent frame-sewn shoes a varied design today with the machine. (The usual designation Goodyear welted refers only to the use of the Einstech and Doppelmaschine of the company Goodyear .)
  • combined design
around a combined design acts it in the cases, where at least two different designs are used for the soil attachment of a shoe.
Example : The shank is afterwards glued on fastened with the Einstechnaht to the fire sole (frame-sewn design) and the run sole (adhesive design).

term confusion

does not give too many original designs. But to the evasion of licenses and thus resulting fees with the production, were varied many designs and publicised under new, own designation. In addition it comes that and the same design is common perhaps depending upon country under different designations. The most well-known example is the through-sewn design, also after its inventor the Lyman R. Blake Blake design (Blake sewn) or after their widen Gordon McKay McKay design (McKay sewn) one calls. With all three designations accurately in each case the same design is meant.

Durchgenähte Machart (Querschnitt)
Durchgenähte design (cross section)

something similar confusing are the usual names for the frame-sewn design: If the speech is from Goodyear welted, then it concerns of Andreas's Eppler the invented and of Charles Goodyear junior patented, machine production method. Here the Goodyear Einstechmaschine and the Goodyear Aufdoppelmaschine is used for sewing the two soil seams. In addition, in the long run the same designates simply the term frame-sewn (nearly all frame-sewn shoes are manufactured in this way). It is this concerns a by hand frame-sewn shoe. Then terms are as handin-stung or handframe-sewn for the frame-sewn design common. The designation frame-sewn is however a Fantasiebezeichnung, which is to usually pretend only a frame-sewn design and in reality combines through-sewn shoes applies.

Altogether those made and the different varied designs to term variety more difficult also among shoe dealers the understanding. Also specialists do not know in the meantime often only outgoing from the name (varied) of a design, these no more; although it naturally this varied design at the basis lying original design know. Some shoe manufacturers recruit gladly with the multiplicity of designs with those it their shoes manufacture. During a more exact view turns out however regularly that it varied or combined designs is meant, with which only one seam somewhat differently runs, an additional sticking is attached, or something similar. A few term examples: Bologna design (= Tubolare design), California design (variant of the adhesive design), Go-wave-design (variant of the adhesive design), chewing RA design (frame-sewn design combines), Silhou world design (likewise one combines frame-sewn design) etc.

danger of mistake

The combined designs provide even among specialists occasionally for discussions. Like that is unite not clearly, which the applied soil attachment procedures now the main design is. The definition is however clear: The determination (main) of the design is defined by the design which is used first.
Kombiniertdurchgenähte Machart (Querschnitt)
Combine-by-sewn design (cross section)
example : In the range of height-RPR-icy sewn gentleman shoes are combine through-sewn shoes common. With these the shank is fastened first under the fire sole by means of the Durchnähverfahrens. Sole piping so mentioned ( a broad Lederstreifen, which out-looks later like a normal Einstechrahmen laterally the shank) with is sewn at the same time. In the second step to this sole piping a run sole is then sewn on (specializedlinguistically: up-doubled). Thus the finished shoe resembles a shoe frame-sewn by the outside appearance (over the Durchnähnaht of the fire sole still another cover fire sole is stuck, whereby this seam is no longer visible.). But it does not concern a frame-sewn design, but around a combined Durchnähmachart, since the first attachment procedure was the through-sewn design and was only sewn thereafter the run sole to piping. This combined design is rapidly procedure relatively common in the variant of the Blake.

different designs

the different original designs are divided roughly into four groups:

  • AGO design:
Through the invention of a synthetic adhesive suitable for leathers (AGO = A g reat o pportunity), this Verbindungsmöglichkeit saved 1911 by the Italian chemist Rampichini much time. It took however still some decades, until the adhesives were so far developed that they corresponded to a shoe to requirements placing and did not represent no more an inflexible layer.
  • you-KTA-resoled designs (typical construction for sport shoes and niedrigpreisige Halbschuhe)
    • M. anvulkanisierte.
By the development for the 1940 years more strongly moulded on M. spreads more newly
  • thermoplastic plastics.
Since the beginning of real mass productions (in the middle of the 1950er years) profitably, since for each shoe size expensive forms must be manufactured here. An investment, which pays only with high numbers of items. then it concerns however the most economical production procedure compared with the other designs.
  • sewn designs (again into handin-stung and machine-sewn mode of production to be differentiated can):
    View of the frame-sewn design from downside (without Ausballung)
    • through-sewn M. (typical M. for Loafer)
    • frame-sewn M. (typical M. for high-quality Businessschuhe)
M. zwiegenähte. (typical M. for sewn mountain shoes)
Veldtschoen M. (typical M. for English Country and mountain shoes)
  • Mokassin M. (the typical M. for Mokassins and also for many Loaferschäfte - also for the through-sewn Loafer)
  • flexible-sewn M. (typical M. for sewn leisure shoes; well-known model: Clarks the blank boat)
  • turn-sewn design (typical for slippers)
  • other designs
    • wood-nailed design (becomes outdated, in former times for strongly stressed footwear like for example military boots)


  • Helge Sternke: Everything over gentleman shoes. Nicolai publishing house, Berlin, 2006, 560 S., 450 fig., ISBN 3-89479-252-3.
A whole chapter presents different sewn designs with design detailed in each case. Several dozen of further variants is described in the detailed glossary.

see also

shoe, Mokassinmachart

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