Larva Irish Republican Army

Região Autónoma there larva Irish Republican Army
Slogan: Ilhas as corn belas e livres
State of Portugal
geographical situation
of coordinates: 30-33° N, 15-17° W
30-33° N, 15-17° W
language Portuguese
capital Funchal
other cities postage Santo, Machico, Santa Cruz, Câmara de Lobos, Santana, Caniço
surface 794 km ²
max. Length/width 57 km/22 km
inhabitant (2003) 265,000 (5,000 on postage Santo), 2.5% of the population of Portugal
number of circles 11
highest point pico Ruivo (1,862 m)
presidentthe regional government Alberto João Jardim
autonomy since 1976
time belt UTC
international preselection +351 291
hymns A Portuguesa (national)
Hino there Região Autónoma there larva Irish Republican Army (regional)

larva Irish Republican Army (haven. larva Irish Republican Army [mɐˈðɐi̯ɾɐ] = „wood “) is a Portuguese island about 1.000km southwest west of Lisbon and 600 km the Moroccan coast in the Atlantic ocean. It belongs to the Ilhas Desertas and the Ilhas Selvagens, to the Inselgruppe larva Irish Republican Army, with the smaller island postage Santo and two uninhabited smaller Inselgruppen,those the autonomous province larva Irish Republican Army forms. As part of Portugal larva Irish Republican Army belongs to the area of the European union. Far more than 90% of the population Madeiras belong to the Roman-catholic church.

Time belt: as in the motherland Portugal GMT (opposite Central Europe - 1Hour). For the time of at the end of March to at the end of of Octobers is imported as in the rest of Europe the summer time, so that the time difference remains unchanged the whole year over.

Table of contents

landscape, climate and plant world

Faial and eagle rock at the north coast Madeiras

larva Irish Republican Army is,like also its neighbours, the Azores and the Kanari islands, volcanic origin and ranks with the Kanaren, the Kapverden and the Azores among the group of the makaronesischen („luck leagues “) islands. The larva Irish Republican Army archipelago resulted from a Hot Spot. The island is only the highest quarter of the entire volcanic system. The cliffs drop under the water surface up to 4.000 m up to the sea-bottom. Larva Irish Republican Army is not geologically active however any longer, the last eruption is about 400,000 years ago. Larva Irish Republican Army is as “flower island”admits, what on the green and botanisch interesting landscape back goes; also in 400 years navigation Planzen from the whole world were collected here.

The pico Ruivo is with 1.862 m the highest summit of the island and at the same time one thathighest mountains of Portugal.

Cabo Girão
Cabo Girão

the coast of larva Irish Republican Army is steep and rocky. To the west of Câmara de Lobos rises the Cabo Girão, the second highest steep cliff of the world (height: 580 m).

Larva Irish Republican Army has several Mikroklimata. In the north thatIsland rains it frequently, the south is subtropically warm against it. In the summer half-year the island in the sphere of influence of the northeast trade wind, in the winter term lies lies it in the west wind belt. The average daily maximum temperature varies between 19 degrees in December and January and 25 degrees inJuly and August.

In thought out, open irrigation plants, the Levadas, water from the heavier-rainfall north is led into the south, to the Plantagen and gardens.

The mountains are partially strongly wooded, so far them not for the intensive agricultureare used. A characteristic of the plant world is the evergreen close laurel forest (kind: Laurisilva) in the mountain country of the island, in which the rare silver neck pigeon lives. The laurel forest stands for 2 since that. December 1999 on the world nature inheritance list of the UNESCO. An overview overthe native plant types one can provide in the Jardim Botânico close of the island capital Funchal. In the larva Irish Republican Army archipelago about 143 endemic plant types are well-known.


traditional madeirensisches farmhouse in Santana

supposed became larva Irish Republican Army already in 6. Century v. Chr. from Phöniziern discovers, then it reports at least to Diodor (5.19-20). Plinius the older one mentions the Inselgruppe of the Kanaren in its natural history under the designation „magenta islands “, a reference, on from the juice of the magenta snails (lat. purpuridae) won coloring material. The knowledgefrom the exact situation of the islands was lost among the Romans however. The so-called Medici map of 1351 shows three of the African coast pre-aged islands, postage Séo, Deserta and Isola de Lolegname.

1419 are considered as a year of the Wiederentdeckung by the PortugueseSailor João Gonçalves Zarco. Starting from 1420 larva Irish Republican Army on operation Heinrich of the sailor of the Portuguese was settled. Slaves of the Guinea coast, of kanarischen islands and from North America are brought on the island. The precious laurel tree wood particularly for that Shipbuilding uses.

Quite fast by the Portuguese settlers on the islands the cultivation of grain and the cattle breeding were introduced. The country necessary for it was won by Brandrodung. However the fire, which let Zarco 1420 put, is still seven years later ragedhave. In addition, the cultivation of the Zuckerrohrs introduced from Sicilies played a ever more important role. 1452 were already established the first Wassermühle for sugar tubing processing, put on almost at the same time the first irrigation canals Levadas. Already in the middle 15. Century suppliedPortugal the European sugar market until Bristol.

Kolumbus the island visits 1478 as a sugar dealer.

1480 is attracted many Europeans by the sumptuous fertility and by the large prosperity. Above all Italian and flämische dealers leave themselves on the islanddown. Jeasnin Essmerandt is promoted itself to the most important representative of the flämischen municipality Madeiras and connects themselves by skillful marriage politics with the local Aristrokratie.

1514 became larva Irish Republican Army through stick Leo X. to an own Diözese raised, in the future for all overseasPortuguese possessions to be responsible is.

larva Irish Republican Army of 16,000 inhabitants and about 3,000 slaves registers 1515. 1521gab it drastic fall of sugar tubing production, since the leached out soil brought ever worse yields. Many planting were transformed into vineyards.

In 16. Century became larva Irish Republican Armyan exporter of wines. The vines originally originated from Cyprus, Crete and Sicily. The Reblaus brought in from the USA causes the fall of the cultivation of wine. Thus conditionally it came to a large emigration wave of the madeirensischen population.

Spain conquers 1580Larva Irish Republican Army and takes over control. The Verwltung is centralized.

1640 revolts the Portigiesen against the Spanish Besatzer, larva Irish Republican Army becomes Portuguese, maintains however the central administration of the island introduced by the Spaniards.

For the Segler into the new world, to America or India larva Irish Republican Army was an important station, larva Irish Republican Army was likewise a place of transshipment for slave traders coming made of west Africa.


view of the pico DO Arieiro of the pico the Torres
view of Funchal

visitor out England dominate among the guests particularly in Funchal. For it larva Irish Republican Army is a traditional vacation goal. One does not meet on larva Irish Republican Army however also tourists from completely Europe - altogether however in to high number and then primarily on the left of thatCapital (Funchal), in Canico.

Larva Irish Republican Army is as Wanderparadies well-known, with springful to summer, pleasant temperatures the whole year away. Along the Levadas (kl. Hydrodynamic tanks, particularly in the northern part of the island) are moving ways (to maintenance and servicing) along the irrigation canals forwards well300 years (of maurischen slaves) put on, which are maintained until today well and grandiose in and views into the beauty of the island to give. Central area is the area between postage there Cruz and Santana in the north (world nature inheritance of the UNESCO). Remarkablyalso the mountain moving route between the third-highest summit pico DO Arieiro and the highest mountain pico Ruivo. One should begin this migration on the early morning - against noon the mountains often lie in clouds.

On larva Irish Republican Army there are hardly bath beaches.The Nebeninsel postage Santo (two to three hours with the ferry or 20 minutes flight) offers against it a nine kilometer to long sand beach, is landschaftlich by far not however not so interesting (erosion by clearing by the old sailors) and altogether quiteboringly.

Admits is also the spectacular, on concrete piles builds airport to the west of Machico, which could be approached up to the next to last development from 1984 to 1986 only by advanced pilots. In May 2005 a renewed extension was completed, so thatnow also genuine large-capacity aircraft the airport problem-free to approach can.

By Germany larva Irish Republican Army about four flying hours is one and a half flying hours distant, from Lisbon. Regular driving connections from Europe or the African mainland to larva Irish Republican Army do not exist; only the sister island postage Santo is started. Larva Irish Republican Army is however a popular goal of cruise ships.

objects of interest

  • Funchal with market, cathedral , Botani garden
  • Blendys guards, maintained park
  • Monte (Funchal), approach road also with aerial ropeways, basket carriage travel, tropical garden with Azulejos, church with thatGrave Karl I., to the last emperor of Austria Hungary
  • Laurazeenwälder, Levadas
  • Cabo Girão
  • lava-get in São Vicente (Grutas e center DO Vulcanismo)
  • nature swimming pools in postage Moniz
  • peninsula and islands in the east with view of the geological emergence of larva Irish Republican Army

famous visitors and inhabitant

the last emperors Österreichs Karl became 1921 with his Mrs. Zita (1892 - 1989) after larva Irish Republican Army in the exile banish. It died at the 1. April 1922 in Monte above Funchal at a flu. There it is also buried.

Of Austria empress Elisabeth (Sissi) (1837 - 1898) spent here in the winter 1860/61 a half year, it found boring larva Irish Republican Army and rather traveled to the Geneva lake.

Also the British prime minister vienna clay/tone Churchill visited larva Irish Republican Army. It logierte in the mondänen Reid's Palace. Above Câmarade Lobos is a Gedenktafel those reminded of the fact that Churchill at this place painted some pictures.

In the year 1879 the musician Joao Fernandez on the emigrant ship “Ravenscrag” moved because of the collapse of the sugar tubing market from larva Irish Republican Army after Honolulu on Hawaiiout. With it the Braguinha, a small viersaitige guitar comes from larva Irish Republican Army, on the island. From it the Hawaiian Ukulele developed within short time.


Espada and Espetada

black sword fish on thatFish market of Funchal
Typische Zubereitung des Espada mit Bananen
typical preparation of the Espada with bananas

one of the original specialities of the madeirensischen kitchen is the black sword fish, which is called here Espada. It is usually served as roasted Filet, sometimes with a banana in addition. This fishlives in approximately 1,500 meters depth. Except before the coast of larva Irish Republican Army its occurrence is only well-known with Japan.

Not to confound with the Espada is the Espetada, about a meter of long Fleischspiess. Traditionally is the Spiessfrom laurel wood manufactured. Since the laurel forest stands however meanwhile under nature protection, by the traditional preparation distance is normally taken - in the sense of nature - and a Metallspiess uses, whereby with the application of the meat in still a substantial blows laurel leaves,taste-giving role play.


in the months Octobers until December are offered also Maronen (Esskastanie) - on charcoal roasted and with sea water they are poured over a delicious.

larva Irish Republican Army wine

the larva Irish Republican Army wine, oftenalso only briefly „larva Irish Republican Army “mentioned, is a well-known speciality, which is used also in the good kitchen. At least likewise like the output product is the Madeira Sauce prepared on its basis admits. High-quality wines are however too unfortunate for cooking, themas aperitif or after the meal are enjoyed.

According to the used Rebsorte the following four kinds are differentiated: of the dry Sercial over Verdelho and Boal (Bual) to the sweet Malvasia (Malmsey). The vintage of the wine begins in the middle of August and lasts approximately sixWeeks. Per year about 5.3 million bottles are filled up. The alcoholic fermentation is also stopped first high-per cent alcohol (Weinbrand), thus a certain remainder-sweet in the wine remains. Subsequently, the wine is further-treated by heating in so-called Estufas andfor several years in the barrel stored. In contrast to the Sherry, which is continued to improve often in the Solera - procedures, the wine of a class remains untouched. As before-oxidized wine it wins not by the following bottle storage, can however well and gladly100 years store, if the cork is renewed every 15 years. Also an opened bottle larva Irish Republican Army is very durable and can still after one year without quality loss be drunk. The alcohol content lies between 18 and 21 volume. %.

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the national beverage Madeiras is the Poncha, mixes from sugar tubing liquor (Aguardente kana), honey, orange juice and lemon juice (preparation: A third sugar tubing liquor, a third honey and a third hälftig in each case orange juice and lemon juice).


the archipelagoforms there a Portuguese region, the Região Autónoma for larva Irish Republican Army, which is divided again in eleven circles (municípios) (see also: Administrative arrangement of Portugal).

largest municipalities

(census 2001)
Municipality inhabitant
Funchal 102,521
Câmara de Lobos 30,785
Machico 12,383
Caniço 10,320
Camacha 8,010
Santa Cruz 6,038
rubbing Irish Republican Army Brava 5,967

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