Madrasa (Arab: مدرسة, Pl. madâris), nomen is meant literal loci and: „Place of instruction “, D. h. Training grounds, school. Strictly speaking the term designates the type of the Islamic university.
With the Madrasa is oneIslamic institution developed, whose appearance was more secular coined/shaped by the combination of praying halls, training areas, a library and the boarding school for the studying both sakral and. The library covered writings from the ranges of mathematics, medicine, grammar, astronomy, geography apart from the religious literature also andphilosophy. With the development of this institution the Madrasa became a component of a mosque or stood in direct proximity of it.
A Madrasa could develop through „pious donations “(waqf); , the right school (madhhab), represented in its donation, was entitled to the founder, the entire didactic program,to determine the number of the students and teachers. The oldest establishments are coined/shaped of a private character, since pretty often a part served the dwelling of the founder as instruction place.
With the establishment of the Madrasa aluminium-Nizamiyya (1066) in Bagdad under the Seldschuken - Wezir Nizam aluminium-Mulk (1018-1092) reachedthe Madrasa - system its first high point and was trailblazing for the establishment of further, nationally promoted schools. In the aluminium-Madrasa aluminium-Mustansiriyya (based 1234) all four right schools were allowed to inform their teachings.
In the Islamic west is under the Almohaden the Ya'qub ibn aluminium-Mansur in the year 1285 in Fès created aluminium-Qarawiyyin the most important Madrasa, which developed in direct proximity of the main mosque of the same name.
In Tunesien the majority of the schools under the Hafsiden (1229-1574) in Tunis developed; the most famous mechanism is here the aluminium-Zaytuna, likewise to the main mosque of the same name of Tunisbenannt.
In the sense of the classical educating guidelines, with certain restrictions, still three mechanisms function, in whose training halls students from the entire Islamic world in the classical religion sciences are informed: Aluminium-Azhar in Cairo, aluminium-Zaytuna in Tunis and aluminium-Qarawiyyin in Fès.