of these articles acts of the Spanish capital Madrid. For the region designated after this city see Madrid (region). For further meanings see to Madrid (term clarifying)
base data
state: Spain
region: Autonomous region Madrid (region)
surface: 607 km ²
inhabitants: 3.154.000 (conditions 2004)
population density: 5,190 inhabitants for each km ²
height: 667 m and. NN
geographical situation:
Coordinates: 40° 25 ' N, 3° 42 ' W
40° 25 ' N, 3° 42 ' W
city arrangement: 21 Distritos (urban districts)
Official Website: of
mayor Alberto Ruiz Gallardón

Madrid are the capital of Spain and the autonomous region Madrid.

The region ranks with approximately five million inhabitants in the region among the largest metropolises of Europe. The city Madrid (without Suburbs) is with approximately 3,1 million inhabitants to London and Berlin the third biggest in the European union.

Madrid is both national and internationally meaning handels and financial center. Besides the city forms the political and cultural centerSpain. Madrid is the seat of the Spanish government. In addition in the city reside the king, the catholic archbishop as well as important administrative and military authorities. In Madrid are six public universities as well as different other universities, theatre, museums andCultural facilities.

One calls the inhabitants of Madrid Madrilenen (splinter “madrileños”).

Table of contents


Madrid is in the center of Spain 665 m over NN. The city which was because of the bank of the small river Manzanares belongs to the historical landscape Kastilien. Northwestthe city rise the mountains of the Sierra de Guadarrama, who rises in the Peñalara 2,429 m highly. Eastward the valley of the Henares opens , in which iron and motorways run to Saragossa and Barcelona. About 50 kmsouth, at the Tajo, of Madrid lies “nut/mother city”, the old kastilische capital Toledo.


by its altitude on 665 m over the sea level and the continental climate are the summers in Madrid hotter and more dryly, the winters howeverclearly more coldly than for instance in the cities at the Mediterranean.


Madrid is a metropolis recent for European conditions. In the years 852 to 886 a maurische castle ( alcázar) in the place of the today's became Madrider of king palace establishes. The surrounding plant was like-guessed/advised called , and starting from 939 Madschrít. 1038 became Madrid kastilisch. The city was unsuccessfully besieged 1109 by the Berberfürsten Jusuf. The Stadtmauern originating from the Arab rule time via Spain are stillavailable.1309 found here the first meeting of the Cortes de Castilla (Kastilli city parliament) under Fernando IV. instead of (other indication: 1239).

Historical map (around 1888)

with the transfer of the Corte (parliament) in the year 1561 and the residence from thatclose convenient and substantially older Toledo by Felipe II. in the year 1588 the ascent of the city began. It became actual the official capital of Spain, which it is apart from a small interruption from 1601 to 1606 up to the today's day.The part of Madrid, which was established to Spanish among the having citizens, calls itself to today “El Madrid de loosely Austrias “(the Madrid of the Austrians). In this time the Puerta del Sol, the Descalzas material, became Palaciode Uceda, the Plaza de la mansion, which builds show piece Habsburgi architecture the Plaza Mayor as well as the cathedral of San Isidro.

Between 1701 and 1713 the Spanish succession war took place , 1706 followed English and Portuguese occupation. Of 1808 to 1813 were Madrid occupied by the Frenchmen, whereby Napoleons' brother became Joseph king. The Besatzer let monasteries and whole boroughs down-tear, in order to create new place. With the rebellion of 2. May 1808 further collections in the entire becameCountry caused.

From 1833 to 1876 the Karlistenkriege took place . Also a Choleraepedemie raged in Madrid. 1873 were proclaimed the first republic by the dictator Emilio Castelar, and 1923 the military dictatorship under general Miguel Primo de Rivera followed. To 14. April 1931 was proclaimed in Madrid the second republic. In the Spanish civil war from 1936 to 39 was Madrid to last, up to 28. March, republican and suffered heavy destruction by German and Italian Bombardements.After the nationalists had succeeded around the general Francisco Franco, its dictatorship to 1975 coined/shaped the city. 1965 to 1973 numerous strikes and student protests took place.

After death Francos in the year 1975 became Juan Carlo I.King andthe democratization introduced, which however 1981 was again endangered by a Putschversuch of some military. 1992 were Madrid “culture capital of Europe”. 2004 was killed with the terrorist attacks on four fully occupied Nahverkehrszüge 191 humans. In the year 2005 Madrid failed scarcelywith the application around the olympic summer games 2012.

See also: History of Spain

culture and objects of interest

king palace
Almudena cathedral
Templo de Debod
Templo de Debod
Plaza Mayor
Plaza Mayor
Plaza de Cibeles und Palacio de Communicaciones
Plaza de Cibeles and Palacio de Communicaciones
read Ventas, Stierkampfarena of Madrid
El parque del Retiro
El parquedel Retiro

single buildings

of places

  • of the Plaza Mayor became into 15. Centuryas market place put on and today the most alive place of the city is until. It is in the center of the old part of town and is a rectangular, uniformly closed place (similar the place of the same name in Salamanca). Here frequently concerts are organized.
  • Plaza dela Puerta del Sol (map), the center of the city and completely Spain: here is the Kilómetro Cero, the traditional starting point of the six radial national routes.
  • Plaza de España at the western end of the Gran Vía, a large placein styles of the 1920er years with in former times multistoried building architecture.
  • Plaza de Lavapiés, central point of the quarter of the same name Lavapiés, is understood constant in change work, is it for application for the olympic plays o.a.
  • Plaza de Cibeles: here are threethe largest objects of interest of Madrid at a place: the Kybelebrunnen, the Palacio de read Comunicaciones and the Banco de España. By the trailers and the crew of the soccer association material Madrid this place is used to the celebration by championships.
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at the Paseo del Prado are in the so-called museum triangle in going width of few hundred meters of three of the most important museums of the world: Museo del Prado, Museo Nacional center de Arte Reina Sofia and Museo de Arte Thyssen Bornemisza

  • El Prado: The museum at the Paseo del Prado belonged to the most important painting museums of the world and offers a unique spectrum of European art (e.g.Goya, El Greco) Toulouse Lautrec, Vincent van Gogh, Tiziano Vecellio u.v.a.m.
  • Center de Arte ReinaSofía : Designated after the Spanish queen Sofía supplements the museum the collection of the Prados with the many of the most important paintings and sculptures of considerable artists of the modern trend starting from that 20. Century, so e.g. Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, Juan Grís u.v.a.m.
  • Museo de Arte Thyssen Bornemisza : One of the most important private collections of the world with paintings from the time starting from that 14. Century.
  • Archaeological museum: it offers a collection of objects from prähistorischer time in the Middle Ages.


  • Calle de Alcalá. This splendour road begins to the Puerta del Sol and leads toward Alcalá de Henares. Between Sol and Plaza de Cibeles are numerous representative buildings of periods of promoterism, among other things Company seats of major banks.
  • Paseo del Prado. This very muchbroad road leads from the station Atocha to the Plaza de Cibeles. Here are large hotels and the Prado museum.
  • Paseo de la Castellana. The most important road axle of Madrid begins to the Plaza Colón and leads in northern direction up to the internal motorway circuit.
  • Gran Vía. Here are a set of large cinemas, the center of the Spanish Telefongesellschaft Telefónica and mode business.
  • Calle Goya
  • Calle Huertas. After their the “writer quarter” is designated in the center, in that the most important writers (among other things Cervantes, Lopede Vega, Quevedo, Góngora) of the Spanish literature close together and partially. in same periods (“the golden century”) lived and worked. As one of the few pedestrian precincts of the city the road functions nowadays as going out center.


with material Madrid, Atlético Madrid and the fiber plastic Getafe possesses the city in addition three soccer clubs in the Primera División, the first Spanish league.

surrounding countryside

economics and infrastructure

distance plan of the Metro in Madrid

in Madrid are airplane, vehicle, textile, chemical and food industry.

Madrid is of Spain largest traffic and railway junction with thatPassenger railway stations Atocha and Chamartín as well as the marshalling yard Vicálvaro. The net of the Madrider underground belongs to the largest world. The suburbs become with the Cercanías - suburb course system opened.

The international airport of Madrid, Barajas, lies in the northeast of the city and is to reach with the Metro fast.

to education

to the numerous educational facilities the Universidad Complutense de Madrid ( UCM, 1508 in Alcalá de Henares open , belongs 1836 to Madrid shifted) as well as the Universidad Comillas (1892), the poly-technical University of (UPM, 1971), Universidad Autónoma (UAM, 1968), the Universidad Carlo III (UC3M, 1989) and the Universitad Rey Juan Carlo (1996). The Spanish correspondence university UNED (Universidad Nacional Educación A Distancia) has its head office in Madrid. Likewiseare here among other things royally the Spanish academy as well as the academies of the beautiful arts, the natural sciences and the languages.

partnerships between cities

Madrid maintains with the following cities partnerships (in parentheses the year of the establishment, the list is incomplete):

sons and daughters of the city

for further persons see: List thatSons and daughters of the city Madrid.

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Madrid - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Madrid - pictures, videos and/or audio files

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