Mahatma Gandhi (* 2. October 1869, in Porbandar (Gujarat), India; † 30. January 1948 in again Delhi (murders); (actually Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) Pazifist , human rights activist was more political and as well as mental leader of the Indian Movement of independence, which caused 1947 with the concept of the force-free resistance the end of British colonial rule over India, developed by it. Its concept „Satyagraha “(hold to the truth) contained still further ethical beside Ahimsa, the force liberty ,Demands as for instance Bedürfnislosigkeit. It defined also „truth is God “and „God is truth “, in order to disarm Atheisten.
the sanskritische honour name Mahátma („large soul “) comes from the Indian philosopher and Literaturnobelpreisträger Rabindranath Tagore, the Gandhi with itsArrival in Bombay to 9. January 1915 welcomed in such a way. Gandhi had trouble however with this surname. Into its Autobiografie „my life “it calls itself its for unworthy. Gandhis Autobiografie the history of my experiments with the truth (1927-1929) is inimportant work of the gujaratischen literature.
Table of contents
childhood and youth
Gandhi was born as the youngest of five children in the fourth marriage of its father Karamchand Gandhi. It was the favourite child of its nut/mother Putali bay. Its father was a buyer and dressed in the local Principality of Porbandar intoday's Westgujarat an office for Minister. Its parents were after western yardsticks ungebildet and deeply in the religious and social traditions of their country verwurzelt. They were Vishnu - in addition, Verehrer, visited Shivatempel. They accepted patient to their house and maintainedit. At the court their advice was looked for.
Gandhi experienced already as a child conflicts of its father with the British colonial officer of this region. In addition, it experienced alive exchange and an atmosphere of the tolerance between different Hindus, Muslims, Parsis and trailers of the Jainismus. This religion, at the same time with the Buddhismus developed, was common in Gujarat far and stresses strict non-violence in the everyday life (Ahimsa). It coined/shaped Gandhis philosophy lastingly.
The marriage with Kasturba
Mahatma Gandhi1883 at the age originated by 13 years by its family with the Kasturba of the same age Nakanji were already married from a wealthy however traditional family and . In the year 1888 the first son Harilal was born. Three further followed: Manilal 1892, Ramdas 1897 and Devadas in the year 1900. After Gandhi was subjected to 1906 the Zölibat, did not have he and Kasturba any sexual relationship more. Kasturba worked and continued to live nevertheless at its side and often transferred its representation in the politicalFight, if it were taken under detention. Gandhi and Kasturba were 62 years long married.
Gandhi in South Africa
the years 1888 - 1891 spent Gandhi in London, where he studied jurisprudence. After its returnit acquired 1891 its honors as an attorney in Bombay. Later it an Indian businessman sent two years to South Africa. Originally intended Gandhi to remain only one year there returned however only in the year 1915 to India. ThoseYears in South Africa coined/shaped Gandhi in its kind of offering force-free resistance against injustice. Already soon it recognized that the life was unpleasant as Indian at the cape. In its Autobiografie reports it of its experiences:
- On the sieved or respected dayafter my arrival I left Durban. A place of first class was booked for me. To India a Schaffner came to me and said: „Coming it also! They must rise into my transportation course. “„However I have a ticket first“, I said class. „That is einerlei “, answered the other one. „I legend you, you must into the luggage trolley rise. “„I legend you, me was permitted in Durban to travel in this compartment and I insist on remaining in him. “„No,that they become not “, answered the official. „You must leave this compartment, otherwise I must call a policeman, in order to eject you. “„, Which you can do. Voluntarily to step out I refuse. “The policeman came. It seized me at handand ejected itself. Also my luggage was removed. I rejected it to mount the luggage trolley and the course drove off.
Affected by this experience, Gandhi began its political commitment in India. Thus it created 1894 the Natal IndianCongress and led to 13. November 1913 a protest march after Transvaal, whereupon „the Indians' relief act became to issue 1914 “. In South Africa Gandhi developed also the concept of the forceless resistance, which he called Satyagraha. For the black population it sethowever not, but remained oneself centered in his affecting time life the Indian.
Fight for of India independence and end
after over 20 years it returned 1915 to India, where it itself itsown Ashram constructed and where one because of its large achievements for the human rights of the Indian in South Africa soon „Mahatma - large soul “called him. Gandhi rejected the title of time life, since he was unworthy. he took over 1920the guidance of the Indian national Congress (I.N.C.), under its mental guidance for mass organization and for the most important institution of the Indian movement of independence developed. 1930 it arranged a campaign of the civilian disobedience and called to Salzmarsch (against the British salt monopoly) up. The Salzmarsch was the most spectacular campaign, which initiated Gandhi during its fight for independence.
1942 demanded Gandhi the immediate independence of India and in Pune were therefore arrested, but after two years from health reasons again to dismiss. Bothin South Africa and in India Gandhi was several times arrested of the British colonial power; altogether it sat eight years in the prison.
At the 3. June 1947 announced the British prime minister Clement Attlee the independence and the division of India in twoStates: The by the majority hinduistische India and by the majority moslemische Pakistan. Gandhi had opposed the partition plan always, occurred however after the separation for a fair allocation of the treasury. It was to be also owed to its influence that the like civil warUnrests, which broke out after the division, were relatively rapidly contained.
To 30. January 1948 was shot the 79-jährige Gandhi by the nationalistic Hindu Nathuram Godse, which had planned already ten days before as a member of a Siebenergruppe an assassination attempt on Gandhi. Seein addition EN: Attempts ton assassinate Mahatma Gandhi.
The life of the Mahatma Gandhi was successfully filmed 1982 by smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Attenborough . Those Main role played Ben Kingsley; the film became with eight Oscars, among other things in the categories “best film” and “best leading actor” premium ore. Philip Glass composed the opera Satyagraha, which acts of Gandhis career/development.
- my life, Hg.of C. F. Andrew, Frankfurt/Main 1983.ISBN 3-518-37453-2 (English. First edition 1930)
- Heimo Rau: Gandhi. Rowohlt Monographie, Reinbek 1970, ISBN of 3-499-50172-4
- peoples is enough: The forceless rebel. dtv junior, Munich, 11. Edition, ISBN 3-423-78002-9
- George Woodcock: Mahatma Gandhi. dtv, Munich 1975, ISBN 3-423-01049-5
- Larry Collins, Dominique Lapierre: Around midnight the liberty. Of India dramatic way into independence. Rowohlt publishing house, Reinbek 1978, ISBN 3-499-17179-1
- Dietmar red ago mouth: Mahatma Gandhi, a political biography. 2 edition. Beck publishing house, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-406-42018-4
- Sigrid Grabner, Mahatma Gandhi: Politician, pilgrim and prophet. Evangelist publishing house, Leipzig 2002, ISBN 3-374-01940-4
- Andreas Becke: Gandhi for introduction. Junius, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3885063107
- Gandhi information center (Hg.): My would run is my message: living and workingM.K. Gandhi. Weber breed, Kassel 1988, ISBN 3887130332
- Jörg Zittlau: Gandhi as managers. Frankfurt: Calibration barn, last Herder spectrum E.G. 2005.
- Andrea Driessen: Salt… Gandhi as a journalist. Holger Ehling Publications 2002
- Mahatma Gandhi: The breath of the soul. Patmos January 2007
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|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Mohandás Karamchand Gándhí [actually]|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||more mentallyLeader of the Indian movement of independence|
|DATE OF BIRTH||2. October 1869|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Porbandar, Gujarat|
|DYING DATE||30. January 1948|
|DYING PLACE||again Delhi|