Malaysia

ڤرسكوتوانمليسيا
Persekutuan Malaysia
Malaysia
Flagge Malaysias Wappen Malaysias
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: “Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu”, Malaiisch, “unit is strength”
office language Bahasa Melayu
capital Kuala Lumpur
seat of the government Putrajaya
system of government constitutional choice monarchy
king Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin
prime minister Dato' series Abdullahare Ahmad Badawi
surface 329,750 km ²
number of inhabitants 23.953.136 conditions: July 2005
population density of 72.6 inhabitants per km ²
independence from Great Britain to 31. August 1957
currency Ringgit
time belt UTC + 8 h
national anthem Negara Ku
Kfz characteristic MARK
Internet TLD .my
preselection +60
Malaysias Lage in Asien
Karte von Malaysia

Malaysia (Persekutuan Malaysia, official designation in German Malaysia, in Austria also Malaysien mentioned) lies in Southeast Asia.

Table of contents

geography

Malaysia consists of two parts, i.e. the western part lain on the malaiischen peninsulaand the East part lain on the island Borneo. Both are from each other separated by the southChinese sea. West Malaysia borders in the north on Thailand and in the south is on a pre-aged island Singapore. East Malaysia borders south on Indonesia and inThe north is included the Sultanate of Brunei of Malaysia. Tanjung Piai, which in the southern state Johor is, is the southernmost point of the asiatic continent, if one the island Singapore, those with the continent only by an artificial bridge connectedis, ignore. Between the malaiischen peninsula and the Indonesian island Sumatra is the road of Malakka, which represents both an important, strategically important water way and one of the usually-traveled ship routes.

Malaysia has in the west as inThe east a similar landscape, which consists of levels along the coasts, while in the hinterland hills and partly very high mountains dominate, which are usually very closely wooded. The highest collection of Malaysia is the 4095 m high Kinabalu upthe island Borneo.

The largest and most important city of Malaysia is the capital Kuala Lumpur, in which itself the parliament, which handels and financial center of the country find. Most government mechanisms left the city however toward Putrajaya, whichparticularly as new administrative capital for Malaysia one established. Further important cities are George Town, Ipoh and Johor Bahru. See also list of the cities in Malaysia.

The climate of the country is equatorial and becomes from April to Octobersby the southwest monsoon, and characterized from October to February by the northeast monsoon.

The four climatic diagrams result in a west east profile: Kuala Terengganu and Kuala Lumpur on the Malakka - peninsula (west Malaysia), Sandakan and Kuching on Borneo (east Malaysia).

Kuala Terengganu(Malakka Ost)
Kuala Terengganu
(Malakka east)
Kuala Lumpur(Malakka West)
Kuala Lumpur
(Malakka west)
Sandakan(Borneo Ost)
Sandakan
(Borneo east)
Kuching(Borneo West)
Kuching
(Borneo west)


see also: National park in Malaysia

population

the population of Malaysia consists of a large number of ethnical groups, whereby the Malaien places the majority and dominates also the policy. ThoseCondition of the country defines that all Malaien is Muslims. The moreover one the overseas Chinese place about a quarter of the population. The Chinese play an important role in trade and economics. Further sieved per cent of the population are indischstämmig. These are Hindus, Muslim,Sikhs, Christian or Buddhisten. About 85 per cent of the indischstämmigen population of Malaysia are Tamilen, Minderheitengruppen are the Malayalis, Punjabis and Telugus.

Kuala Lumpur

in the States of Sarawak and Sabah place half to native, which are not ethnical Malaien,and/or. two thirds of the population. On the peninsula likewise native, however in smaller number, exists her with the comprehensive term Orang Asli is designated. These natives belong to a large number of ethnical groups, have however cultural thing in common. They were toto 20. Century trailer of traditional nature religions. Since then many went over to the Christianity or to the Islam. Although the Orang Asli differs according to the culture from the Malaien, many assimilated, approximately the malaiische culture by removal into the citiesor by marriage.

Considerable minorities place the Europeans, Menschen from the middle east, Kambodscha and Viet Nam. The Europeans are usually the British and some Portuguese, who colonized Malaysia and settled here. The most Kambodschaner and Vietnamesen came as Viet Nam war refugees to Malaysia.

The population is distributed, the majority (about 20 million) lives not evenly on the malaiischen peninsula. The growth of the population is annually relatively high with approximately 2.4 per cent, and for instance a third of the population is younger than15 years. The urbanisation rate is with approximately 58%. The average life expectancy is at approximately 72 years, the infant mortality with approximately 23 per thousand.

An important turning point in the population politics of Malaysia place unrests of 13. May 1969 approximately over andin Kuala Lumpur. These unrests were interpreted at that time as consequence of the socio-economic inequalities between the individual ethnical groups. They led to it that the malaiische new economic policy was introduced, around both rassische and economic inequalities and poverty inTo eliminate Malaysia.

The office language of Malaysia are Bahasa Melayu spoke, besides are English, Chinese (above all Cantonese, high-Chinese, Hokkien, Hakka, Chaozhou (Teochew), Hainan, the Fuzhou dialect), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Thaispread. In east Malaysia spreads indigene languages spoken, about which the most important Iban and Kadazan are.

In official documents British English is used. By the television however the American English already took to unite to influence. The English, which in the colloquial languagein Malaysia one uses, differs strongly from the British English and therefore also as Manglish one designates. It resembles strong the Singlish, which is spoken in Singapore up to some Slang - expressions.

Religion

the Islam, to that itself60% of the population admit, are state religion. After the condition of the country all ethnical Malaien of birth is automatic Muslims. Dropping from the Islam is punished in fact with imprisonment. The Chinese are usually Buddhisten (20%) orhang other Chinese religions such as Daoismus and Konfuzianismus on (2.6%). There is Christian (9%) in all ethnical groups. The Indian are predominantly Hindus (6%). Muslims are consciously nationally preferred opposite members of other religions. Christian press can inMalaiisch only under difficulties to be published, publications in English, Chinese and also Tamil are however unproblematically available. The distribution of writings is completely unrestricted only to members of combinations or in churches. These are not subject like publicly offered publications to thatCensorship. The building of churches cannot lead in centers of dense development every now and then to small difficulties with the planning authority, discriminations opposite other faith houses exists however. In the east of Malaysia there is however also a minority of Christian Malayen, in 16. Jh. ofSpaniards were christianisiert and their religion until today remained faithful.

Islam

the Islam is state religion. Malaysia is an orthodox--Islamic coined/shaped country, although only about 55% are Muslims. The other 45% predominantly belong to the Buddhismus (24%), thatChristianity (9%) or the Hinduismus (6%) on.

52% are Malaien, 35% Chinese and about 10% Indian. In addition comes the Orang Asli, which predominantly lives in west Malaysia. Also Arab, Sri Lanker and Indonesier as well as Philippinier inMalaysia live.

History

major item: History of Malaysia

the malaiische peninsula became a large commercial centre in Southeast Asia, when the trade between China and India began to flourish. At that time active driving began in the road of Malakka. The first malaiischen kingdomsdeveloped of ports, in 10. Century based were. The most important early kingdoms were Langkasuka and Lembah Bujang in Kedah, as well as Beruas and Gangga Negara in Perak and Pan Pan in Kelantan. The Islam came into 14.Century in Terengganu on. In early 15. Century was created the sultanate by Malakka. By its prosperity it drew the interest of Portugal on itself. The port became then a center of the Kolonialisierung by the Dutchmen and the British.

ThoseBritish crowning colony Straits Settlements was created in the year 1826 and England won gradually control of the remainder of the peninsula. To the Straits Settlements belonged to Penang, Singapore and Malakka. Penang was created in the year 1786 by captain Francis Lightand served as military and commercial basis. In its meaning it was overhauled soon by Singapore, which was created in the year 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles. Malakka was after the English-Netherlands contract of 1824 finally in British possession. The colonyby the British Ostindien Kompagnie with seat in Calcutta one governed, until their seat was shifted 1867 to London.

The same time the British policy became ever more aggressive in relation to the malaiischen states. Within few years several malaiische states cameat the west coast of the peninsula under British control. On operation of the dealers, who sat in the crowning colonies, the government interfered into the affairs of the tin-producing states. At the same time the British colonial power had civil wars and disturbances by Chinese secret companies toobefrieden. The British caused a peaceful solution, which the dealers preferred with their military power. With the contract of Pangkor in the year 1874 the way became free for the British rule. 1896 became the four Sultanates of Pahang, Selangor, Perak andNegeri Sembilan into the Föderierten Malaii states combined, those the commissioner of Singapore been subordinate. This was also the governor of the Straits Settlements. This governor again was subordinate to the office for colonial in London.

The other states of the peninsula were not directly Londonsubordinated, the Sultane had however British advisors at its yard. The four northern States of Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu were until 1909 under control from Thailand. The area of the today's State of Sabah was a colony, thoseoriginally the Sultan of Sulu had heard. The enormous forest area of Sarawak was personal possession of the family Brooke. During the Second World War today's Malaysia was occupied by Japan. In this time the support for the independence of the country grewof the European colonial power. The English plans to create a malaiische union were rejected by many Malaien. They required a system, which considered the desires of the Malaien more strongly, excluded Singapore and planned for the immigrants only one nationality. Independencewurde im Jahre1957 erlangt, unter dem Namen Föderation Malaya. Singapore was not contained.

To 16. September 1963 was created a new federation under the name Malaysia, those the federation Malaya as well as the British crowning colonies Singapore, Nordborneo (today Sabah) and Sarawak covered. The early years were certain by territorial requirements of the neighbours, as well as by separating Singapore from the federation in the year 1965.

Politics

parties

since 1957 govern of the United Malays national organization (short UMNO, on Malaiisch Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu) aforementioned party alliance. First this alliance carried Alliance for the names and consisted of the malaiischen party UMNO, the Chinese MCA and the Indian MIC, with which the three largest groups of peoples were represented. AfterRace troubles, which followed the parliamentary election 1969, the alliance was extended and renamed. 1974 followed the official establishment of the Barisan Nasional (“national front”). In the BN are represented beside the ten further parties mentioned, which have predominantly regional meaning. The partiesthe BN agree often to let only one candidate place to the choice so that between them no competition develops and the voices distribute themselves on several BN-politicians. Thus succeeds attaining it frequently the two-thirds majority of the delegates andso the possibility of changing the condition. Some BN-members appear on level of the Federal States also as competitors.

The opposition is not uniform. Only with the parliamentary election 1999 three opposition parties united to the Wahlbündnis Barisan Alternatif. This splititself however only two years later again. The most important opposition parties are the PAS and the DAP. The PAS represents an malayisch Islamic policy and places into Federal States the government. The DAP has a social-democratic program and predominantly becomes from Chinese stämmigenMalaysiern selected. Into the 1990er years time played the UMNO splitting off Semangat 46 (spirit from 1946, the year of the UMNO establishment) a relevant role as opposition party. The again created Keadilan, likewise a UMNO splitting off could do one with the elections 1999Respect success achieve. It was led by the woman of the entmachteten, very popular former UMNO politician Anwar Ibrahim.

There

are elections on federal level a Mehrheitswahlrecht, with which only one candidate for each constituency is selected in the parliament. This is frequently an advantagefor the closed Barisan Nasional, in relation to the split opposition. The size of the constituencies is partially very different, so that a vote has very different weight depending upon constituency. The BN (and before the alliance), under line of the UMNO, governssince more jeher unquestioned, frequently with a majority containing a constitutional amendment. With the elections in March 2004 the government coalition over 90% of the mandates in the parliament received.

System of government

Malaysia is a parliamentary-democratic choice monarchy (constitutional monarchy). The representative head of state is a king, all thisfive years from the numbers of the rulers of the 9 sultanates after the rotation principle one selects. Since that 12. December 2001 is this king Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin.

The head of the government is since that 31. October 2003 Abdullah Ahmad Badawi of thatUMNO.

The parliament (Dewan Rakyat) consists at present of 218 for five years selected delegates. The land meeting (Dewan Negara) has 70 members. The last elections found to 21. March 2004 instead of.

National holiday is the 31. August (independence day 1957).

Administrative arrangement

Major item: Administrative arrangement of Malaysia

national arrangement: 13 Federal States (under it 7 sultanates) and 3 federal territories Wilayah Persekutuan on malaiisch (Kuala Lumpur, the new seat of the government Putrajaya and the island lab SCN). Those as Sultanates of not constituted Federal States (Sabah, Sarawak, Penang and Malakka) are administered governor appointed by one of the centre government.

Economics

economics of Malaysia
source: Economist Intelligence unit
GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT 117,776 millions US$ (2004)
GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (in KKP) 270,052 millions US$ (2004)
GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT per head 4,626 US$ (2004)
GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCTper head (in KKP) 10,606 US$ (2004)
gros domestic product growth 5.2% (2000 to 2004)
demand growth 7.4% (2000 to 2004)
inflation 1.5% (2000 to 2004)
unemployment 4.0%
balance of payments on current account surplus 11.1% (2000 to 2004)

major item: Economics of Malaysia

occupation: Industry (37%), services (47.8%),Agriculture (15.2%)
public expenditures between 1992 and 2000:


Malaysia is a country rich at Bodenschätzen and raw materials ( tin, india rubber, Palmöl, oil). Besidesresident Malaysia the car manufacturers Perodua and proton as well as the oil ölmulti Petronas. Since beginning of the 1980er years took place rapid an industrial development, which let the country move up into the number of the rising” developing countries “and the asiatic” tiger states “. Malaysiais considered economically and politically as one of the sturdiest countries of Southeast Asia, in which the convergence by tradition and modern trend, Islam and capitalism are publicised. By this reorientation the country experienced a fundamental change of a before mehrheitlichen agrarian state to onetechnisierten and capital-intensive industrial site with high Entwicklungspotenzial. The” Asia crisis “arising starting from 1997 met however also Malaysia, but the economy in the meantime again recovered and registers a renewed growth from approximately 5 to 6 per cent. In the year 2001 became for61.2 billion Euro of goods imports and at the same time in the value of 76,1 billion Euro of goods exports. The inflation rate amounted to 2004 approx. 1.3%. The gross domestic product amounted to in the year 2004 4,151 US-$ per inhabitant.

Traffic

railway

Malaysia has more than 2400 kilometersRailroad line, about which only 57 is in standard PUR-width, the remaining in 1000-Millimeter-Spurweite. Railroad lines run exclusively on the malaiischen peninsula, gives international tying up to Thailand in the north and Singapore in the south. About 207 kilometers railroad line are electrified. In Kuala Lumpurwith Kuala Lumpur star Light Rail transit, Kuala Lumpur Putra Light Rail transit, KLIA Ekspres and KLIA CRS and Kuala Lumpur Monorail several rail-bound traffic systems were installed.

Traffic

Malaysia has about 1200 kilometers of motorway approximately 50,000 kilometers of road, of it.Thus the North South Expressway connects for instance the Nordzipfel of Malaysia at the border to Thailand with Johor Bahru at the border to Singapore in the south. While in the centers of dense development the roads are exemplary developed, one finds off the closely settledAreas, particularly in east Malaysia or at the east coast of the malaiischen peninsula, numerous roads without bitumen. Due to the badly removed roads in remote areas of east Malaysia are there water routes and shipping connections particularly meaning.

Water routes

important seas port are in the cities Tanjong Kidurong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Pasir Gudang, Penang, haven Kelang, Sandakan and Tawau. Besides the country has approximately 7200 kilometers of navigable water routes, whereby of it 4000 kilometers are in east Malaysia.

Air traffic

Malaysia, not least because of its Geografie, a very close net at domestic lines has. The national airline of the country is called Malaysia airlines, besides Asia the first cheap airline of Southeast Asia is resident in Kuala Lumpur with air. Malaysia airlines serves numerous airports withinIn addition, Malaysia and Southeast Asia, offers Langstreckenflüge toward Europe and North America. The largest and most important airport of the country is the Kuala Lumpur internationally air haven, it in the year 1998 was opened.

Education

the Alphabetisierungsrate Malaysia is with approximately89 per cent, with men with approximately with 92 per cent, with Mrs. about 86 per cent.

Culture

Hibiskusblüte
Hibiskusblüte

Sport

engine haven

since 1999 is delivered annually on the Sepang internationally Circuit the large price by Malaysia.

Literature

  • Dierk walter, colonial war, global strategy and cold war. The Emergencies in Malaya and Kenya 1948-1960, in: Time-historical research, number 1/2005, also on-line
  • Renate and Stefan Loose, “Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore”, Travel manuals, you Mont travel publishing house, 704 sides, ISBN 3-7701-6117-3 (very detailed and current travel guide)

Web on the left of


coordinates: 1°-7° N, 100°-119° O

 

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