Maldives

ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެޖުމުހޫރިއްޔާ
Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa
Republic of Maldives< /font>
Flagge der Malediven
Wappen der Malediven
(Detail) (detail)
office language Dhivehi
capital Malé
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom
surface 298 km ²
number of inhabitants 349,106 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 1,171 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 2,207 US-$ (2004)
Independence to 26. July 1965
currency 1 Rufiyaa = 100 Laari
time belt UTC +5h
national anthem Gavmii mi ekuverikan matii kuriime salaam Kfz characteristics
mV Internet TLD
tibegen .mv
preselection +960
Die Malediven im Indik und in der Welt
Karte der Malediven

the Republic of Maldives (Divehi Rajjeyge Jumhuriyya) are an island statein the southwest of the south point of India in the Indian ocean and it consists of several atolls and about 2,000 islands about which about 200 is inhabited by native ones and 87 further exclusively for tourists is reserved.

Table of contents

geography

the Maldives are a chain southwest from 19 Inselgruppen in the Indian ocean, from India and Sri Lanka. They extend over 764 kilometers in north south direction to briefly north the equator. The islands are atolls with corral reefs, those the summits of onesurround volcanic mountain chain sunk in the sea. Altogether only about 200 is inhabited of that nearly 2,000 islands.

The nearby barrier-like reefs offer the only protection from sometimes violent eddy towers, which come with the Monsunen. The islands are with palms andBread fruit trees bewachsen and surrounded by sand beaches and clear lagoons.

For travelers important: The Maldives can be differentiated with respect to islands for native ones and islands for tourists. Tourists have only cause admission on native islands; usually this is only in the frameworkled routes “Iceland Hopping” possible. Beyond that one can request a national permission. Such permission is given rarely and under editions.

cities

only the capital is considered as city, in the following the most densely populated islands (conditions counting March 2006):

  1. Malé:104,403 inhabitants
  2. Hithadhoo: 9,407 inhabitants
  3. Fuvammulah: 7,642 inhabitants
  4. Kulhudhuffushi: 7,206 inhabitants
  5. Thinadhoo: 4,453 inhabitants.

See also: List of the cities on the Maldives

climate

the Maldives have in the usually calm Indian ocean invery constantly hot, tropical climate. The temperatures fall even at night rarely under 25 degrees.

The climate coining/shaping are the southwest monsoon from May to Octobers and the northeast monsoon from November to April. The southwest monsoon normally brings in June and July windand more intensive precipitation. As a best travel time the months are considered November until April.

Climaticbark the Maldives
month January February March April MAY June July August September October November December
sun hours/day 8 9 8 7 6 6 6 6 6 5 6 8
temp. at noon in °C 29 29 30 31 31 30 31 30 30 30 29 29
temp. at night in °C 26 26 27 27 27 26 26 26 26 26 26 26
water temp. in °C 27 27 28 29 29 28 28 27 27 28 28 27
days with rain 4 4 7 8 12 10 10 12 12 15 12 12

population

the 298,842 inhabitants (counting March 2006) of the Maldives are Sunni Muslims. Conditionfor the Maldivian nationality is the Muslim Glaubensbekenntnis. The maldivische language, Divehi, resembles Singhalesi, one of the office languages of Sri Lanka. The medical support of the population be based to a large extent on traditional working methods and is insufficient.

history

the settlementthe Maldives took its beginning in 5. Century v. Chr., when buddhistische Fischer from India and the island Ceylon (today's Sri Lanka) on the islands established themselves. In 12. Arab buyers a sultanate established century on thatIslands and introduced the Islam .

In the second half 16. Century tried to establish the Portuguese a constant address on the islands, thereupon it came to a guerrilla war, in which the Portuguese failed. Only in 17. Centuryit created a European country to subject the islands. The Netherlands made from the Maldivian Sultanate of a protectorate, after they had occupied also Ceylon. When the Netherlands Ceylon lost to the British 1796, also the Maldives turned out under BritishInfluence.

From 1887 to 1965 the Maldives were British protectorate.

1932 received the Maldives their first condition from Sultan Mohammed Shamsudeen III. 1942 built the united Kingdom of a military airport on the island Gan. 1953 were proclaimed the republic. Thereupon took overa relative of the Sultans the office for president. After a popular vote however again the sultanate was introduced and Mohammed Farid Didi became again Sultan. Three years later, 1956, received the Maldives internal autonomy, however the united kingdom established further military airports. 1963 gave up to Great Britain the islands, however the right to use at the military airports kept. The Maldives joined the Colombo plan . Two years later became the Maldives independently.

By constitutional amendment 1968 the sultanate into a republic were converted and over 250Years long rule of the Didi terminates.Amir Ibrahim Nasir became state and head of the government. One year later was proclaimed the republic under the name Maldives again. 1972 was separated the offices of the head of state and the head of the government. Three years later that becameOffice head of the government again abolished and the president took over this office.1976 left the British the country finally, since the 30-jährige utilization period of the military airports had run off. the Maldives joined 1982 the Commonwealth . In the capital Malé found 1989 oneinternational conference because of the threat of the islands by the rising sea level instead of.

1972 began the mass tourism on the islands. To 26. Decembers 2004 became numerous settlements and Touristenresorts on the islands by a Flutwelle in consequence of the sea-quake inIndian ocean strongly damages or destroys. Differently than on flat sea ranges the convenient coasts Sri Lankas or India, where Tsunamis their Kraft can develop, most atolls remained exempted from larger destruction.

the heads of state of the Maldives

reign Name life data
1932 - 1953 Sultan Mohammed Shamsudeen III. k.A.
1954 - 1968 Sultan Mohammed Farid Didi 1901 - 1969
1968 - 1978 Amir Ibrahim Nasir 1926 -
1978 - Maumoon Abdul Gayoom 1937 -

politics

In January 1998 a new condition came into force. System of government remained the Präsidialrepublik. The president and head of the government have unrestricted power over the executive. He is selected by an a chamber parliament, the Majilis, on 5 years, that from 50 membersexists, from those 42 selected are assigned and 8 of the president. After the choice the president must place itself still another to popular vote.

On the Maldives there are no parties, although their education is permitted. In addition there are fundamental rights howthe free development of the personality and the free speech within the Islamic rules.

In the Taucherparadies before the coast of India president Abdul Gayyoom prevails since 1978. In the middle of August 2004 was proclaimed the state of emergency on the Maldives. Since then hundreds are humans after demonstrationsagainst the regime of the president in prisons disappeared, says the opposition, which fled long abroad. Among the prisoners are also a former Minister and a prosecutor general, as much admit the government, and both are country-wide well-known Reformer, thosealready for years for division of power and free elections on the Maldives fight.

In July 2003 Amnesty international published a report over the violations of human rights of the regime of president Gayyoom, which governs the Maldives in a totalitarian manner for 26 years. The human right organization accuses that ofRuler of the torture: Prisoners were struck and stepped, them would have to endure for hours in handcuffs bound in the sun. Before court lawyers were refused to them, so Amnesty.

The publishers of the independent Internet magazine “Sandhaan” were condemned because of high treason to life imprisonment, unpleasantPoliticians are just as away closed as religious leaders or artists. At the same time the president builds former military buildings to prisons out on islands far away from the luxury hotels of the tourists.

In September 2003 it came to first mass demonstrations, after three prisonersunder unsettled circumstances in the prison died. President Gayyoom promised reforms, that juridical system should changed, which are extended authority of the parliament.

In June 2005 the delegates of the Majilis were correct unanimously for a request, which was to make the establishment possible of a multiple party system.

Freedom of religionexpressly one excludes.

The island " republic ", whose national territory consists too over 90% of water surfaces and whose land areas do not rise predominantly no more than one meter over NN sea level, is from the world-wide “climatic change” strongly threatened. Logically representatives of the Maldives government at everyone takeWorld climate conference part, in order to use itself for the protection of the terrestrial atmosphere.

administration

the 26 atolls of the Maldives with altogether 1192 islands are into 20 districts divided. They are administered by the atoll bosses, who are appointed by the president. ThatDistrict around the capital Malé stands under direct administration of the government.

general

to economics

[work on] to the poorest countries in the world, although some restaurant economics, particularly the tourism, develop fast. The gross national product (BSP) 1997 321.55 millions amounted to Dollar and the BSP/Einwohner 1,180 dollar.

agriculture

main cultivation cultures of the agrarian sector are millet, Maniok and sweet potatoes. Coconuts are collected for the food and Kopra - production. The fishing, in particular of Thunfisch and Bonito, is the traditional support of the island economy. To the vital imported goods, particularly from India, belong food (rice), building and industrial goods and fuels to the energy production. Many of the merchandise intended for the tourism enterprises come even by air freight from farfrom South Africa or the USA, because the nearer-lying food producers in Sri Lanka cannot supply allegedly in constant quality.

foreign workers

many of the employee jobs, of hotel managers, architects up to Wellness responsible persons are occupied for lack of own qualified workers of foreigners.Being able lacking becomes however frequently balanced with smile and friendliness. Barkeeper on the tourist islands come from Sri Lanka and other countries and are buddhistischen faith. Since the Maldives are an Islamic state, Malediver may not sell and pour out alcohol andthus on the bar do not work.

to public expenditures

between 1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for

infrastructure

only inthe capital there are Malé, on the Addu atoll and the island Fuvamullah to roads and cars. Vehicles have a small meaning, since one travels with ships or increasingly with water airplanes of the Maldivian air taxi preferentially. Bicycles and mopeds are also muchliked, because it is not worth itself for many to drive on the small islands car.

The only international airport is on the island Hulhumalé (formerly Hulule), only few kilometers far away from the capital. Besides there are many regional airports. Thoselongest road (asphalts and with cars passably) goes from Hithadhoo to Gan in the Addu atoll. Three islands connected by dams are crossed.

environmental protection

each routistic used island operates mandatorily its own incineration plant and own sea water desalination plants. To itneeded river with Diesel generators is produced. Metal and plastic wastes are collected and deposited at the garbage island Thila Fushi.

In order to receive the orientation by nature attractiveness for tourists, one issued strict rules. In former times traditionally for the building of houses of the inhabitants usedKorallen may not not be used, since they are threatened by Korallenbleiche anyway e.g., any more. Only 20 per cent of an island may be cultivated, no building may than the highest palm be higher.

education

religious one and lay schoolsensure the basic education. On the islands there are also high schools. However otherwise the average education degree is rather small.

gallery

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Wiktionary: Maldives - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 1°S -7°N, 72°-74° O

 

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