Painting

of these articles is concerned with the painting as screen end art. For the skilled trade of the painter see: Painter (occupation)

the painting ranks apart from architecture, the sculpture, graphics and the design among the classical kinds that Forming art.

Table of contents

to prehistory

the oldest certification of the painting are the cave painting with animal representations from the last ice age and/or. the Jungpaläolithikum.

Painting and design, in addition, relief and plastics are as artistic styles from the time of before 35.000 to 10,000 years admits. European Höhlenmalerein are particularly well-known from Spain and France. The murals in the cave of Lascaux in Southern France were discovered 1940. The motives for animal, cattle, deer, Horses and bulls are represented in impressing way and belong to the oldest well-known painting of mankind. Also made of Africa, Asia and Australia early rock painting is well-known.

us the painting

meets antiquity and antique one of latein the Orient (starting from 10.000 v. Chr.) and in Egypt (starting from 3.000 v. Chr.) as Wandmalerei, on Crete (2,000 v. Chr.) as Freskomalerei.

In the 3.Jh. n. Chr. calls the Greek writer Philostratos the painting an invention of the Gods(Eikones 1). By these and other statements of antique authors it is testified that the painting was particularly highly respectable already in the antique one. More highly even than the sculpture, since the painting possessed the advantage of the close-to-reality imitation, as well as in the conditions was,to make possible a broader telling spectrum. Today this is hardly still comprehensible, since only very meager remainders of the antique painting kept. This comes along that as image carrier mainly wood was used, further stone, clay/tone and stucco. The use ofIvory, glass and canvas hardly arise. In the antique literature Plinius functions as main source for the different techniques of the antique painting. For this referred 35 is or also on Vitruv , de architectura 7,7-14 to its work naturalis historia.

the Enkaustik or the Temperatechnik application found mark techniques for painting of wood. With the Enkaustik functioned warm wax as bonding agent. The warm or cooled off emulsion could be laid on afterwards with brushes or metal devices. This technology is by far more aufwändiger, however one achieves a longer durability and a higher gloss of the colors by her. With the Temperatechnik however the Farbpigmente with a water-soluble material become, z. B. Egg, and oil and/or. Fat blends. There wood as well known very easilyweathered and only under certain conditions keeps, we have archaeological certifications from this range hardly.

The Temperatechnik is used also with stone. Modern attempts showed that one can lead the brush on a smoothed marble surface very easily andthus a very good mark result to be obtained can. On rough surfaces other stone places, like z. B. Porously or limestone, only or occasionally also several layers stucco or chalk reason had to be applied, in order to adjust the surface.

On clay/tone became usuallywith fuelfirm Erdfarben and/or. Tonschlicker painted, in rarer cases also with multicolored opaque colors. Into this materials group the large quantity of painted ceramic(s), also vases falls mentioned, from Italian vaso, the container. Here are the schwarzfigurige and the rotfigurige vase painting toodifferentiated. The schwarzfigurige painting developed in archaischer time and as the first of the Korinthi workshops was used. Only starting from the center 6. Jh. v. Chr. became Athens the prominent industrial centre of the schwarzfigurigen vases. With this technology become alsoa brush the ornamentalen and figürlichen representations with black Tonschlicker on the container applied. The Binnengliederung was afterwards scratched with pointed equipment. The container was only then placed to the fire into the furnace. The rotfigurige technology comes into Athensapproximately around 530 v. Chr. up and the schwarzfigurige technology displaces increasingly. Here now the reverse principle is pursued. The container is covered with black gloss clay/tone, whereby the ornamentations and figures remain left blank. The Binnenzeichnung can be painted thus instead ofscratched, therefore a softer, more organic body against gift of the figures is possible.

With the Wandmalerei Kalkmörtel in several, ever more finely becoming layers was laid on and formed the mark reason for the following color order. The surface was for this smoothed and thereupon the pure orwith bonding agents shifted color on the damp finery laid on. As bonding agents are delivered to us marble flour, Kasein or loam water. Due to the chemical reactions during the drying process a kind sintering of the surface was caused, which to a particularly durable connection of the colorswith the mark reason led. This version of the color order is called aluminium fresco, since damp finery forms the underground. One paints however on dry finery, this technology is called aluminium secco.

colors

due to the small quantity ofto archaeological certifications the Farbenspektrum of the antique ones can be reconstructed only very insufficient. In addition it is to be observed that the colors red and blue kept best. Helpfully here the modern techniques, those by material analyses, are UV beside antique sources of writingand touching light photographs a view of the antique color world to give can. From these sources it is well-known that Farbpigmente could be artificially manufactured naturally, as well as. As material functioned mineral and Erdfarben, vegetable, animal substances, but z. B. also zerstossenes glass toProduction of the color blue. As previously mentioned, colors could be laid on purely, in addition, mixed. Likewise several dye films could be applied one above the other.

Greek painting

source situation

the archaeological certifications of the Greek painting cover, as already mentions above, onlyfew examples. Sources of writing call us the names of important artists, as well as the topics of their most important works of art. Sometimes even attachment places are delivered to us. We have visual certifications mainly from the sepulkralen context, as well as by reflections from other kinds or epochs. Figürlich paintedVases or mosaics can help in limited measure to close conclusions on the missing painting. Here caution is required, since it to changes or reorganizations can have come due to the different kinds. One may not thus with a original-faithful copya painting count!

Examples

after the fall of the minoisch mykenischen culture with its qualityful Freskomalerei (z. B. Knossos) set the Greek Wandmalerei only again in 8. Jh. v. Chr. . Pinakes, painted Tontäfelchen form the earliest certifications, became in 8.– 6. Jh. v. Chr. in larger quantities manufactured and than Weihegeschenke in Heiligtümern uses. This rectangular Täfelchen is reduced in its function to the image field and reflects clearly the invention of the board painting again. A wooden example of this kind hasitself only from that 6. Jh. v. Chr. received and in a cave, close Korinth was found, which was geweiht the Nymphen. On these four Holztäfelchen a Weiheinschrift and a colored painted victim scene are represented (I. Scheibler, Greek painting inthe antique ones (1994) fig. 40).

Clay/tone boards found also as Verkleidungsplatten or Metopen on buildings, z. B. Temples, use. In 7. Jh. v. Chr. on stone was also already painted, where after well-known source situation, both outlining and Binnenzeichnung, and mono chromecalm surfaces were used. Grossfigurige of certifications of the Greek painting in larger measure in graves kept, which remained mainly in the peripheral areas of the Greek world. The Greek grave painting affected the sepulkralen range Unteritaliens in large extent andEtruriens. A good example for this forms the Tomba del Tuffatore in Paestum, around 480 the v. Chr. dated. The bloom time of the Greek painting is testified us mainly by the Macedonian chamber graves. In Vergina is the grave of PhilippII., on whose front a vielfiguriger Jagdfries is shown. In the brightism wins far group to meaning, the Wandmalerei of the residential architecture. Since that 5. Jh. v. Chr. became for example in [[Pella (Macedonia) |]], Priene or Delos the wallsin the so-called. Brick-work style with partial figürlichen or ornamentalen Friesen shifts.

The topics of the representing oriented itself at the intended purpose and attachment place of the painting. With respect to Greece one can differentiate four large ranges:

  • Heiligtümer: Architecture twisting run gene, Votive, Kultbiler etc.
  • private buildings: Painting in houses,painted statues etc.
  • public buildings: stoai, z. B. stoa the poikile (multicolored resounds) in Athens, where a painting cycle with four battles was appropriate
  • graves: Grave-added, painted fronts, Sarkophage etc.

Roman painting

source situation

the number and alsothe kind of the archaeological certifications of the Roman painting differ substantially from the Greek painting. With the Roman certifications the large group of the Wandmalerei dominates, whereby it is obvious a Roman phenomenon and not only to coincidence of the excessive quantity situation.Pliniusdeplored in its naturalia historia 35, 118 the clear change from the board to the Wandmalerei. Roman artist names are mentioned in by far smaller number in the sources of writing than their Greek counterparts, whereby the occupation of painter might have quite been considered as outstanding. Inlaterepublican time were often Greek-eastern painters, probably usually as slaves, for Roman clients active. They were not more trained only than their Roman colleagues, but also with the Greek style trusts, which was particularly popular at that time.

Examples

for the officialRepresentation art of the Roman realm counts the history painting. At present the change of 4. to the 3. Jh. v. Chr. developed, it is understandable only by literary references and by a small number of reflexes in the September joke ral art. These pictures showed scenesfrom won wars, conquered cities, peoples with their rulers, as well as maps with drawn in theaters defeated. These, probably by the majority board pictures, could to be carried in triumph courses and the people at the victory of the respective Imperators very closely sharings leave. Literary sources paint thoseoriginal-faithful would show the represented persons and scenes out. With the earliest received example of this group it acts around a Freskofragment out of the Fabiergrab of the Esquilin in Rome. Here it concerns a part of a large picture cycle of theearly 3. Jh. v. Chr. with representations from the SAM rivet wars (R. Ling, novel painting (1991) fig. 6) In four received registers to the Roman virtues one refers, virtus and fides populi Romani.

As the second example is now on thoseKind of the Portraitmalerei referred, which played an important role in the Roman ancestor cult. The Portraits was painted on wood, canvas, glass and stucco. In emperor-temporal Egypt the old-worthy custom of mummifying was connected with the desire for Roman self-manifestation. Individually lookingPortraits were painted on timber panels and put in place of the Egyptian dead masks on the face of the mummified deceased. In Fayum, a large oasis in the Libyan desert, the largest amount of that us meanwhile 1000 admitted Mumienportraits found. By thatoutstanding the pieces are kept dry desert climate, whereby it is made possible to study and analyze the Polychromie and also the mark techniques sufficiently.


The today's knowledge of the antique painting predominantly originates from the find situation of the Wandmalereien of the buried Vesuvstädte Herculaneum and Pompeji. This excessive quantity situation affected the research very strongly. 1882 published August Mau its „history of the decorativen Wandmalerei in Pompeji “, where he divided those for at that time well-known Wandmalereien into four large styles. „The four pompeianischen styles “become over thoseBorders Pompejis for the entire Roman Wandmalerei to 79 n. Chr. used.

  • 1. Style: Incrustationsstil, brick-work style

this Roman version of the Greek brick-work style (see Delos) imitates essentially monumental ashlar masonry by colored painting, cutting or plastic organization with stucco.

  • 2.Style: Architectural style

here will become at the beginning of still material, buildable architecture copied, the walls increasingly broken and releases „architecture windows “. In the advancement it comes to several levels, which depth effect of architecture front and background in strengthened. In the latePhase the architectural elements, like columns, become elbows, column etc. ever more thinned out, did not become buildable out of touch with reality and any longer. In addition the walls are again increasingly closed and one tended again to two-dimensionality.

  • 3. Style: Ornamentaler style

the walls are nowcompletely closed and in two dimensions arranged with mono chrome painted color surfaces in the colors black, red and white. Volumes, lines and architectural elements divide the surfaces into zones. The central zones can carry framed film gates, for example with mansion landscapes or mythologischen scenes.

  • 4. Style: thatlast pompejanische style

in 4. Style the achievements of the four styles are into one another united. Into those horizontal and vertically separated walls are trained decoration volumes, free-floating Medaillons and image fields. The architectural elements win volumes, are clearly more plastic represented. Luxuriös andrichly arranged ornamentations with light shade effect lend a altogether rich and more real effect.

Those opinion frequently which can be read, the bloom time of the römsichen painting would have gone with the fall of the Vesuvstädte to end, is hardly founded to be proven. Also after the year 79n. Chr. still qualityful painting was in many places found. However these certifications from different parts of the Roman realm are and to arrange, further not yet as sufficiently chronologically often difficult worked on as the pompejanische painting. Like already the 4. Styleshowed, became also after 79 n. Chr. the well-known representation repertoire further used and again connected. Also in late ancient times artful painting is proven, one thinks only of the Katakombenmalerei.

antique Polychromie in the change of the time

thatArt agent of king Ludwig I., Martin of Wagner, bereiste on behalf the king in the year 1812 an auction around those found Giebelskulpturen of the Aphaia temple of Ägina for the Glyptothek from Munich to to evenly only acquire. After detailed view described itthe condition of the sculptures and closes on any painting. Further he notices that the colors withstood the influences of the weather differently for a long time. The Glyptothek had been splendourful equipped by Leo of Klenze, whereby walls, Gesimse, marble base etc. were colored calm.Numerous opponents meant, who would impair colored equipment the effect of the sculptures and exhibits, but were the consciousness of the antique Polychromie already available. King Ludwig I. became the driving Kraft in the attempt to revive the Polychromie of architecture. Thus leftit for example establish 1836 a small, colored seized round temp moose in English garden. But here, as also with other polychromen attempts the color peeled rapidly. The stone was again brightly, there a durable bonding agent against the weather not found residents of Munichwill could. John Gibson was colored reconstructed first, that 1851-56 a marble sculpture, „tinted the Venus “in the Walker kind Gallery in Liverpool. Here the technology of the wax painting used around lips, eyes, hair, garb and also the skin toosound.

In the second half 19. Jh. became Dresden the center of the argument with the antique Polychromie. The director of the Dresdens sculpture collection, George faithful, represented vehement its opinion that the antique sculptures would have been completely colored calm. It leftGypsum castings of sculptures make, which were then painted by artists. However it does not concern here reconstructions, since no color remainder had remained more on the sculptures. One oriented oneself at colored Terrakotten and other marble sculptures with received color remainders.However it is to be owed faithful that the view of the antique Polychromie was spread and in the public understanding for it was waked. Around the turn of the century one was meanwhile reliably that antique sculptures were painted, one discussed itself now, like thesePainting had looked. Were formed several parties, whose opinions between the absolute endorsement of the total Polychromie reached up to the complete refusal.

For antique painting Adolf Furtwängler, the director at that time of the Glyptothek won, fundamental realizations. After thatthe interest in this topic lost itself the First World War. During the Second World War the Glyptothek was strongly destroyed, whereby only more witnessed some few water colors of their appearance at that time. The today's Glyptothek promotes the effect of the marble sculptures by the smallColor contrasts and by the free list of the sculptures. Almost all colored reconstructions, which are today issued, were reconstructed by Vinzenz Brinkmann. Of 16. 12. 2003 to 29. 2. 2004 found one in the national antique collections and the Glyptothek MunichExhibition with the title „multicolored Gods. The coloredness antique sculpture “instead of. Who did not have the luck the exhibition to visit, is to the bibliography and referred the catalog.

Even if we stand today before the colored reconstructed sculptures, is it still extremely unusually to imagine the coloredness of antique sculptures. The picture of the white, shining temples and sculptures is still in our heads prevailing, even if we know it better.

illustrations to the article

the Middle Ages

the board painting as painting on independent mark underground such as timber panel or late canvas, developed only in the Middle Ages. The European painting was in the Middle Ages,the clients accordingly, almost exclusively religiously coined/shaped. It came to painting of churches and monasteries and to the decoration of Kirchenchören and devotion chapels with altarpieces. Other Sujets such as Portrait, category pictures, landscape painting or quiet life came only in the late Middle Ages and intothe Renaissance painting in addition.

from the Renaissance to the baroque

an important development took the painting in the Renaissance with the lasting advancement of the techniques of the oil painting, to the Zentralperspektive, the representation of allegorischer motives of the antique ones andduring the stress of individual characters in the people representation with help of the knowledge of anatomy.

January van Eyck (around 1390-1441) created for the first time independent portraits and Portraits; Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) painted 1493 first admitted autonomous Selbstbildnis in Europe; Albrecht of old villages (over1480-1538) made as first painters the landscape the main topic.

Above all the Italian painting of the high Renaissance in the cities Florenz, Venice and Rom brought important realistic works of the painters to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Michelangelo (1475-1564), Raffael (1483-1520) and Tizian(1477-1576) out, those in perspective, form, color, expression strength and pictorial brilliance are example-giving and the screen end art of Europe until today lastingly affected.

In 17. Numerous Netherlands painters quiet lives painted century; January sea (1632-1675) was at the same time inMaster of the Vedutenmalerei (opinion of Delft, 1661).

A privileged position takes the baroque painter rem Brandt (1606-1669) and its painting singular in psychological style, light arrangement and colour, who apply until today as unsurpassed.

modern times

In den Braith-Mali-Ateliers
in the Braith Mali studios
With the arising of the photography the painting saw itself confronted with new challenges and tasks, those not without influence on their development in 19. Century remained. To center 19. Century developed the pictures predominantly in artist studios. The Braith Mali museum in Beaver oh to the tear beherbegt such original studios. This function applies also to the present. With the French painters of the Impressionismus however the free light painting begins. To this direction Camille Pissarro ( 1830-1903) belong, to Èdouard Manet (1832-1883), Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Paul Cézanne (1839-1906), Alfred Sisley (1839-1899), Claude Monet (1840-1926), Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) and Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919). Paul Cézanne can already, as in certain measure also Vincent van Gogh and Edvard Munch, when Wegbereiter of the modern trend are designated. Straight Cézannes of works marks thatTransition, he solves nevertheless increasingly from the rendition of the reality and turns to the the subject of the painting, form and color.

Important style directions of the modern painting of the first half 20. Century are the abstract painting, the Kubismus, the Dadaismus, the Surrealismus and the Russian avant-garde with important artists such as André the Paquet, Mark Chagall, El Lissitzky, Mikhail Fjodorowitsch Larionow, Natalija Sergejewna Gontscharowa and Wassily Kandinsky lastingly on the entire art inEurope and world-wide worked. National characteristics are the expressionism (Germany), the Futurismus (Italy), the Kubo Futurismus constructionalism and the Suprematismus (Russia) as well as the Vortizismus (England). An important characteristic for the art of dier modern trendis the abstract painting, which developed within different style directions. Further important style directions 20. Century are it Tachismus to a large extent and after 1950 the Informel. The American Abstract Painting and the minimum kind must as originally US-American art trends thatsecond half 20. Century to be regarded. The Pop kind outgoing from Great Britain experienced in particular in the USA its high points. Parallel developed Fluxus, happening and performance. Apart from all these currents also a modern realism developed,exemplarily for that photo realism stands.

Often the end of the painting was proclaimed already hastily. That happened z. B. in view of of minimum kind and concept art, to finally „ the new wild ones “and/or. „Boy wild one “into the 1980ern thoseArt scene conquered and again one Renaissance of the painting introduced, e.g. with the famous, commercially very successful post office-modern materialists („capitalistic realism “) and irony core Gerhard judges and Sigmar Polke. At the beginning 21. Century maintains ground the painting beside manyother art forms (including digital media, space installation, video art) - causes also by an art market, which requires further for (representative) relating to crafts manufactured board pictures for its customers - further as contemporary artistic medium. It stands for a demand for allegedly„Authenticity “and the figure of the artist genius.

The painting further many young - rather again realistically, gegenständlich painting - artists used up themselves (see: New Leipziger school).

Legendary painters such as Kasimir Malewitsch, Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), Piet Mondrian(1872-1944) the painting 20 has. Century artistically crucially coined/shaped.

Important painters after 1945 are beside many different: Andy be-get, Robert noise mountain, franc Stella, bar-nicely Newman, Jasper John, Asger Jorn, George Baselitz, Jörg Immendorff, Sigmar Polke, Martin Kippenberger, Albert Oehlen, Gerhard judge, wolf Vostell.

literature

  • H. Blümner, technology and terminology of the trades and arts with Greeks and Romans 3 (1884) 159-187
  • V. Brinkmann(Hrsg.), multicolored Gods. An exhibition of the national antique collections and Glyptothek Munich, 16.12.2003-29.2.2004 (2003)
  • V. Brinkmann, the Polychromie of the archaischen and earlyclassical sculpture (2003)
  • V. Manzelli, La policromia nella statuaria greca arcaica (1994)
  • H. Mielsch, Roman Wandmalerei (2001)
  • I. Scheibler, Greek one Painting of the antique ones (1994)
  • Monika Trümper in: T. To Höl, classical archaeology basic knowledge (2002) 277-292

see also

Wikiquote: Painting - quotations
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)