Mali

of these articles treats the State of Mali. For further meanings of Mali see Mali (term clarifying).
République you Mali
Republic of Mali
Flagge Malis
Wappen Malis
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: Un peuple, un but, une foi
(frz.for „a people,A goal, a faith “)

office language French
capital Bamako
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Amadou Toumani Touré
prime minister Ousmane Issoufi Maïga
surface 1.240.192 km ²
number of inhabitants 12.291.529 (S 2005)
population density of 10 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 367 US-$ (2004)
independence from France to 22. September 1960
Currency CFA franc (XOF)
time belt UTC
national anthem Pour l'Afrique et pour toi, Mali
Kfz characteristic RMM
Internet TLD .ml
preselection +223
life expectancy 48.6 years (conditions 2005)
Alphabetisierungsrate 35.5% (conditions 1999)
HDI 0.375 (conditions 1999)
Karte von Afrika, Mali hervorgehoben
Karte Malis

Mali (dt.: [ˈmaːli]; frz.: [maˈli]) since 1960 a state independent of France is in west Africa and borders in the north on Algeria and Mauritania, in the west at Senegal, in the east at the Niger and in the south at Burkina Faso and the Ivory Coast. Thoseformer colony the French Sudan has an important portion on the seeing era, as well as of Sahel and the Sudan. Mali is considered to the poorest as successful example of a democratization in Africa, is nevertheless one and to few developed countries in the world. ThatNational name Mali was selected following the medieval large realm of the same name. In the native language Bambara is Mali in addition the word for the coat of arms animal of the country: the Nilpferd.

Table of contents

geography

Mali exists to two thirds from desert. The country hasPortion of seeing era, Sahelzone and the large landscape the Sudan. The northern national half becomes from a Ausläufer of the Algerian Ahaggar - massif towers above. That pulls the southern and central part through the Niger in broad low countries. Between Ségou and Timbuktu that forms the Nigera large being end airworthiness directive - the Massina. The climate zones reach from the tropical-damp Sudan climate to the desert climate of the seeing era. Accordingly the yearly precipitation decreases from over 1,000 mm in the south on less than 100 mm in the north. Every now and then the rainfalls remainout for many years. The vegetation consists in the south of Feuchtsavanne (with gallery forests at the river courses), which changes northward into Dornbuschsavanne; half desert finally follows and the saharische desert belt.

climate

Mali is not only one of the poorest countries,it also partly lies in climatically unfavorable areas. That applies particularly to the north, which differs partly strongly from the southern half. The north is colder and in the summer warmer in the winter than the south. There fallsalso less rain, which the probability of dry become clearly larger leaves. Besides in the south of Mali more agriculture one operates.

north half

the north is warmer by the larger proximity to the equator clearly than European countries, points however inJanuary temperatures from 10 to 20°C up. In July even temperatures of over 30°C prevail, partly also over 35°C. It falls however only little rain. The yearly precipitation is attached in the north point with under 20 mm and to the centernevertheless only 20 to 250 mm, which has as a consequence, which prevails here a fully arid climate (precipitation is smaller for 10 to 12 months in the year than the evaporation). Accordingly the probability of dry is very high. The extremeDrynesses and heat lead probably to which is cultivated in this area nothing or hardly something. The landscape is here wild similar.

south half

differently looks it in the south of the country. There it is in January rather warmer.Thus the temperature rises here to 20 to 25°C, only rarely over 25°C. In the summer it is however only slightly warmer. Thus to a large extent 25 to 30°C, to the center prevails also up to 35°C and to the south partly in Julyonly 20°C to 25°C.Auch the precipitation are clearly larger than in the north half. They lie with over 250 mm in the center and up to 2000 mm yearly precipitation in the south of Mali. Accordingly also the number of the months is in thatthe precipitation smaller is smaller than possible evaporation with 10 until under 6 months than in the north and concomitantly the probability of dry. Here also agriculture is operated. In the entire south half millet , Maniok , becomes Jams, sweetpotatoes and leguminous plants for the internal requirement cultivated and in the proximity of the river the Niger one cultivates partly also to rice. In the agriculture surface at parts around the Niger also peanuts and cotton are cultivated. The south half of Mali divides intothree regions. On the one hand the center, with a Dornensavanne, far south then the Trockensavanne and among them in the south of Mali a Feuchtsavanne.

population and languages

the population of Mali sit down out approx. 30 different Ethnien together,among other things Bambara (with 30% main population), Malinké, Fulani (Fulbe, Peulh), Sarakolé (Maraka), Songhai, Soninké, Bobo, Bozo, Minianka, Senufo, Dogon, Khassonké, Tuareg, Mauren, Dioula, which are characterised by different languages and cultureslive together and peacefully. The inhabitants of the Sudan zone accepted the Islam by the contact with the North African Muslims already promptly mostly as religion. At the same time existed beside it the native faith forms further. Today the population of Mali in the consciousness of their rich past lives,in the songs of the Griots and numerous stories lives on. Over 90% of the population Muslims , who live particularly in the north, in the south are against it live about 8% trailers of the Animismus and approximately 1.8% Christian.

54% thatMalian population are illiterates, only about two thirds have entrance to fresh drinking water. The average life expectancy is at 45 years. The gross national product per head is with only about 192 euro.

Apart from the office language French, however usually only asForeign language is spoken, gives it in Mali numerous native languages:Bambara, Fulani or Songhai. Several of these languages are understood about many Maliern.

In the north of Mali it came in the past more frequently to conflicts with the there domestic Nomaden, the Tuareg.

religion

the Islam is with 90% the most common religion in Mali; 8%animistische religions practice to the population. Catholics and Protestanten constitute a portion of 2%. The support of Muslim countries makes a modest economic growth possible. The large mosque of Djenné is one of the largest loam buildings of the world and ranks among the most famousAnd one explained to buildings of Africa from the UNESCO in the year 1988 together with the old part of town Djennés to the world cultural heritage.

history

major item: History of Mali

Mali was from the 11. Century until 1893 an Islamic large realm. 1893 became it with thatConquest of Timbuktu under the name the French Sudan for the colony of France. Its independence from France attained Mali to 22. September 1960, which is considered since that time as national holiday.

After independence Mali was an a party state, 1968 putschte itself general Moussa Traoréto power, 1991 came it to unrests to democratic reforms and a condition were then created. 1992 became Dr. Alpha Oumar Konaré to the president selected. The choice 2002 won Amadou Toumani Touré, however was the election turnout with approx.30% very small.

administrative arrangement

the state is divided into eight regions and the capital district.

See also: Regions in Mali, list of the cities in Mali

economics

agriculture

little thantwo per cent of the national surface used as field, at the same time employs the agriculture however approximately 80% of the employed persons population. In the areas of the rivers the Niger and Senegal as well as the 600 mm of ISO line agriculture is southern as flooding, irrigation, and building of rain fields possible. To the main cultivation products belong peanut, corn, Sorghum as well as cotton.

Due to the amount of precipitation of 600 mm in the year, which, the more north one comes, exists a harvest risk decreases. The cultivation zones become however by those Population explosion the far over drying border expanded. North the 600 mm of ISO line, within the range of the 200-mm-Jahresniederschlages wheat as well as green fodder are cultivated. South the 600 mm ISO line is a zone with 700 to 1,900 mm yearly precipitation and thus larger harvest security.

traditional restaurant ways in Mali

the traditional restaurant form are the building of moving chopping. One cultivates usually up to the soil exhaustion, which occurs after 3-5 years. In former times this country lay 10-20 years fallow, before it was again managed. This time hasuntil today ever continues to shorten. Reasons for this are the population growth and the possession structure: with most trunks each master member has requirement on a piece country. In addition rain field farmers in the area of Mali put on more fields, than in favour years for self-supplywould be actually necessary. Both favour locations and less fruitful fields are ordered.

A first group of these fields, which is not been on favour locations, is ordered after the first precipitation with different arable crops of different vegetation periods.

This strategy leads to the fact thatin favorable years with sufficient precipitation the Ernteerträge are high and in years of drought nevertheless still on small yields to count are. This minimizing the risk leads by a large culture land use to an increase of the Desertifikationsgefahr.

There the storage of several years of the yield surplus, will the alternative is traditionally usual to intensively manage only favour locations in Ungunstjahren similar yields to obtain, favour year however around some more modestly would fail. This would represent an aggravation of risk for the farmers. This traditional kind of the land use is deepin the population verwurzelt.

to public expenditures

between 1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for

sees also

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Mali - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Mali - pictures, videos and/or audio files



coordinates: 10°-25° N, 12°W- 4°E

literature

  • yard Meier, Rolf Mehler, Andreas: Africa yearbook 2003. Politics, economics and society in Africa south the seeing era. Vs-publishing house, 2004.
  • Lauber, Wolfgang: Architecture of the Dogon. Traditional loam construction and art in Mali. Prestel, 1998.
  • Schutyser, Sebastian/flag, Inge-borrowDecember here, Jean: Loam mosques in Mali. Junius publishing house, 2003.
  • Vollertsen, Rolf: Where the drops fall or “Bissimila, ce koroba!” - Notes from and over Mali. Nuremberg, 1993.
  • Wagner, refuge Günter: Road construction in Mali (Gourma) as development instrument. Economiceconomics consequences for traditional Überlebensökonomien. -Geography, volume 42, 1988, S. 214 - 224.
  • Waterkamp, Rainer: Mali. In the spell of the Sahel. 1991.
 

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