Malta

of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Malta (term clarifying).
Repubblika ta' Malta (paints.)
Republic of OF Malta (English)
Republic of Malta< /font>
Flagge Maltas: Auf der linken Hälfte weißer Grund, auf der rechten Hälfte roter Grund. In der linken, oberen Ecke das Georgskreuz Georgskreuz
(Detail) (detail)
office languages Maltese, English
capital Valletta
system of government Republic of
head of state Edward Fenech Adami
head of the government Lawrence Gonzi
surface 316 km ²
number of inhabitants 398,534 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 1261 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 11,537 US-$ (2004)
currency Maltese Lira
currency symbol £, ISO-4217-Code: MTL
time belt UTC +1
national anthem L-Innu Malti
(“contactor it, oMr. ")
Kfz characteristic M
internet TLD .mt
preselection +356
Lage von Malta in Europa
Karte Maltas

the Republic of Malta (Maltese: Repubblika ta' Malta), is the smallest European island state. The Maltese archipelago distributes itself on the three inhabited islands Malta (about 246 km ²), Gozo (Maltese Għawdex,about 67 km ²) and Comino (Kemmuna, about 3 km ²) as well as on the uninhabited islands Cominotto (Kemmunett), Filfla (Filfola) and pc. Pauls Iceland. The Hauptinsel Malta is arranged into five districts, for Gozo and Comino forms together sixth. The nameMelite “comes from the punischen name for place of refuge „paints “, the Romans called the islands „.

Malta became to 21. September 1964 independently of Great Britain. Since that 1. May 2004 is Malta member of the European union.

Table of contents

islands are appropriate for infrastructure

6

economics 7 culture

7,1 bird hunt

7,2 world cultural heritage 7,3 Malta in the Mediterranean between Libya(360 km) and Sicily (90 km) at the eastern end of the road of Sicilies. The three largest islands Malta (about 315 km ²), Gozo (67 km ²) and Comino (3 km ²) are inhabited. The islands are remainders of an old land connection between Africa andEurope, by that about 11,000 v. Chr. sea rise begun one interrupted. The highest collection are the Dingli Cliffs with 245 m over N.N.

climate

the climate is subtropical (Mediterranean climate) with temperatures between 12 and 26 °Cas well as an annual average temperature of approximately 19 °C. The annual precipitation sum is somewhat more than 500 mm; of it falls more than half in the months from November to January. Malta has about 300 sun days in the year. The island gave theirNames also Malta or Mediterranean fever (lat.Brucellose).

water occurrence

Malta has only meager fresh water occurrences. According to data of the UN it is the water-poorest country in the world. From this reason meanwhile the potable water supply from four reverse osmosis plants becomes(Sea water desalination plants) and an industrial water dressing plant guaranteed. The irrigation of the public plants and the agriculture takes place however via caught rain water and groundwater well.

cities

the largest cities are (conditions 1. January 2005): Birkirkara of 21,676 inhabitants, Qormi of 18,230 inhabitants, Mosta 17,789 inhabitants Zabbar of 15,030 inhabitants, Victoria of 12,914 inhabitants and San Gwann of 12,346 inhabitants. The capital Valletta has 7,173 inhabitants and is thereby the smallest capital of an European Union country.

See also: List of the cities in Malta

population

major item: Population of Malta

the total number of inhabitants of Malta amounts to about 400.000. Since the surface of Malta is relatively small, results a very high population density, which is with 1.260 persons per square kilometer. Thus Malta has the sixth-highest population density of the world. 92 per cent of humanslive in the city.

Approximately Maltese nationality, of it about half of the British is not counted four per cent of humans living on Malta, thus on the total population two per cent.

Many Malteser spend their working life abroad - prefers in the English-languageArea - and return as pensioners to Malta.

Gozo and Comino: Gozo has about 30,000 inhabitants and Comino of four permanent inhabitants. On Comino two policemen in the summer additionally live a tenant married couple of the hotel plant and.

religion

thoseMajority of the Maltese population (98%) is Roman catholic. Besides there are only some few Lutheraner, orthodox ones and Jews. The Islamic community insists essentially out on Malta living Libyern. The catholic church has a strong influenceon the Maltese policy, then for example divorces are forbidden and abortion are punishable. There are 365 catholic churches in Malta; due to this fact Malteser often say, they would have a church for each day in the year. The catholicism is in thatCondition as religion of the Maltese people embodies.

language and writing

major item: The Malteser

its own language has Maltese language defiance of the small total population. Maltese ranks among the semitischen languages and from an Arab dialect developed.In addition, larger vocabulary portions from the Italian as well as smaller from the Spanish, French and English language appear in the Maltese one. As only semitische language Maltese latin uses characters (excluded Y) extended by the four special charactersċ, ġ, ħ and ż.

Due to the long crew time of the British however nearly all Malteser controls also English, to a large extent also the 1934 as court and administrative language abolished Italian.

history

satellite photograph Malta with Gozo and Comino

Major item: Traces

thousands of years of an old history are history of Malta on the islands of the Republic of Malta. They reach from the first monumental stone-temporal temple plants over Roman graves and Katakomben to the weir systems of the Malteserordens. Malta stood under thatInfluence of many cultures. In the course of the centuries controlled Phönizier, Greeks and Romans the island. In 9. Century, when the islands belonged to the Byzantine realm, was conquered the Inselgruppe by the Arabs. In the 11. The islands went to century at Siciliesand 1282 at Spain. 1530 gave the Spanish king the islands at Malteserorden and not the Balley Brandenburg, from which the Johanniterorden developed later. The medal of the holy Johannes to Jerusalem to Rhodos and to Malta (in former times also as Hospitalierdesignated) the island made usable and successfully defended it against osmanische attacks (the large FE storage, 1565). As their consequence 1566 the fortress town Valletta (designated after the large master Jean Parisot de la Valette) was created.

1798 had thatMedals combatless French revolution troops yield. The British occupied Malta 1800 and led the islands after the victory across Napoleon as colony area and coined/shaped so the culture today's Malta considerably. Last played Malta in the Second World War an important role, asit to violent fights for the strategically important port came, from which the supply of the German Africa corps was sensitively disturbed.

The population of the island kept lent for it the George cross, which is shown also on the state flag to 1942. 1947 becamethe autonomy as parliamentary democracy to the country grants. 1964 received the full independence from Great Britain to Malta. 1974 defined itself Malta as republic. 2004 joined Malta of the European union.

politics

the unemployment ratio amount to 5.6 (3/2005).

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Elections

the voters of the small Mediterranean islands show a splittingness as usual in hardly a state. Thus it is nearly usual on Malta that elections are only scarcely won. The prime minister at that time and today's president Edward Fenech Adami hoped upabout 60 per cent of agreement for the European Union referendum and regarded this as a large majority.

The affiliation to one of the two large parties is nearly already left on Malta von Generation to generation. The long-term party connection becomes additional by thatMaltese Mehrheitswahlrecht favours, which makes it almost impossible for smaller parties to draw into the parliament.

To 12. April 2003 parliamentary elections took place in Malta. The trend from the referendum following, the Malteser with 51,79 per cent selected the conservative Partit Nazzionalista (pn) andwith 47,51 per cent socialist Malta labour party (MLP). The third party, the green-alternative Alternattiva Demokratika (AD) did not receive a seat in the parliament with 0,68 per cent of the voices.

trade unions

general Workers' union (GWU), approx. 48,000 members, the MLPintimate; Union Haddiema Maghqudin (UHM), roof federation with approx. 25,000 members, pnnear; besides small industry trade unions

European Union extension

after the defeat at the polls of the nationalconservative 1996 the European Union admission was shifted on the part of Malta by two years. Malta became after the decisionon that European Union - summits to 13. December 2002 in Copenhagen in the course of the extension to the East to the 1. May 2004 with eight central and Eastern European states as well as Cyprus taken up to the European union.

But before the admission the Malteser led to 8. March 2003 a referendum through. For an entry to the European Union the nationalconservative ( pn) were, while the socialists (MLP) and trade unions were advertisement against it. The election turnout with the 390,000 Maltesern was with 91 per cent, the agreementwith 53,65 per cent and thus easily over expectations. Malta replaced thereby Luxembourg as the smallest European Union country.

is

possible for conditions of entry the entry to Malta with a valid German passport or identity card. Child documents of identification (if it with a photo) as well as provisional passports and identity card are provided are recognized. The entry of a child up to 16. Lebensjahr into the passport of parents is also sufficient for the entry.

As well as visa-requiring foreigners, those in Germany are resident owners of travel documents forForeigners must place a visa request with the message of Malta in Berlin. The operating time amounts to at present approx. four weeks.

nation

, the confederation of states of former (mostly) British colonies, Malteser have Commonwealth by of Malta membership in the Commonwealth OFin some of these countries, which concerns entry and residence regulations, a privileged status compared with other European Union citizens.

security politics

by the indirect protection of the Mediterranean by the European union and NATO affords Malta only a small Army of 1.800 soldiers. A Air Force does not give it, the Armed Forces OF Malta (AFM) has however several helicopters, which are used for patrol flights and search and Rescue - tasks. At present are five helicopters of the type Alouette III in the employment, which was taken over by Libyan and Netherlands armed forces. In addition one from originally three is Agusta Bell 47 in enterprise, which received Malta 1972 as gift from the German Federal Armed Forces.

The navy consists of seven patrol boats(and. A. from existence of the People's Navy of the former GDR and American series) as well as a former American LCVP.

Up to the departure of the British troops in the year 1979 Malta was an important naval base of the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean. Since the departurethe last British troops to 31. No more British federations stand for March 1979 on Malta. To 18. March 1980 was signed with Libya a defense agreement. Co-operation however already ended to 27. August of the same yearly, as it between Maltaand Libya to the conflict around the rights for the oil exploration in the adjacent sea-area came. Since 11. March 1983 exists a contract with Italy, in which this guarantees the protection of the Maltese neutrality.

membership in international organizations

United Nations and Unterorganisationen (since 1964), member of the Commonwealth (since 1964), Council of Europe (since 1965), international maritime organization (IMO, since 1966); European union (European Union, since 1. May 2004); Organization for security and co-operation in Europe (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro, since 1972); Member of the non-aligned ones Movement (since 1973); International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEO, since 1997); Inter-parliamentary union (IPU, since 1988)

administrative arrangement

since 1993 is Malta in 68 local administrative units divided:

Island Malta Gozo
  • Rabat Mdina
  • Safi
  • pc. Julian's (San Ġiljan)
  • pc. Lucia's (Santa Luċija)
  • pc. Paul's Bay (San PawlIL-Baħar)
  • San Ġwann
  • Santa Venera
  • Siġġiewi
  • Sliema
  • Swieqi
  • Ta' Xbiex
  • Tarxien
  • Valletta
  • Xgħajra
  • Żabbar
  • Żebbuġ
  • Żejtun
  • Żurrieq
  • Fontana
  • Għajnsielem
  • Għarb
  • Għasri
  • Kerċem
  • Munxar
  • Nadur
  • Qala
  • Victoria (Rabat)
  • Saint Lawrence (San Lawrenz)
  • Sannat
  • Xagħra
  • Xewkija
  • Żebbuġ

the local administrative units are toostatistic purposes in six districts combined (Gozo and Comino, Northern, Northern Harbour, Southern, Southern Harbour, Western) and these again into three regions (Gozo and Comino, Malta Majjistral, Malta Xlokk). The regions and district of Gozo and Comino are identical.

infrastructure

on Maltese roads prevails to left-hand traffic.

The public suburban traffic is served by a closely removed motorbus net, which star shaped from the capital Valletta proceeds. Many of the regular buses originate still from Great Britain and during the colonial age were usedto Malta brought. To 1994 the today yellow regular buses were uniformly green painted; this colour still originated from the early 1980er years and should at that time express the solidarity of Malta with Libya. The penalty on Gozo are traditionally grey.In the meantime the obsolete regular buses are replaced gradually by modern Niederflurbusse. Up to complete disappearing of the old timer penalty, which represent a popular motive for photo for tourists, however still some years might offense.

At the beginning 20. Century had Malta also a rail traffic net: 1883 were opened a railway line from Valletta to Mdina, which was again adjusted however in the year 1931 due to profitability lacking. The streetcar net, that was still more short-lived in the year 1905 of the British company Macartney, McElroy & Ko. Ltd. betweenBirkirkara, which “Three Cities”, Paola and Zebbug was furnished; the operator company Malta Tramways Ltd. 1929 already announced bankruptcy, so that today on Malta no more rail traffic infrastructure insists.

The international airport from Malta is in Luqa, from therethere is besides a helicopter shuttle service after Gozo. Comino can be attained only with small Personenfähren, which operate mostly irregularly. It spends a regular driving service between Malta and Gozo however from Cirkewwa .

economics

major item: Economics of Malta

Die üblichen Linienbusse auf Malta
The usual regular buses on Malta

Malta economics becomes relatively positive compared with the other in the year 2004 of the European Union member states joined again. The two traditional industries are agriculture and fishery. The agriculture is operated mainly on Gozo.Although the environmental condition (little rains, small discharge, kalkiger underground and hot climate) do not offer good conditions for the agrarian use, obtained with different vegetable and varieties of grain high yields, also the viticulture is profitable. Nevertheless Malta produces only 20%the internal requirement at food. The largest employer of the country is Malta Drydocks, the second largest threw Europe. Also the tourism plays a large role. Most holiday-makers come from Great Britain, Germany and Italy. From 1965 to today has itselfthe number of the tourists about increases tenfold. Today there is over one million tourist annually, those above all the beaches, which enjoy historical cities and the rock landscape. Clothing and textile industry is likewise an important industry.1992 became a its own on Malta Stock exchange based.

The country ordered, apart from limestone, which is used in the building industry, over no mineral Bodenschätze and is strongly dependent on imported goods. In addition the small state has no natural energy reserves.

European companies become already for the 1970er years alsoTax benefits lured. Thus about 55 German enterprises for the export, among other things the companies Playmobil, produce Rodenstock and Lloyd shoes. Also a electronics construction unit company has a large production location.

The gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) amounts to 4.24 billion euro (conditions 2004).

culture

bird hunt

the bird hunt applies on Malta as traditional people sport. With approximately 18,000 official hunt licenses Malta has the highest hunter density in Europe. Predominantly migratory birds are hunted, for those the Maltese islands of one of the few lay-by upthe course from Europe to Africa are. Up to the European Union entry the Maltese regulations permitted the hunt to 2004 in protected kinds such as Bekassine, Zwergschnepfe and combat runners. The estimations for the total number of hunted birds vary between 200.000 and 1.000.000annually. Dead birds will usually stuffed and sold, alive catch birds to become sold as cage birds often illegaly.

With the European Union entry 2004 European regulations apply like the bird protection guideline and the Flora fauna Habitatguideline to Malta. The Maltese government has however a transition compromisenegotiated. Thus the spring hunt is limited to Turteltaube and quails, which are catch of seven kinds of finch still to 2008 permitted, in order to develop a breed system. In order to supervise the conversion, the 23 men strong Law Enforcement policy was established, howeveralso prostitution and gambling control.

world cultural heritage

Tempelanlage Mnajdra im Süden Maltas
temple plant Mnajdra in the south of Malta

from Malta so far three monuments were taken up to the UNESCO - list of the world inheritance: The capital Valletta, a fortress town developed on the drawing board; the Megalith- Temples of Malta, a group of seven received (originally 23) stone-temporal temple plants on the islands Malta and Gozo as well as the Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni.

Malta in the film

media

  • printed media:

The Time, Sunday Time, The Malta Independent, Malta Today (weekly paper), The People (boulevard sheet), The Malta star (only on-line one)and a multiplicity of a maltesischsprachigen party, church and trade union newspapers.

  • Sound broadcasting and television:

Malta becomes public over the Broadcasting service - Malta (PBS) with a radio (Radju Malta) and a television program (TVM) supplies. In addition the two orderlarge parties „Malta labour party “with super One TV and „nationalist party “with Net TV over ever a television station. Within the radio range there is beside it still another private music station (Bay radio) and the catholic transmitter RTK.

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National holidays

31. March (1979) „national Day “(departure of the last British troops)

7. June (1919) „sets 8 for Giugno “(worker rebellion

). September (1565) „Our lady OF Victory “(end of the large Turk FE storage)

21. September (1964) „Independence Day “

13. December (1974) „Republic of Day “(Malteserhead of state)

strange

Die Popeye-Kulissen vom Meer aus gesehen
the Popeye window blinds seen from the sea

in the bay of the pictorial fishing village Marsaxlokk, admits for the multicolored Fischerboote named Luzzu, stands since beginning of the 1990er years an electricity power station. The conservative party leftdirectly beside the holiday house of the former socialist prime minister cathedral Mintoff establish, in order to annoy this.

At a bay in the northwest of the island the Popeye was turned - films. The window blinds serve today as entertainment park.

In the last years much becameinto the development of the road system invests. Nevertheless many side streets are in particular in rural regions still in relatively bad condition. Also the style of driving some Maltese drivers is habituation needy for tourists from northern regions of Europe. Many Malteser say therefore alsoa portion of self irony over itself: „Maltese people don't drive right, they don't drive left more either, they drive into the shadows!“(„Malteser drive not on the right of and also not left, but, where shade is “).

It is remarkable that the smallMalta as well as Gozo two of the largest dome churches of Europe accommodates: the Rotunda in such a way specified in Mosta and the church of Xewkija.

Web on the left of

Commons: Malta - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Malta - word origin, synonyms and translations



coordinates: 35,9° N, 14,4° O

literature

  • Latja, Dr. Hans:Malta. Druckhaus Langenscheidt, 1976.
 

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