|of these articles is concerned with the city Mannheim. Further see: Mannheim (term clarifying)|
|coat of arms||map|
|Land of the Federal Republic:||Baden-Wuerttemberg|
|geographical situation:|| |
Coordinates: 49° 29 ' N, 08° 28 ' O 49° 29 'N, 08° 28 ' O
|height:||95 m and. NN|
|surface:||144.96 km ²|
|inhabitants:|| 307.640 (main domiciles)|
324,787 (main and. Nebenwohnsitze)
(30. June 2005)
|Population density:||2121 Einwohner/km ²|
|postal zip codes:|| 68001-68309|
|municipality key:||08 2 22 000|
|city arrangement:||17 urban districts|
| address |
of the city administration:
|mayor:||Gerhard Widder (SPD)|
the university town Mannheim is with approximately320,000 inhabitants to Stuttgart the second largest city of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The former Residenzstadt of the historical Kurpfalz forms also today still the economical and cultural center of the European Metropolregion Rhine Neckar triangle. From its Rhineland-Palatinian neighbour city Ludwigshafen is Mannheim only by the Rhine separated.
Since 1900 large city, is Mannheim today still important industry - and commercial town and important traffic junction between Frankfurt and Stuttgart, among other things with the second largest marshalling yard of Germany and one of the most important inland ports of Europe.
Some important inventions comefrom Mannheim: Here Karl Drais built 1817 the first impeller, 1886 rolled the first automobile of Carl Benz over the roads and 1921 followed the first tractor. In the last years is the very active music scene of the citysupraregional admits become.
A collection of the articles around the city Mannheim is topic tables round in the portal.
Table of contents
The city lies in thatEuropean Metropolregion Rhine Neckar triangle, 2.35 million inhabitant a counting compression chamber, which beside parts of south Hessen and the Rhineland-Palatinian Vorderpfalz in Baden-Wuerttemberg the two urban areas Mannheim and Heidelberg as well as the western and southern municipalities of the Rhine-Neckar-region enclosure (see also: Portal: Rhine Neckar triangle)
Within the region Rhine Neckar forms an upper center for Mannheim beside Heidelberg, by which for completely Baden-Wuerttemberg after the land development plan 2002 altogether 14 is proven. The upper center Mannheim takes over those for the municipalities Edingen Neckarhausen , Heddesheim , Ilvesheim and shop castleFunction of a central range. Furthermore there are entwinements with municipalities in Hessen and Rhineland-Palatinate and the there central ranges.
thatCity of Mannheim is arranged in six inside and eleven outside urban districts:
City center/young shrubs, lime tree yard, Neckarstadt - east well-being clutches of eggs, Neckarstadt - west, Neuostheim/Neuhermsheim, Schwetzingerstadt/east city as well as Feudenheim, Friedrichsfeld, beetle valley, Neckarau, Rheinau, To sand yards, Seckenheim, Schönau, bird seaweed, forest yard and barrier city
in each of the 17 urban districts there is a district adviser, which consists of 12 citizens living in the urban district. The district advisers are to important to hear affairs concerning the urban district. Thosefinal decision over a measure meets then however the advice of the city Mannheim.
The 17 urban districts are subdivided in quarters and/or statistic districts. See for this list of the urban districts and quarters of Mannheim.
city center: „The squares “
See also the separate article:Mannheimer of squares
the hufeisenförmige city center of Mannheim between Rhine and Neckar is gitterförmig in quite-vienna-sounds to house blocks put on, one calls this „the Mannheimer of squares “. The planning of this singular road system goes on cure prince Friedrich IV. of the Pfalz around 1600 back, it remained until today.
The city center becomes from two centerlines pulled through. Also Kurpfalzstrasse well-known as „width road the “runs from the lock to the Neckartor. The main shopping street, “, it meets „the planks at the parade place. The parallel roads of the two centerlines do not carry names in all rule, instead the intermediate squares from a combination of letter and number are designated.
following cities and municipalities border on the city Mannheim. Itin the clockwise direction beginning in the north are called:
Lampertheim and four-home (both circle mountain route in Hessen), Heddesheim, Ilvesheim, Edingen Neckarhausen, Heidelberg, Plankstadt, Schwetzingen, Brühl (bathe) (all with exception of the circle-free city Heidelberg in the Rhine-Neckar-region in Baden-Wuerttemberg)as well as Altrip, Ludwigshafen, Frankenthal (Pfalz) and Bobenheim Roxheim (everything with exception of the circle-free cities Ludwigshafen and Frankenthal in the Rhine Pfalz circle in Rhineland-Palatinate).
due to the situation in the upper Rhine ditch, protected by Pfälzer forest and desert forest, prevailsin Mannheim a very mild climate forwards. The warmest month is July with on the average 19,9°C, coldest January with 1,8°C. Temperatures over 30°C are not in the high summer rarity. The peak value became to 8. August 2003 with 39,0°C measured(DWD, a private Wetterstation in Mannheim Seckenheim came on the same day on 40,1°C). In the course of a yearly fall on the average 668 mm precipitation. The point month is again July. Favoured of Rhine and Neckar it can in particular in the autumnto nebula banks come. The two rivers provide also for an above average air humidity, which can particularly lead in the high summer oppressive sultriness.
a representation in more detail is under history of Mannheim.
The village man home (home of the Manno) was mentioned documentary for the first time in the year 766 in the Lor Codex. Long years a small insignificant fishing village Mannheim fell 1284 to the Pfalzgrafen with Rhine from the house Wittelsbach. Regional meaning attained the 1349on the today's lime tree yard tariff castle established acorn home, which demanded a Obolus from the Rhine boat operators. 1415 became in it a set off Pope Johannes XXIII. on behalf the emperor Sigismund imprisoned held. By the victory in the battle with Seckenheim 1462 over thatArmy of his allied opponents, the count von Württemberg, the Mark count von Baden and the bishop of Metz, justified cure prince Friedrich of the Pfalz “the victorious one” the pfälzische supremacy on the middle upper Rhine. 1566 counted Mannheim with approximately 700 inhabitantsto the largest villages of the upper office Heidelberg.
emergence of a city
1607 received to Mannheim the city privileges, after cure prince Friedrich IV. of the Pfalz the foundation-stone for the building of the fortress Friedrichsburghad put. The planning at that time of a gitterförmigen road system for the citizen city Mannheim connected with the fortress remained received until today, on it is the designation square city to be led back. For the first time 1622 during the dreissigjährigen war (1618 - 1648) under Tilly destroyed, fell Mannheim 1689 the French troops in the Pfälzi succession war again to the victim, was however again developed.
cultural one and political ascent of the city
1720 shifted cure prince Karl Philipp its yard of Heidelbergto Mannheim and began the building of the Mannheimer of lock (1760 together with the Jesuitenkirche completed). Mannheim became Residenzstadt of the Kurpfalz and it began a short however glossful splendour time that meanwhile 25,000 inhabitants counting city. The kurpfälzische yard promoted artand music, science and trade.Goethe, Schiller and Lessing stayed in Mannheim just like Mozart.
In order to be able to begin its Bavarian inheritance, Karl Theodor 1778 had to shift the residence to Munich. Thus an economic and cultural bleeding set.1795 of the Frenchmen occupy again and thereupon back-conquered by Austrian troops, Mannheim lost 1803 finally its political position: The Kurpfalz was dissolved in the course of the realm deputation main conclusion and Mannheim resulted at bathing, in that it - geographicallythe northwest edge pushed - which status of a Grenzstadt took.
the renewed economic upswing
coined/shaped of the economic ascent of the middle class began a further bloom time of Mannheim. 1828 became the Rhine harbour, 1840 thosefirst railway line of Baden from Mannheim to Heidelberg opens. Mannheim was a center of the political and revolutionary movement (March revolution) of 1848. 1865 created Friedrich angel horn the aniline and Soda-Fabrik of Baden (BASF), then however later to Ludwigshafenone shifted. From the Farbenfabrik became to today largest chemistry enterprises of the world.1886 let Carl Benz be “vehicle with gas engine enterprise” to patent. After the First World War the Heinrich Lanz AG with the “Bulldog “presented the first tractor. 1922 were taken the main power station Mannheim in enterprise. The city counted 385,000 inhabitants around 1930 together with the sister city Ludwigshafen, which Rhine-digs itself from the old Mannheimer developed.
Nearly 2,000 Mannheimer Jew
were deportiert from the third realm to today during the third realm, who occupies city in the Second World War by air raids nearly completely destroyed and 1945 of US troops. Only laboriously the reconstruction of the city began. Lock and Water tower were rebuilt, established the national theatre in new place. The housing shortage led to the development of numerous new populated areas. 1967 became Mannheim university town, 1975 formed the Bundesgartenschau one point of gloss in Luisen - and Herzogenriedpark. A number of structural measures was converted: that Telecommunication tower and a second Rhine bridge were built, the planks were inaugurated to the pedestrian precinct, the new rose garden and the aero bus floated by Mannheim. Also in the 1980er and 1990er years a set of large-scale projects were carried out: Planetarium, arts center extension,new tearing museum, city hall, new May market area, synagog, mosque, federal state museum for technology and work, Carl Benz stadium and driving laughter tunnels were opened.
Economically in the recent past jobs Mannheim coined/shaped the acceptance of the industriellen. The city tried with the classification of trade areas and thatTo work against settlement of service enterprise. Prime example is the building Victoria multistoried building of the 2001, one of the highest buildings of the city.
Regarding 400. City anniversary 2007 since 2000 some activities concerning town construction are converted: SAP arena with connection to the new metropolitan railway ring east,Reorganization of the pedestrian precinct width road, complete transformation of the old person of measuring position and the metropolitan railway new building distance sheep pasture.
between 1895 and 1944 became several surrounding localities Mannheim in in common December, among them with Neckarau the then largest village of Baden.With the large municipality reform into the 1970ern there were plans to Brühl, Ilvesheim, Edingen Neckarhausen and shop castle in municipalities. Because of the large protests one took however of it distance and Mannheim was one of the few cities of Baden-Wuerttemberg, which did not receive surface increase. Forwardsthe first incorporation covered the city 2,384 hectares:
|Year||of places||increase in hectar|
|of 1895||Friesenheimer island||717|
|inhabitant development||population trend the number of inhabitants of the city||Mannheim|
exceeded and made 225 1930 Kirschgartshausen 483 1930 sand peat 264 1930 road home 406 it thereby the large city. 1905 had the city over 160.000 inhabitants, until 1961 doubled themselves this number. 1970 reached the total population with approximately 333,000 their historical highest level. At the end of March to 2005 lived in the city after official updating 307,583 humans with main domicile.
The following overviewshows the numbers of inhabitants after the respective area conditions. Until 1833 it concerns usually around estimations, afterwards census results (¹) or official updating of the respective statistic offices and/or the city administration. The data refer starting from 1843 to the “localpresent population”,starting from 1925 on the resident population and since 1987 on the “population at the place of the main dwelling”. 1843 ago the number of inhabitants was determined in non-uniform collection procedures.
¹ census result
afterData of the statistic national office Baden-Wuerttemberg lived in 2. Quarter 2005 of altogether 307,640 inhabitants in Mannheim. (The statistics place of the city Mannheim counted 2005 inclusive Nebenwohnsitze of 325,546 inhabitants in October.) of it 151,206 (49.15 per cent) was male and 156,434 (50.85 per cent) female. ThatPortion of inhabitants of other nationalities was with 22,5 per cent. The unemployment ratio lay in August 2005 with 12,6 per cent and thus around 2,3 per cent points more highly than in the August of the previous year.
Between 1993 and 2004 the portion has itself over 65-Jährigenat the total population of 15,85 to 18,2 per cent increases. In the same period the portion of the 18 has itself - until 65-Jährigen reduces by approximately 2.5 per cent points.
Table for demographic development (development of the total population and the portion of the age groups from 1993 to2004):
|Year||Insg.||< 15||15-18||18-25||25-40||40-65||> 65|
source: Statistic national office Baden-Wuerttemberg
first Churches leave themselves in 8. Century in the suburbs crowd yard, barrier city and Feudenheim prove. A Pfarrei in Mannheim becomes for the first time in 14. Century mentions. It belonged to the Diözese Worms and was hl. Sebastian geweiht.
Cure prince Ottheinrich) led with mandate of 4. April 1556 the reformation of lutherischen confession in the Kurpfalz, after already its predecessor Friedrich II.ten years before serious efforts in this direction had undertaken (first lutherische communion celebration in the HeidelbergerHoly spirit church to 18. April 1546). Under Ottheinrichs successor Friedrich III.) the Kurpfalz changed for calvinistischer coinage (Heidelberger Katechismus 1563 ) starting from 1561 to the reformed confession. The time of the Mannheimer town foundation (s.o.) fell thus into the phase of the kurpfälzischen Reformiertentums, whichfor long time a clearly reform-Protestant coinage to the city lent.
1821 were accomplished in the Grand Duchy of bathing the union between lutherischen and reformed municipalities. Today all Protestant municipalities, if they do not belong to a free church , belong to the church district Mannheim within of theParish district north bathing of the Evangelist regional church in bathing. The parish district north bathing has its seat in Mannheim. 2005 were opened in the quarter forest yard the first youth church of the Evangelist regional church bathing.
after establishment of the city Mannheim pulled also catholic municipality members too. The oldest catholic church is the parish church pc. Sebastian at the market place, which was finished placed 1723. 1729 donated cure prince Karl Philipp 100,000 guldens for the building of the Jesuitenkirche, which should serve as yard church. Together with that They belong to dear woman church since 2005 to a common Pfarrgemeinde pc. Sebastian. The remaining 28 Roman-catholic municipalities are combined into 10 Seelsorgeeinheiten and belong to the Stadtdekanat Mannheim of the Erzdiözese Freiburg.
Today there are further Christian religious communities in Mannheim, among other things those Neuapostoli church and a freereligious municipality, during the revolution of Baden the center 19. Century developed. The oldcatholic church is in the castle church at home.
the first synagog there were Jewsin Mannheim 1660. The cure princes promoted in particular after the city destruction to 17. Century aimed the settlement of Jews with tax exemptions and the privilege of the freedom of trade, in order to help trade and handicraft to the upswing. 1719 was 10.6% of the population Jewish.Until 1895 the Jewish municipality became larger on 4.768 members. The remaining increase in the population was however still more rapid, so that after 1900 the Jewish portion lay only around 3%. 1933 lived 6,402 Jews, those in Mannheim the largest municipality inBathe formed. By the Repressalien after the seizure of power of the national socialists many Jews came already early into emergency. Already 1933 forbade the NSDAP - mayors the placing of orders to Jewish companies, were given time off at the Handelshochschule Jewish lecturers, dismissed the national theatre Jewish Actors and were extracted from Jewish physicians the cash permission. Many families emigrierten abroad in particular into the USA. After the devastation of the three Mannheimer synagogs 1939 1940 nearly 2,000 and thus nearly all remaining Jews were deportiert after Gurs. Thosemost were kidnapped and murdered from there into the concentration camps in Poland. To the Second World War only few emigrants returned to Mannheim. The new synagog of the Jewish municipality was opened only 1987. 2005 lives about 600 Jews in Mannheim.
(To history see also: Jewish life in Mannheim)
with the second immigrant workers - wave in the middle of the 1960er many Turks and thus for the first time a considerable number from Muslims came to Mannheim. Their number rose to 2004 on 20.827 and thus 7 per cent of the Mannheimer population. 1995 became therefore the Yavuz Sultan Selim mosque, which up to then largest mosque of Germany, built, which offers 2,500 prayer places. 2005 were new-arranged already ramshackle the Minarett become slimmer and more highly.
the local council have 48 seats and in direct choice for in each case five years are selected. After the local election right of Baden-Wuerttemberg the voter has the possibility of cumulating and Panaschierens. After since that2. World war the SPD always most voices received, places the CDU since 1999 the strongest parliamentary group. The next local council choice takes place periodically 2009 .
|Local council 2004|
|CDU||37.4%||of -7.4||19 seats||-4|
|SPD||32.0%||of -1.9||16 seats||-1|
|alliance 90/Die the Green||11.7%||of +4.2||5 seats||+2|
|Mannheimer list||8.6%||of +3.9||4 seats||+1|
|FDP||4.2%||of +1.7||2 seats||+1|
|multicolored list Mannheim||2.3%||+2.3||1 seat||+1|
|left list Mannheim||2.3%||+2.3||1 seat||+1|
|other||1.2%||of -5.1||0 seats||-1|
|election turnout 41.4%|
at the point of the city administration and chairmen of the local council is simultaneousthe mayor. He is selected in direct choice for one term of office by eight years. The mayor officiating since 1983 is Gerhard Widder (SPD). The next mayor choice is planned for 2007.
A first mayor is posed to it to the side (at the same timedeputy mayor) and four further mayors. They are selected by the local council for one term of office of eight years and reflect therefore party-politically respective majority conditions at the time of the choice again. Each mayor leads a department in the city administration (for example finances,Social, culture).
The city heads since 1810:
coat of arms
In split sign in gold an upright red Doppelhaken (wolf fishing rod), in the back in black the red reinforced, red bezungte in front and red crowned double swan goat golden kurpfälzische lion. The city colorsare blue white red.
The coat of arms was specified 1896 by the town councillor and confirmed by the Grand Duke of Baden. The wolf fishing rod is since that 17. Century on a boundary stone demonstrably. It probably concerns a mark character. The lion is the coat of arms animal thatCure prince of the Pfalz, whose Residenzstadt was Mannheim starting from 1720. Both coat of arms pictures dip 18 since that. Century in the seals of the city up. The city colors are only since that 19. Century common and point to a seal cord from the year 1613 . The city colors are not derived from the coat of arms colors, which is completely uncommon.
a partnership between cities maintains partnerships between cities Mannheim with the following cities:
- Italian consulate agency:M1,5 - 68161 Mannheim
- fee consulate of the Republic of the Niger: Besselstrasse 26 - 68219 Mannheim
economics and infrastructure
in the year 2004 was of the 158,021 liable to social security persons employed 34.6 per cent in the producing trade, 22.8 per cent in Trade, guest trade and traffic and 42.2 per cent in the other service sector actively. Although Mannheim is coined/shaped at the latest since the 1970ern of a profound structural change, is drawn by a dismantling of industriellen jobs and the increase of the service sector, is those Metal - and the chemical industry still very present.
most strongly is the electrical - and Maschinenbauindustrie. Among the largest enterprises DaimlerChrysler ( engines) rank, EvoBus (buses), ABB (electrical and automation technology), Alstom (power stations), bombard Transportation(electrical equipment of motor coaches), John Deere (agricultural machinery), Joseph Vögele (road finisher), Deutz (engines), Bopp & Reuther (safety and control valves), Pepperl+Fuchs (factory and Prozessautomation) and York (refrigeration technology).
The chemical industry is represented with Roche (Pharma and Diagnostika), SCA hygiene (cellulose and paper productlike “Zewa”), fox Petrolub (lubricants), Unilever (Dove soaps), straining CCIT Benckiser (household cleaner), Phoenix (Pharmahandel) and German Hutchinson (rubberizing certifications).
The Finanzplatz Mannheim is not prominent no more as around 1900 has however still great importance in particular with its insurance companies. Their head office inThe German Federal Armed Forces bank, the Produktenbörse, the Mannheimer insurance, the inter insurance, the sports association insurance and the new legal protection insurance have Mannheim.
With that bibliographic Institut & F. A. Brockhaus (Brockhaus, Duden, Langenscheidt, Meyer) is an important publishing housein Mannheim resident.
MVV the energy is the largest local power supplier in Germany.
beside the Mannheimer daily paper Mannheimer mornings offer the Ludwigshafener Rheinpfalz, the Heidelberger Rhine Neckar newspaper and the picture Rhine Neckar a local section for Mannheim.In addition view on Sunday and the weekly paper Mannheim as well as the appearing monthly city magazine Meier come with weekly feature way of the Mannheimer.
As regional television stations for the Rhine Neckar triangle the Rhine Neckar television is resident in Mannheim. In Mannheim is alsoStudio of the southwest broadcast (SWR). Among other things the regional program “Kurpfalz radio” is radiated from here. Since 2004 send the European center of AFN their program of Mannheim sand yards , which restaurant program AFN Heidelberg produced in Mannheim Seckenheim. Likewise in Mannheim resident are the privateHörfunksender bend to FM, radio rainbow and since 2006 sunshine live.
Locally dominating the Dr. are - Haas Mediengruppe, to which Mannheimer morning, radio rainbow and bend FM belong.
- The programs of the southwest broadcast: SWR1 German Federal Armed Forces, SWR1 RP, SWR2, SWR3, SWR4 German Federal Armed Forces, SWR4 RP, THE THING
- the programs of the hessian broadcast
- the private stations: bend to FM, hit radio FFH, radio rainbow, RPR1, sunshine live, Skirt country radio
- Lokalsender bermuda.funk and radioactive, the frequency are divided
- into worse quality the programs of the Bavarian broadcast (BR)
more in addition: Media in the Rhine Neckar triangle.
The moreover one the city has an office and a regional court with patent law chambers, which belong both to the higher regional court district Karlsruhe, as well as over a labor court and a social court. The Higher Labor Court alsoSeat in Stuttgart has chambers in Mannheim.
authorities and institutions
in Mannheim is the seat of the office of the federation region Rhine Neckar. Furthermore here the chamber of trade and the IHK Rhine Neckar are resident, their chamber districts in each case thoseUrban areas Mannheim and Heidelberg as well as the Rhine-Neckar-region and the Neckar Odenwald circle cover. Also there is an agency for work and two tax offices. In addition Mannheim is seat of a church district of the Evangelist regional church in bathing and a Dekanats of the ore diocese Freiburg.
the dye Mannheim/Ludwigshafen are surrounded by a motorway circuit with altogether seven motorway interchanges. In the north and the east the federal motorway A 6 ( Saarbruecken - Nuremberg ) encloses the city, the motorway circuit completed thoselinksrheinische A 61 in the west and the south of Ludwigshafen. In the northeast of Mannheim A 67 branch A 656 to Heidelberg and A 659 to Darmstadt and Frankfurt , in the east to Weinheim. In the east parallel those continues to run A 5 (Frankfurt - Karlsruhe). By the city the federal highways B 36, B 37, B 38, B 38a and B 44 lead. (More to it under: Traffic in Mannheim)
Mannheim is the largest railway knot in South West German country. 2005 held daily 185 long-distance trains in the Mannheimer main station. Over a ICE Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecke a fast and efficient connection exists into the region Stuttgart since 1991.
With the new building distance Rhine/Main Rhein/Neckar is a comparable binding to the neighbouring Rhine Main region in planning, after already since the opening of the western introduction of the Riedbahn (WHO) coming courses 1985 from Frankfurt can hold, without having to turn in the main station. Starting from 2007the European high-speed connection Paris - Frankfurt - is to lead Berlin (Rhealys) with the TGV by Mannheim.
The public suburban traffic in Mannheim supplies since that 2. June 1878 those Streetcar. Eleven metropolitan railway and numerous Buslinien of the RNV are today in enterprise. All public means of transport can be used for uniform prices within the traffic group Rhine Neckar (VRN). Into the 1970ern underground begun - net Mannheim Ludwigshafen became up to small sectionsfrom cost reasons does not realize. The only underground station in Mannheim is the stop Dalbergstrasse. Underground planning was meanwhile stopped.(See also: Suburban traffic in Mannheim)
favoured by the confluence of Rhine and Neckar is that Mannheimer port with a surface of 1.131 hectars today one of the most important inland ports of Europe. 2005 was turned over for water-laterally 8.1 millions t at goods. Scarcely 500 enterprises with 20.000 jobs are settled in the dockland.
Mannheim possesses besidea military airport in sand yards in the quarter new east home civilian clothes airport, the town center air haven Mannheim ( IATA lain - code: MHG), which offers line flights to Berlin , Hamburg and Saarbruecken. The international airport Frankfurt is appropriate for 65km north and is with the ICEto reach in 30 minutes.
in Mannheim and the outside cities (sand yards, beetle valley, joy home and bird seaweed) are many American military mechanisms. Beside the Coleman, Funari, Spinelli, Sullivan and Turley a military airport exists to barracks in sand yards.
over 24.000 students are written at ten universities in Mannheim:
- University of Mannheim, 1907 as Handelshochschule based, is it since 1967 university. Their economics and social sciences occupy point places in Hochschulrankings regularly. Approximately11,500 students are here registered.
- Faculty for clinical medicine Mannheim, the University of Heidelberg attached, with 800 students.
- Professional school of the federation for public administration, based 1978. The specialist area German Federal Armed Forces administration is settled in Mannheim. Approximately 1,200 students have themselveswritten.
- Federal academy for military administration and military technology, based 1961, is it today the highest central educational facility of the German Federal Armed Forces administration and responsible for the career training field military technology.
- German Federal Armed Forces administration school I (technology), offers basic and advanced training for officials of the technical service.
- University thatFederal agency for work, 2006 followed from the professional school of the federation, offers Bachelor conclusions for 900 study places.
- University Mannheim, originally 1898 as school of engineering based, since 1971 professional school for technology. By the fusions 1995 with the professional school for organization and 2006with the professional school for social welfare matters are written at their today 4,100 students.
- National university for music and representing art Mannheim; Successor of the 1762 created Academie de Danse and 1776 a created private clay/tone school at yards Carl Theodors, has about600 students.
- Vocational academy Mannheim, as model test 1974 based belongs it with 4.500 students today to the largest three vocational academies after bathe Württemberger model.
- Popakademie Baden-Wuerttemberg, based 2003, offers the Germany far singular institution the courses of studies to Musikbusiness and Popmusikdesign .
- Free university for anthroposophische Pädagogik Mannheim, trains teachers after the anthroposophischen bases of the Waldorfpädagogik .
research centers and institutes
- Institut for German language, 1964 based it dedicates itself to the Sprachforschung.
- Institut for middle class research, investigates since 1989 empiricallyand interdisciplinary the development of the medium-size economy.
- Research council for electrical system and current economy registered association., the efficiency, security and economy of the supply of electricity promotes.
- Research group elections, investigates voter behavior and observes social trends and tendencies.
- Overhead line mast testing equipment, examinesstatic characteristics of overhead line masts.
- International Institut for vocational training Mannheim, is subordinate to the Ministry for Kultus, youth and sport Baden-Wuerttemberg
- of national seminar for didactics and teacher formation, responsibly for reason and hauptschule
- Mannheimer center for European social research, investigated since his establishment 1989the social, social and political development of Europe.
- Center for European economic research, works since 1991 in the area of the application-oriented empirical economic research.
- Center for inquiries, methods and analyses (ZUMA), observes and analyzes the social development with social indicators.
culture and objects of interest
the national theatre Mannheim exist since 1779 and are with it the oldest local stage in Germany. 1782 was uraufgeführt here Friedrich Schillers the robbers. Today the four-section theatre own ensembles hasfor concert hall (opera, Operette, musical), play, ballet and the child and youth theatre Schnawwl.
In addition several smaller stages come under it the east city theatre, the TIG7 (theatre in the square G7), the theatre olive, the free light stage, the Theater31,the theatre impulse, the Mannheimer of doll plays and the small art stage Klapsmühl'.
the Mannheimer school was - justified around 1750 of Johann Stamitz - first a musician circle at the kurpfälzischen yard. Later one understood by it a whole composition school,from up to then the general bass impressing the European tradition - dominated orchestra set and the latebaroque pathos turned away and a new, more graceful style developed, whose Harmonik followed the melody process. It carried thereby substantial pre-working out for the development of the Viennese classical period.
That Kurpfälzi chamber orchestras 1952 were created. It maintains the tradition of the Mannheimer school, in addition, the music of the Viennese school and the Viennese classical period.
The Mannheimer Bläserphilharmonie goes back on 1987 created Sinfoni youth blowing orchestras the Mannheim.
Formerly the numerously represented singing associations suffer in recent past much from problems of recruitment. But many Gospel have themselves - choirs develops, like the Celebration Gospel Choir,the Rainbow Gospel & Soul Connection, Preacherman's Friend, Joyful Voices and Voices 4 Heaven.
the arts center Mannheim became 300. Mannheimer city anniversary 1907 justifies. A traditional emphasis of the collection is the German and French painting 19. and 20.Century as well as the international sculptures 20. Century. In addition an extensive copper pass cabinet , a graphic collection, posters, work art comes and from the more recent time photographies and video installations.
The federal state museum for technology and work Baden-Wuerttemberg - 1990 opened - offers illustrative materialto the industrialization of the German southwest. To it changing exhibitions come, then were to be seen the body worlds of Gunther of Hagens 1997 for the first time in Europe in Mannheim.
the tearing angel horn museums go back on the 1763 created Kurfürstliche to Academy of Sciences. Todayseveral museums and institutions are united under a roof:
- Museum D5 for archaeology and cultures of the world
- museum arsenal for art, city and theatre history
- museum Schillerhaus
- Institut for international art and culture history
- Institut for Archäometrie
of the Friedrichsplatz lies in the east of the city center. In itsCenter stands the landmark of Mannheim, the 60 meters high water tower. It became 1889 in the new baroque - style delighted and crowned of a 3.50 meters large statue of the Amphitrite. The place around it became until 1903 of Bruno Schmitz with wells, Wasserspielen, leaves courses and green belts in art nouveau arranges. The Wasserspiele are long illuminiert in the summer after break-down of the darkness one hour. In the winter a Weihnachtsmarkt is between the water tower and the triton well. Thateastern semicircular of the Friedrichsplatzes limit arcade houses with red sandstone fronts. In the North-South axis of the water tower art and festival hall were established. The arts center - 1907 delighted by Hermann Billing and 1983 provided with an extension building - corresponds with its red sandstonewith the already existing land development at the Friedrichsplatz. The rose garden - whose name is derived from an old winning name - 1903 were opened as festival hall and accommodated at that time with the Nibelungensaal the largest hall of Germany. Today is there a congressand conference center.
of the Friedrichsplatz leads west the pedestrian precinct planks to the central place of Mannheim the parade place. It originally served the cure princes for troop parades. In the center of the place is the Grupello pyramid. It became 1711 of Gabriel de Grupello for Cure prince Johann William create and in the Düsseldorfer palace garden set up. Karl Philipp let it bring 1743 over the Rhine to Mannheim. The pyramid carries the name “Allegorie of the herrscherlichen virtues” and represents the triumph of the fürstlichen virtues. End 19.Century the parade place with green areas was arranged, which splits from star shaped ways approaching on the Grupello pyramid becomes. At the south side of the place one builds the old department store until 1746, in which first business was and starting from 1909 the city hall.After the destruction in the Second World War it was not rebuilt, but one established the city hall , in that business, until 1991 the municipal library and the local council their place found. At the planks 2003 became the memorial for the Jewish victims of the National socialism establishes. On the Glaskubus the names of the Jewish victims are appropriate in Mannheim in mirror writing. The Kubus was set up diagonally, so that it points to the center of the parade place.
the market place is north the parade place because of thatPedestrian precinct width road in the center of the lower part of town. In its center a well monument is from the year 1719. It was created by Peter van breaking and set up in the Heidelberger palace garden. Cure prince Karl Theodor made it then 1767 for thatCity Mannheim to the gift. The figures of the Monuments, which originally symbolized the four elements earth , water , air and fire, were transformed in such a way with the fact that it now a Allegorie on Mannheim, trade, Rhine and Neckar to represent. At the south sidethe market place is a baroque double's building, which is probably the still oldest received building of Mannheim: the old city hall and the lower parish church pc. Sebastian were built to 1713. In the center both are connected with a bell tower, in oneto several times flows gradated helmet. To the function the different sculptor work on the front refers . At the old person city hall are Justitia and Atlases at the parish church Pietas and angel figures. The bell play sounds three times daily.
the Jesuitenkircheuntil 1760 as yard church for the cure princes after plans Bibienas was built there. The art historian Dehio called it most important baroque church of South West German country. The powerful crossing-cupola exhibits a height of 75m. On the inside the resident of Munich artist Egid took the wall paintingsQuirin Asam forwards. The high altar and the six side altars were arranged by Paul Egell and Verschaffelt in the late baroque and/or early classicism.
the Christ church was provided until 1911 as representative Sakralbau of the Evangelist church in the east city. In the again-baroque style alsoDelighted, it stands for art nouveau elements on the who the place and forms thereby the terminator point of three view axles. The dome exhibits a height of 65m. Survive-large statues of the twelve Apostel surround the first tower course. On the inside one is to the largestOrgan works of Germany with 8.600 whistles.
The history of the again-baroque Konkordienkirche points back into the year 1685. Originally as double church for those German and wallonisch reformed municipalities planned, happened to her several times destruction and changes of use. In its current form existsit since 1918 with an Evangelist church in the one and a school in the other building part. The church tower is the highest with 92 meters in Mannheim.
The synagog was finished 1987. The front granite-red held of the Kubusbaus is ofhigh lead-vitreous round elbow windows coined/shaped. Over it a flat dome stretches itself. The two main entrances carry reproductions of a wrought-iron skylight lattice, which of the 1938 destroyed main synagog comes.
The Yavuz Sultan Selim mosque, builds 1995, was with their completion the largest representative mosquein Germany. The bright exterior plaster facade is stressed in the center by the protection of the prayer niche and is with shifts arranged triangular windows arranged. The reinforced concrete columns of the Minaretts exhibited already after short time tears, so that it 2005 with 35Meters somewhat became more highly newly built.
buildings of everyday
the lock was the residence of the cure princes of the Pfalz. 1720 -60 delighted, is it after Versailles the second largest closed baroque plant of Europe. The looking front pointing to the city centera length of 440 exhibits meters and is thereby terminator point of seven parallel roads. At the arrangement were under others there Bibiena, Egell, Rabaliatti, Pigage and Cosmas Damian Asam involved. In the Second World War completely destroyed, became the lock to 1968 in simplified form rebuilt. Until 2007 the roof in original-faithful form is restored.
The arsenal originates from the year 1779. It was built by Peter Anton von Verschaffelt in the klassizistischen style. Since 1918 it accommodated the collections of Carl tear, since 1956 was it seat of the tearing museum. Until 2007 are complex restored the building.
Likewise after plans of providing ELT until 1788 the klassizistische palace Bretzenheim was established, to cure prince Karl Theodor of itsMätresse and their children gave.1899 are used the building seat of the Rheini mortgage bank, since 2004 it by the district court Mannheim.
The telecommunication tower is with 212.8 meters the highest building of the city. It became after plans of Heinle and Schlaich 1975 built. At a value of 125 meters are a turning restaurant and a prospect platform, from which one has a far panorama over Mannheim and the surrounding countryside.
Five of the six highest multistoried buildings of Baden-Wuerttemberg are located in Mannheim. They became allat the outside side of the city center ring built. 1975 was already built the three apartment towers of the Neckaruferbebauung north and the Appartmenthaus Collini center. The Victoria tower was finished 2001 and is the highest office building of the city. All five multistoried buildings are approximate with 95-97 metersequivalent highly.
park and green areas
of the Luisenpark is with 41 hectares the largest city park. It was put on 1903 and extended to the Bundesgartenschau 1975. Close ones of the city center been because of the Neckar, he offers numerous attractions such as plant looking house, ChineseDte garden, butterfly house, Gondolettas and sea-stage.
The Herzogenriedpark was likewise a component of the Bundesgartenschau. With 22 hectars somewhat smaller than its “large brother” it lies north the Neckarstadt. The animal enclosure, the Rosarium is worth seeing and multi-resounds with a tent-like Dachkonstuktion, thoseafter a draft of freely Otto developed.
The palace garden extends behind the lock up to the Rhine and is with 38 hectars the second largest park of Mannheim. The Grand Duchess Stephanie left it starting from 1808 as to English garden on the distant bastionsthe baroque city attachment put on. Unfortunately the park has built railway line, which built federal highways with their countless up and departures and the metropolitan railway line starting from 1959 to Ludwigshafen much of its attraction lost by the 1863-67. The green is partial on infew hopeless traffic islands back-pushed. The Mannheimer nevertheless holds palace garden iron to the designation „“. Earliest the earlier attraction is still in the south part recognizable toward lime tree yard. At the west end, in the so-called Friedrichspark, the earlier ice-skating stadium, that is for safety reasonsone closed. An outline and a new development are a little probable in the next years because of the refuse dumps assumed here.
The forest park with the pertinent tearing island is one the largest nature-left Auen on the Rhine. The peninsula belonged to Carl tears, thatthey the city with the edition bequeathed, it in their nature-left condition to receive and the citizens of the city accessible to make. Numerous rare kinds of bird, like pale chickens, grey herons and Wildenten, can be observed on the tearing island.
the zuschauerträchtigste kind of sport in Mannheim is the ice hockey. The eagles Mannheim (in former times Mannheimer ERC) were 1980, 1997 -99 and 2001 German ice hockey master. Their Heimspiele deliver it since 2005 in the SAP arena .
Stillsupraregional, even if largest successes are past already longer, are the two soccer associations admit VfR Mannheim (German football master 1949) and sports association forest yard Mannheim (federal lyingist 1983 -90). Both play at present in the upper league Baden-Wuerttemberg.
The German basketball federationplays in memory of Albert Schweitzer each second year, since 1958, in the spring in Mannheim on his Europe - youth basketball tournament the Dr. - Albert Schweitzer cup for youth national teams out. This international friendship meeting, in the sense of the physician, mission acre and Nobel peace prize carrier of 1952, is world-wide one the most important and at the best occupied Basketballtuniere for youth crews, at which already numerous later NBA - professionals participated.
The Leichtathletik - association MTG Mannheim brings outstanding athletes out again and again since its establishment. National successfully in particular the Sprinterinnen is momentary.
Supported by the large American colony of the US-Army in Mannheim the baseball knew - sport in the past largeSuccesses celebrate. The Mannheimer of associations Knights, VfR, Amigos and Tornadoes could win 1954 and 1997 between nineteen times the German baseball championship.
Into the 1950er and 60's world-wide and into the 1990er the cycle racing was national successful - association RRC finalkeeps in trackMannheim. To emphasize are in particular Willi and Rudi Altig under the coach Karl Ziegler.
- February: Chamfering at night removal (annually in the change alsoLudwigshafen) (Sundays)
- March: Promikon Message music Contest
- April: Europe - youth basketball tournament around the Dr. - Albert Schweitzer cup for youth national teams (each second year)
- April/May: Spring people celebration (May measuring)
- April/May: Mannheimer May market
- May: City celebration on the planks
- Kurpfalzfest in the Herzogenriedpark
- flower Peter celebration
- Septembers: Kinderspektakel in the Luisenpark always to World children's day
- Septembers/Octobers: Autumn people celebration (autumn measuring)
- October: Mannheimer Go - tournament Aji (on weekend of the time conversion)
- November: Filmfestival Mannheim Heidelberg
- November/December: Two Weihnachtsmärkte - under the water tower and on the Kapuzinerplanken
of sons and daughters of the city
the following overview contains important, in Mannheim born, personalities chronologically listed after the birth year. Whether the persons their later sphere of activity in Mannheim had or are not insignificant thereby. (For one stillmore comprehensive listing, see sons and daughters of the city Mannheim)
- to 1744: Karl Theodor baron von Dalberg († 1817 in Regensburg), cure prince and archbishop of Mainz as well as archbishop of Regensburg (1802 - 17).
- 1813: Lorenz Brentano († 1891 in Chicago), lawyer and liberal-democratic politician in the time forwards and during the March revolution of 1848/1849.
- 1821: Friedrich angel horn († 1902 in Mannheim), entrepreneur and founder of the BASF.
- 1838: William tear († 1908 in Könitz with hall field), explorers and Vulkanologe.
- 1868: Ludwig land man († 1945 in Voorburg), Frankfurt mayor and LV victim.
- 1876: Hermann Mueller († 1931 in Berlin), German politician (SPD), MdR, realm chancellor 1920 and 1928 - 30, realm ministers of foreign affairs 1919 - 20.
- 1897: Max Hansen († 1961 in Copenhagen), Kabarettist, film and record star in the Berlin of the Weimar Republic.
- 1897: Sepp Herberger († 1977 in Weinheim), coach thatGerman national soccer team 1936 - 64 (“miracles of Berne “).
- 1898: Franz Xaver drove († 1973 in Regensburg), German painter.
- 1905: Albert Speer sen. († 1981 in London), architect and arms Minister during the Nazi dictatorship, in Nürnberger process of condemned main war criminals.
- 1907: Alfred Delp († 1945, executed in Berlin Plötzensee), Kath. Theologian, philosopher and resistance fighter.
- 1913: Hans Filbinger, Prime Minister of Baden-Wuerttemberg (CDU) 1966 - 1978.
- 1915: Professor. Dr. Briefly fear man,† 1978 in Heidelberg, German politician of the SPD and former Minister of Finance of Baden-Wuerttemberg
- 1933: Gerhard of May he aprons, president of the German football federation and former Minister in Baden-Wuerttemberg (CDU).
- 1937: Rudi Altig, wheel running driver (road world champion 1961, winnerbecoming green the leotard of the route de France 1962).
- 1937: Erwin cousin, former Minister in Baden-Wuerttemberg.
- 1943: William Genazino, writer.
- 1953: Pure hard Bütikofer, politician, chairman of the Greens.
- 1969: Steffi Graf, most successfulGerman Tennisspielerin.
- 1971: Xavier Naidoo, singer, outrider of German-language Soulmusik.
Not in Mannheim bore, but did not work here among other things:
- 1750: Wolfgang Heribert of Dalberg, theatre leader.
- 1759: Friedrich of Schiller, poet.
- 1785: Karl Drais, inventor of the hand trolley.
- 1792: Karoline Augusts, empress of Austria as a wife of the emperor Franz I..
- 1838: Heinrich Lanz, inventor and manufacturer of agricultural machinery, locomotives and tractors.
- 1844: Carl Benz, inventor automobile.
- 1875: Blumepeter (civil name: Peter Schäfer), Mannheimer original.
- 1924: Robert Häusser, photographer.
- 1925: Gustav Friedrich hard leaves, art historian and director of the arts center
- 1925: Leonie Ossowski, authoress (“Weichselkir”,“The large flutter”).
- 1944: Joy Fleming, German-language jazz - and Bluessängerin.
- 1956: Uwe ox farmhand, actor.
since 1820 lent the city Mannheim to numerous local and supraregional personalities . ThoseMost important ones under it are:
- 1895: Otto von Bismarck, realm chancellor (1815-1898)
- 1907: William Wundt, psychologist (1832-1920)
- 1970: Carlo forge, to Federal Minister (1896-1979)
for a complete listing, see list of the honour citizens of Mannheim.
As the highest bürgerschaftliche honor of Mannheim since 1970 the annually lent Bloomaulorden is considered. The most well-known medal carriers:
- 1971: Anneliese Rothenberger, opera singer (* 1926)
- 1972: Heinz Haber, astrophysicist (1913-1990)
- 1973: Sepp Herberger, football coach legend (1897-1977)
- 1974: Carl Raddatz, actor (1912-2004)
- 1979: Elsbeth Janda, dialect authoress and actress (1923-2005)
- 1994: Joana, Liedermacherin (* 1944)
- 2005: Hans Peter Schwöbel sociology professor and Kabarettist (* 1945)
- Manfred David: Mannheimer city customer. EditionSquare, Mannheim 1982, ISBN 3-87804-125-X
- Erich Keyser (Hrsg.): City book of Baden volume IV 2. Volume from German city book. Manual of urban history - on behalf of the working group of the historical commissions and with support of the German city daily, the German standard ware and the GermanMunicipality daily. Kohl hammer, Stuttgart 1959
- national's archives management Baden-Wuerttemberg (Hrsg.): The country Baden-Wuerttemberg - official description after circles and municipalities, volume V. Kohl hammer, Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-17-002542-2
- city archives Mannheim and Mannheimer architecture and building archives registered association. Andreas give (Hrsg.): Mannheim and itsBuildings 1907-2007, 5 volumes. Edition square, Mannheim 2000-2007
- Andreas give: Architectural guide Mannheim. Dietrich Reimer, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-496-01201-3
- Friedrich walter: Mannheim in past and present, 2 volumes. Mannheim 1907
- Friedrich walter: Fate of a German city, 2Volumes. Fritz scarce, Frankfurt 1949-50
- Hansjörg rehearses: Small Mannheimer urban history. Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2005, ISBN 3-7917-1972-6
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