Marcel Duchamp

Marcel Duchamp (* 28. July 1887 in Blainville Crevon; † 2. October 1968 in the Neuilly sur Seine), actually Henri Robert Marcel Duchamp, was a French painter and object artist. After it the Prix Marcel Duchamp is designated.

1887 as a sona notary born, Duchamp began to paint with 15 years. Its first paintings are strongly affected of the Impressionismus. Also its both older brothers and one of its sisters dedicated themselves to the art; its brother Raymond Duchamp Villon was an important sculptor of the Kubismus, Duchamps half brother gas clay/tone, under which alias admits Jacques Villon, painted, just like its sister Suzanne.

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1904 it visited one yearlong the Académie Julian in Paris and predominantly dedicated itself to there far the impressionistischen painting.

After he had drawn some time caricatures for several magazines, he turned like its brothers the Kubismus and created themselves under this influence to 1912the painting “act, stairs climbing down”, which is today in the possession Philadelphia museum OF kind and strongly by Eadweard Muybridges screen sequence “Woman walking downstairs” one affected. Beside artists such as Francis Picabia, Albert Gleizes, Juan Gris andits brother Jacques Villon was also Marcel Duchamp member of the section d'Or.

A reorientation and a radical break with it the surrounding contemporary art take place 1912 during a lonely longer stay in Munich .

1915 it began its work “The newground is undressed by its bachelors (or: Large glass) “.Duchamp brought much time with the conception of this work to and mentions it again and again in its notes, was issued it to 1926/1927 in the Brooklyn museum. The sculpture consists of onelarge, painted, perpendicularly standing two-piece glass plate. The center forms the horizon. The bride in the top presents itself as a kind machine , which does not carry human courses - an advancement act, stairs descending. Right ofyou are the inscription or the Milky Way. In the lower part of the glass the bachelors are , in detail are this priest , corpse carrier , station chief , policeman , Lakai , Kürrassier on the left of. They set by their desiringafter the bride chocolate-rub right beside it on, a motive, which had fascinated Duchamp since more jeher. The work functioned like an experimental assembly, the bachelors desire the bride, without their becoming haveful (Eros), it is selbstreferentiell,and works first kryptisch. The glass should cause a grinding of mental and visual reactions, be at the same time representation and idea. 1931 broke the work in the case of transport, but Duchamp built it up again and integrated so the traces of the Zersplitterns.

ApproachesExplanations concerning the large glass and other ideas supplied Duchamp in the text fragments of the Greens box, the words should also not only communication, but a direct component of the art, like a color (Duchamp) be.

Its opinions placed the usual art termradically in question: Thus Duchamp bought 1914 Duchamp into Paris department stores a bottle dryer from iron and marked it. It held publicly the opinion that the selection of this article was already an artistic work, which led to an art scandal.

The Duchamp brothers: It led Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Villon and

Raymond Duchamp Villon thereby objet trouvé, the found object, into the art. For such objects it coined/shaped the name ready larva (actually: Konfektionsware). The ready larva bottle dryer was industrial a massiveproduced utensils, thus in the eyes of most a rather worthless object, and its form, detached by the function, a completely own characteristic had, however before - up to Duchamps the gesture of marking, and the meaning, which itlent to it thereby - remained as it were invisible. Duchamps gesture is regarded also as the birth of the concept art. Stands for actions like veiling the realm daily of Christo in this tradition: By veiling something usual becomes only again really visible.

1917procured itself Duchamp at the New Yorker company J. L. Mott Iron Works, a dealer for sanitary need, a Urinal, a Pissoirbecken for public institutes for need, gave it the title Fountain, marked it with the name „smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Mutt “and was enoughit under this wrong artist name for the annual exhibition of the Society OF Independent Artists in New York. Its entry was violently discussed, because Duchamp offended to rules' of the traditional art with it consciously against all ‚and provoked thereby the rejection of itsWork by the jury of the exhibition, which he with belonged and from which he after the rejection of the work, withdrew. The object lost today is by a photography in the second expenditure of The blind one (New York, May1917) authentically delivers [1]. The group around Marcel Duchamp provided for publicity. Fountain “was issued” thus - however not in the conventional sense: Fountain became the medium event. From the largest part of the art historians Marcel Duchamp becomes therefore as an inventor of the ready larvaand art in a revolutionary manner, and the work “Fountain” as a central work of the history of art, with which it placed all past art terms ironically infrage, seen. Except as provocation one knows Duchamps “Fountain” also as reaction to the increasing confidence into the Rationalitäthumans see.

1923 gave up to Duchamp the painting and used its ready mades as a kind Gegenkunst, because he held the opinion that the artist is dependent on the society at any time and could due to their corruptness unfold free never.That led also to the fact that its meaning more measures at the theoretical than at the artistic work. With its works he criticized the conventional taste and provoked the viewers to consider their past definitions of ‚art' and possibly thoseTo recognize Sinnlosigkeit of the art in the past sense. These thoughts took many artists after it, among other things Jasper John and Robert noise mountain, up, why Duchamp is called often also joint founder of the modern art.

In the year 1946 Duchamp member was thatJury of the Bel revision modification of art competition beside Alfred H. Barr (1902 - 1981) and Sidney Janis (1896 - 1989), which was written out for the US-American film The private Affairs OF Bel revision modification by its producers. The jury selected the picture thoseTemptation of the holy Antonius of max Ernst (1891 - 1976) as winners of the competition out.


between 1928 and 1933 he employed mainly with chess and participated themselves as a member of the French national team in five chess Olympiads:1924 in Paris, 1928 into the Hague, 1930 in Hamburg, 1931 in Prague and 1933 in Folkestone.

Also theoretically it was concerned with the play. Together with Vitali half (1903-1967) it wrote the book L'opposition et les cases conjuguées sontréconciliées (of Paris 1932, German translation 2001 under the title opposition and sister fields, ISBN 3-932170-35-0), a paper over farmer final games.

At the game of chess both intellectual abstraction and the visual aspect, that fascinated it by the movements of the chessmenon the board develops. In addition it estimated the absence of a social purpose. Chess made it for it possible to extract itself from the art enterprise.

Its interest in the game of chess settled in addition, often in its artistic work. It sketched among other things that Poster for the chess championship of France 1925, processed its portion recording against Savielly Tartakower in Chess Score (1965) and organized to 5. March 1968 in Toronto a Reunion called performance as well as John Cage. The two played a game of chess,with by sensors in the chessboard the clay/tone sequences were released.


the more hostilely the criticism, the more should be encouraged the artist.

If we consider now the rather technical side of a possible future, then is itvery probable that the artist - the oil cult of the painting tiredly - induced will be to give this 5 centuries old procedures up completely its academic yoke its expression liberty only obstructs. “

“There is no solution, because there is no problem. ”


  • Arturo black: The complete Works OF Marcel Duchamp. London: Thames and Hudson, 1969.
  • Harsh ore Molderings: Marcel Duchamp. Frankfurt/Main: Campus, 1987. ISBN 3-88655-178-4 (introduction worth reading to Duchamps thought world)
  • Octavio Paz: Naked feature. ThatWork of Marcel Duchamp. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1991. ISBN 3-518-38333-7
  • Calvin Tomkins: Marcel Duchamp, a biography. Munich: Hans he publishing house, 1999. ISBN 3-446-19669-2 (comprehensive biography to Duchamps life)
  • Heinz harsh ore man, Marcel Duchamp 1917. Munich: Silke writer, 1999. ISBN 3-88960-043-3 (representationthe events around Fountain)
  • Vlastimil Fiala: The chess career OF Marcel Duchamp. Olomouc: Moravian Chess. Bd. 1 (2002, ISBN 80-7189420-6), Bd. 2 (2004, ISBN 80-7189-516-4)
  • Marcel Duchamp: The writings. Volume I. During lifetimes published texts.hrsg.v. Serge Staufer. Zurich: Rainbow publishing house 1981.

works (selection)

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see also: To Kubismus Futurismus Surrealismus Pataphysik object art concept art art term

Peggy Guggenheim Andy be-get Robert noise mountain Lautréamont Meret Oppenheim


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