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structure of the Thallus
the Marchantiales are complex developed thallöse, thus laminar attaining full growth Lebermoose. With the Thallus a top side and a lower surface can be constituted. To the Thallusunterseite are single-cell root-similar structures, the Rhizoide. The Rhizoide fastens the Thallus to the soil and supplies it water, is however not not related (homologous) to the roots of higher plants. Furthermore more-cellular belly or vent ral shed at the lower surface, which does not take over however the function of the Rhizoide, is.
The Thallus can be arranged vertikel into two layers. The lower surface contains so-called oil cells, which store Lipide, of water reservoir cells and chlorophyll-poor Parenchymzellen. In the upper half regularly arranged large Interzellularäume, into the “pins” from few cells, is so-called “Assimilatoren” partly projects and to the upper epidermis near-rich. These are rich at Chloroplasten and serve above all photosynthesis. This arrangement of the Assimilatoren in the air-filled intercellular areas (“Luftkammern”) serves the more efficient gas exchange. The intercellular plots possess in each case a stigma, which one can recognize as small wart also with the naked eye.
The Thalli possesses minted central ribs with the Marchantiopsida generally only weakly. With the Marchantiales frequently breeding cup ( or “Brutkörbchen”) in those is a multiplicity of Brutkörperchen to be formed there, which serve for the vegetative Vermehrung. With the kind Lunularia (see photo on the top right) are typically halbmondförmig these (name!).
The Gametangien (fabric for the training of the Gameten) is with the Marchantiales on typical screen-like Gametangienständern. The Antheridienständer (the male carry Gametangien (=Antheridium) on the top side) is weakly lapped 8mal. The Archegonienständer carries the female Gametangien (=Archegonium) on the lower surface of the 9fach for deeply lapped “Schirmchen”.
The pear-shaped Antheridien is sunk and only by a close opening outward connected in the “screen”. If the Spermatozoiden is ripe, then the wall cells begin with humidity to verschleimen and pour, so that the Spermatozoiden is pressed out.
The Archegonien hangs with a flaschenhalsförmigen opening downward. The Eizelle lies above in the “Flaschenbauch”, the Spermatozoiden must the neck channel cells likewise verschleimenden with humidity (rain, rope etc.) wriggle through itself. Finding the Eizelle probably takes place via chemical luring off.
of the Sporophyt is, as with the Marchantiopsida generally typically, for a long time in the Archegonienhülle hidden. Few days after fertilization developing embryos attains full growth itself to a small gestielten Sporogon, which is phytosynthetisch active, but is physiologically perfectly dependent on the nut/mother plant. The internal cells of the developing cap train the Archespor, thus the Sporenmuttergewebe. This trains then the spherical Sporen and fädige Elateren . The Elateren is verknäult with humidity and unfolds with dryness, so that the cap breaks and dismisses the finished Sporen.
the order contain the families: