Margaret Mead

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Margaret Mead
Margaret Mead

Margaret Mead (* 16. December 1901 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; † 15. November 1978 in New York) was US-American anthropologies and Ethnologin. Margaret Mead is considered as one of the most decided representatives of the culture relativism in 20. Century. It represented the view that social behavior was ductile and culture-certain. Particularly into the 1960er years were very popular its work. Gradually one began however to doubt their scientific seriosity strongly. It was married also Gregory Bateson.

Human diversity is A resource, emergency A handicap.

To Margaret Mead

table of contents


Margaret Mead buildup in a liberal family. It studied onthe Columbia University with Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict.

1925 traveled it as recent anthropologies alone to Samoa, where she studied young girls at the stage for. With some astonishment it held that those up to thenas rigidly valid social roles and non as before generally accepted - for all humans was culturally given generally valid was. 1957 traveled Lowell of cross-beam on the traces Meads and corrected in its thesis error of Mead; generally speakingand whole one confirmed it therein Meads of results.

Mead became world-famous by its Forschungsreisen from 1931 to new Guinea, where she investigated and from her material concluded the trunks of the Arapesh, Tchambuli and Mundugumor that us admitted of sex roles culturallyconditionally are not genetically given and. She was the first person to occupy this fact empirically seemed and gave thereby the entire social sciences new impulses.

During the Second World War it had to interrupt their Forschungsreisen into the South Seas, whereby ithowever from further research work to hold did not leave itself. Together with Ruth Benedict used it early anthropologische and ethnologische methods for the study of modern cultures. In order to deepen their comparisons between the cultures and to animate further researchers to such comparisons,the two Ethnologinnen for the Intercultural Studies created institutes.

Altogether investigated Mead sieves cultures in the south Pacific. It was Professorin of the American museum OF Natural History in New York, president of the American Anthropological Association and the American Association for theAdvancement OF Science. It received 28 honour doctorates from universities world-wide and wrote more than 40 books as well as over 1000 scientific articles. She was a teacher and Förderin of Ray Birdwhistell.

1978 contradicted Derek Freeman Meads results in a newStudy. Differently than Mead was Derek Freeman of the Samoan language well-informed. Since then the question arises whether Meads research must be considered as disproved, whether the Samoan society in fifty could change years really so strongly or whether the sexthe researcher in this case a larger role played, i.e., Mead and Freeman as female and/or male researchers different perspectives of the same society to face got.

That Freeman came to deviating results, a normal procedure is in the science;remarkable is however the willingness, with which its results were accepted easily as refutation of Meads research - e.g. compared. with the study of cross-beam, which confirmed Mead. The criticism at Mead is partly unobjective: From Freeman becomes for exampleenumerating the moral restrictions, which Mead supplies, when contradiction interprets within the work. Mead actually deals however in its study quite with the role of the Christian moral conceptions and stresses that the young people these could occur and in realityfree Sexualität it practiced with which the contradiction disappears. The described paging situation (progressive Christianisierung with secret continued the old way of life) makes also explainable, how Freeman could find 50 years later apparently completely different society. To the destroying following on Freemans studyCriticism at Mead, which went up to the assumption of the falsification, is to be also noticed that it took typical forms for the criticism at female scientists; for example Mead was subordinated, their relations situation had clouded their view.


  • 1928 - Coming OF Age in Samoa
  • 1930 - Social Organization OF Manu'a.
  • 1931 - Growing UP in new Guinea
  • 1932 - The Changing Culture OF at Indian of impulses
  • 1934 - Kinship into the Admiralty Iceland.
  • 1935 - Sex andTemper in Three primitive Societies
  • 1937 - Cooperation and Competition Among primitive Peoples
  • 1938 - 1949 - The Mountain Arapesh. 3 volumes
  • 1942 - and Keep Your Powder Dry: At Anthropologist Looks RK America.
  • 1942 - Balinese character: A photo graphicsAnalysis (with Gregory Bateson)
  • 1949 - marks and Female: A Study OF the Sexes in A Changing World
  • 1951 - The School in American Culture
  • 1951 - Soviet Attitudes Toward Authority: At Interdisciplinary Approach ton of problem of OF Soviet character.
  • 1951- Growth and Culture: A photo graphics Study OF Balinese Childhood. (with Frances McGregor)
  • 1952 - primitive Heritage: At Anthropological Anthology (with Nicholas Callas)
  • 1953 - The Study OF Culture RK A of these tanks (with Rhoda Metraux)
  • 1954 - Themes in FrenchCulture (with Rhoda Metraux)
  • 1955 - Childhood in Contemporary Cultures (with Martha wolf stone)
  • 1956 - new one live one for old: Cultural transformation Manus, 1928 - 1953
  • 1959 - at Anthropologist RK Work: Writings OF Ruth Benedict.
  • 1959 - People and Places.
  • 1960 -The golden Age OF American Anthropology (with Ruth Bunzel)
  • 1964 - Anthropology: A human Science
  • 1964 - Continuities in Cultural evolution.
  • 1965 - Anthropologists and What They DO.
  • 1965 - Family. (with Ken Heyman)
  • 1966 - The Wagon and theStar: A Study OF American Community initiative. (with Muriel Brown)
  • 1968 - The Small Conference: At innovation in Communication. (with Paul Byers)
  • 1968 - Science and the Concept OF Race. (as Herausgeberin)
  • 1970 - Culture and Commitment: The new one relationBetween the generation into the 1970s.
  • 1970 - A Way OF Seeing. (with Rhoda Metraux)
  • 1971 - A RAP on Race. (with James Baldwin)
  • 1972 - Blackberry winters: My Earlier Years. (Autobiography)
  • 1972 - Twentieth Century Faith: Hope and Survival.
  • 1972 - Ton of Love or tons of Perish: The Technological Crisis and the Churches. (as Herausgeberin)
  • 1974 - Ruth Benedict. (a biography over their teacher)
  • 1975 - Rethinking the Future. (with Ken Heyman)
  • 1977 - Letters From the Field: 1925-1975. (auto+biographicLetter collection)
  • 1977 - at interview with Santa Claus. (with Rhonda Metraux)

the most important these books (fat printed) are available in German translation.

see also


to literature

  • Heinrich Zankl: Counterfeiter, swindler, Scharlatane. Fraud in researchand science. Wiley VHC, 2003. ISBN 3527307109.
  • Margaret Mead: Brombeerblüten in the winter: A released life. Reinbek. rororo, 1978. ISBN 3499142260. (Autobiography)
  • Mary Catherine Bateson: With the eyes of a daughter. My memories of Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson.rororo,Reinbek, 1986.ISBN 349915904X. (Biography of the daughter written)
  • Joan Gordon: Margaret Mead: The Complete Bibliography 1925-1975. 1977
  • Jane Howard: Margaret Mead: A would run. Fawcett Columbia. Ballantine. New York, 1990

Web on the left of

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