Mark of Twain

Marks of Twain
Marks of Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (* 30. November 1835 in Florida, Missouri; † 21. April 1910 in talking thing, Connecticut) - better Mark admits Twain under its alias - was an US-American writer.

MarkTwain is particularly well-known as an author of the books concerning the adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. He was a representative of American realism and particularly is because of its humoristic, coined/shaped by local color and exact observations of the social behaviorNarrations and due to its scharfzüngigen criticism at the American society famous. In its works it describes the everyday racingism, its „heroes “checks up the Heuchelei and lyingness of dominant conditions.

Table of contents


the life from Clemens was ofContradictions drawn. The man, who would run the American Way OF scharfzüngig criticized, strove its whole life for large business success and acknowledgment in the highest society circles. Clemens, which fled even before the American civil war to the west, experienced its largestSuccess as a businessman with the biography of the civil war hero Ulysses S. Grant. The chronicler of the American west spent the largest part of its life at the east coast and in Europe. Even with its name it did not show consistency. Privately it firmiertetimes as Samuel Clemens, times as Marks of Twain; the literary figure Marks of the Twain exhibits, similarly to it, from book to book substantial charakterliche differences.

youth and childhood

Samuel came as Frühgeburt to 30. November 1835 asfifth child of Jane Lampton Clemens and John marshal Clemens to the world. Its family tried to develop in the United States an existence, slipped in the course of the time however ever further socially. The family sold its only slave Jennyin the year 1842. Finally they had to draw in 1846 with a pharmacist, and maintained instead of rent to pay the house.

When Samuel was 13 years old, its father died. The boy began training with the newspaper Missouri Courier asSchriftsetzer. Its brother Orion bought the Hannibal journal, in which Samuel could publish first short articles. 1852 it published The Dandy Frightening the Squatter under its first alias W. Epaminondas Adrastus Perkins.

first journeys

toto its 18. Lebensjahr lived Samuel Clemens with its family in Hannibal, Missouri, a small municipality at the Mississippi River. 1851 he worked for those its brother belonging newspaper Hannibal journal, later in San Francisco for „Morning call “and„The Californian “. From 1852 on it traveled as moving Schriftsetzer by the east and middle one the west. From pc. Louis, Philadelphia, New York and Washington D. wrote reports on a journey for the newspaper of its brother, in New York town centerspent he many evenings in the there public library.

life on the Mississippi

starting from 1855 lived Clemens in pc. Louis and tried to become for the first time , pilot on a Mississippi steamer. 1857 it began training as this occupation,it received a pilot license to 1859 and worked vollzeitig in this occupation. To the there Freimaurerloge „polar star “it was accepted 1861, where it was raised also to the master.

The outbreak of the war of secession 1861 brought the riverboat travel to succumbing, and Clemensbecame unemployed. After two-week military time with the Missouri State Guard it set off with its brother Orion to the west. They worked as gold graves in Nevada. Since this remained unsuccessful, he changed 1862 the journalism, this timeas reporters for the Virginia town center territorially Enterprise in Nevada.

„the birth “Marks of the Twain

Mark of Twain 1890 (painting of James Carroll Beckwith)

at the 3. February 1863 it used the alias for the first time „Marks of Twain “and began itsliterary career.Mark of Twain is an expression from the sailor language, which thread ( depth of water) meant two and which is possibly a leftover from its period of life as a pilot. Starting from 1864 Twain withdrew to San Francisco, later again after Nevada,to California, after Hawaii and again after Nevada. In the meantime he worked likewise at short notice as Reisekorrespondent from Europe and the Near East.

The 1865 publish history Jim smiley and His Jumping Frog brought Twain for the first time into the footlights of the US-American public.Afterwards it held speeches for the first time on professional basis and began for magazines from New York to write.

Its first travel book, The Innocents Abroad (1869), was based on a fünfeinhalb monatigen ship journey to Europe, which it undertook 1867. Also in A Tramp Abroad (1880) processed Twain of experiences and experiences of its European journey. In this book it published the famous essay In the appendix also awful German LANGUAGE (dt. „The terrible German language “).

at the east coast

1870Twain Olivia Langdon married. In the same year its father-in-law died. Samuels and Olivias first child, Langdon Clemens, came as Frühgeburt to the world. 1872 were born its daughter Susy Clemens, Langdon died in the same year.

Twains Wohnhaus in Hartford
Twains house in hard Fords
1871 leftit itself in hard Ford, Connecticut (351 Farmington Ave) down, where it lived seventeen years long as a successful and well-known author. He lived there in the direct neighbourhood of Harriet Beecher Stowe, those its opinion to the slavery without a doubt stronglyaffected. In this time it wrote some its best works:Roughing It (1871), The Adventures OF Tom Sawyer (1876), would run on the Mississippi (1883) and its masterpiece The Adventures OF Huckleberry Finn (1884). 1874 purchased Marks of Twain in bad clay/tone a Remington typewriter and delivered with „Tom Sawyers adventure " as a first author for its publishing house a typed book manuscript. Connected its literary activities it with extensive journeys. 1891 it returned to Europe, where itnine years remained. As domicile he selected at first for some months Berlin, which pleased him well (luminous centre OF intelligence. .. A wonderful town center.).


Twain undertook its first larger business attempts starting from 1869, thanhe a portion of the newspaper Buffalo express bought. Most successful business of Twain was beside its own books the publishing house Charles L. Webster & Ko., in particular with the biography of the civil war general and later president Ulysses S. Grant largeSuccess had.

strokes of fate

1894 Mark of Twain its participation in printering and a publishing house house became the financial calamity. Their investment into an incorrect typesetting machine drove also it into the bankruptcy. In order to arrange his finances, beganit a world-wide graduation route with readings of its works. During this journey Twains daughter Suzy at Meningitis died. As Twains luck explained itself the vice-president of standard oil, Henry Huttleston Rogers, ready, to help out Twain in its financial problems.From its four children three died prematurely. Also it outlived his Mrs. Olivia. In its later works it processed these strokes of fate increasingly with irony and Sarkasmus.

Picture relief at Marks of Twains grave in Elmira, NY

Mark of Twain died 1910 as a celebrated personality. After one “master OF kind” - honour for the sake of titles (1888) the Yale University 1901 lent an honour doctor title to it. Its work affected many American authors. Ernest Hemingway said about it:

„Universe OF American literature comes from one book by Marks of Twaincalled Huckleberry Finn… There which emergency-hung before. There has been emergency-hung as good sink. “
(„the entire American literature descends from a book from Marks of Twain, called Huckleberry Finn. There was nothing before. Since then there was nothing that thatequals. “)

Clemens possibly was pädophil; an argumentation from its feather/spring for the abolishment of the so-called protection age is in Harper's Weekly, 5. July. 1902, S. 732. Its posthum published fragment „My Platonic Sweetheart “, furthermore its book „Marks of Twain's aquarium: TheSamuel Clemens fishing rod fish Correspondence 1905-1910 “as well as the study „Marks of Twain and Sexuality “of M. Jones light up its special relationship to small girls.


its satire it is often like that exposing and bitingly that numerous expenditures for youth book of Tom Sawyeror Huckleberry Finn were defused, recognizably are such versions at descriptions like „a treatment for the youth “or notes as „shortened “. Here, like also in the child book classical author „prince and begging boy “he points the world out of the poor, lower social layers. Inits work as a journalist it prangerte religious Heuchelei, police encroachments on minorities, corrupted and fraudulent senators on. He criticized the greed for power and „the money desire “, which he called of Americas illness. It particularly took the Christian Science and theirFoundress Mary Baker Eddy polarize-mix on the grain. It was particularly impressed later however its harsche criticism corrected by the fast growth of this movement.


the following expenditures for work appeared to expenditure for work in The American LIBRARY:

  • Mississippi Writings (contains Tom Sawyer, would run on the Mississippi, Huckleberry Finn and Pudd'nhead Wilson) ISBN 0-940450-07-0
  • Collected of valley, Scetches, Speeches & essay (contains 272 short works) ISBN 0-940450-80-1
  • The Innocents Abroad and Roughing It (contains the halfauto+biographic travel descriptions) ISBN 0-940450-25-9
  • Historical Romances (Twains meetings with the medieval and Renaissance Europe contains: The Prince and the Pauper, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court and „the invented “biography personnel Recollections OF Joan OF Arc) ISBN 0-940450-82-8
  • Notebooks 1935 (Aphorismen contains and notes)

German expenditures

  • bad lots abroad the 1869 (dt. 1875)
  • The adventures Tom Sawyers 1876 (dt. 1876)
  • Stroll by Europe 1880
  • prince and begging boy 1881 (dt. 1956)
  • Life on the Mississippi 1883 (dt. 1890)
  • Adventure andTravels of the Huckleberry Finn 1884 (dt. 1890 of Henny cook)
  • a Yankee to yards king of the Artus 1889 (dt. 1923)
  • Transverse head Wilson 1894 (dt. 1923)
  • Everything over Huckleberry Finn of Michael Patrick Hearn, Europa-Verlag Hamburg
  • Wilson of the cranks


  • Thomas Ayck: Mark of Twain. 5. Aufl. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1993. To ISBN 3-499-50211-9
  • helmet-break Breinig: Mark of Twain. An introduction. Kind-badly, Munich 1985 ISBN 3-7608-1321-6
  • Susy Clemens: My dad. Mark of Twain in the diary of its thirteen-year old daughter Susy andits notes in addition. Island, Frankfurt 1987. ISBN 3-458-14587-7
  • M. Jones: Mark of Twain and Sexuality in: PMLA 71, 1956, S. 595-616

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