Morocco

المملكةالمغربية
aluminium-Mamlakah aluminium-Maghribiyah
Kingdom of Morocco
Nationalflagge Marokkos Wappen Marokkos
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: الله, الوطن, الملك
(God, native country, king)

office language Arab
capital Rabat
system of government constitutional monarchy
king Mohammed VI.
Prime minister Driss Jettou
surface 458,730 km ²
(without west seeing era)
number of inhabitants 32.725.847 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 71 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 1,433 US-$ (2004)
independence from France and Spain to 2. March 1956
currency of Moroccan Dirham (WAD)

1 WAD = 100 cents

religion of Muslims (98.7%) Christian (1.1%) Jew (0.2%)
Time belt UTC
national anthem hymn Chérifien
Kfz characteristic mA
Internet TLD .ma
preselection +212
Karte Afrikas, Marokko hervorgehoben, von Marokko nicht anerkannt
Karte Marokkos, von Marokko nicht anerkannt

the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكةالمغربية) is a state in northwest Africa.

It borders on Algeria, Mauritania, the two Spanish Exklaven Ceuta and Melilla, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean

of Morocco south border remains however because of the west seeing era conflict up to holding a UN referendum over the future affiliation of the west seeing era internationally disputed.

Blick von Spanien nach Marokko
View from Spain to Morocco

table of contents

work on []

National name

during itself the country in the own official state State of “aluminium-Mamlakah aluminium-Maghribiyah” fastidiously and rather generally as” Maghrebini kingdom " designation (Maghrebini kingdom " Scherifi into the 1960er by the way “) has itself internationally the European derivative of the name thatformer capital Marrakesch for the entire Kingdom of Morocco interspersed.

“aluminium maghrib” has two meanings in the Arabic language:

- Sunset
- the west

geography

Beduine, 2003
Beduine, 2003

the largest cities are (conditions: Census of 2. September 2004):

  1. Casablanca:2.933.684 inhabitants
  2. Rabat: 1.622.860 inhabitants
  3. Fès: 946,815 inhabitants
  4. Marrakesch: 823,154 inhabitants
  5. Agadir: 678,596 inhabitants

see also: List of the cities in Morocco

the highest mountain is Jabal Toubkal with 4165 M.

population

round 60% (January 2005) of the population live in cities. North Morocco with the old metropolis Fes is rather Arab (34% of the population Arab, 25% arabisierte Berber), south Morocco and its metropolis Marrakesch rather berberisch (30% of the population Berber) coined/shaped.

Language

the country-wide office language is Arab. Of Maroccans berberischer descent also various Berbersprachen (Tachelhit, Tamazight, Ghomara, Tarifit, Senhaja de Srair, and today also still Judeo Berberisch) is spoken. Becomes French in the entire countryas business and education language uses. In the north of Morocco additionally Spanish is used.

religion

99% of the population are Muslims (99% Sunniten), 0.9% Jew and 0.1% Christian. The Islam in Morocco is quite liberalas in other Arab states. A head cloth or a veil does not carry any more all women. Particularly in the cities dress ever more women after European model stressed fashionable. Also alone going out is not for women at least in the citiesProblem more.

history

major item: History of Morocco

Morocco was inhabited since beginning of the historical excessive quantity by Berberstämmen, in 3. Century v. Chr. the Kingdom of Mauritania formed. After the Roman rule itself the Berber at the end had of the 7. Century subject to the Muslims. Fast the Islam was taken over by the Berbern, but came it because of discriminations by the Arab Muslims soon to rebellions. These already led in 8. Century for education independent realms. The most important dynasties in the Middle Ageswere the Almoraviden, the Almohaden and Meriniden. The Almoraviden succeeded in 12. Century even the first combination of the Maghreb under the inclusion of Andalusien. The following dynasties remained to a large extent limited to Morocco in their rule. Since that 15. Century was also to a large extent arabisiert the Berberbevölkerung. With the Alawiden came into 17. Century to today dynasty to power, governing in Morocco.

It could maintain the independence of the country in relation to European colonial powers for a long time and had only 1912 French protectorate and in the north Spanish protectorate recognize. But already soon after the Second World War France was forced to dismiss Morocco into independence (1956). In the same year also Spain indicated its 1912 occupied,the Moroccan Mediterranean coast convenient protectorate Spanish Morocco back. The Exklaven Ceuta and Melilla belongs however until today to Spain.

1925/26, 1971/72 and 1983 failed attempts to establish a Republic of Morocco.

1976 annektierte Morocco after becoming green march 1975, onover 350.000 unarmed Moroccan civilians participated, the neighbouring west seeing era, which was administered so far as colony of Spain and before under large Moroccan and (regionally) mauretinischem influence stood. The king at that time of Morocco, Hassan II., asked the international Court of Justice in The Hague around a judgement, which should confirm the historical affiliation of the west seeing era to Morocco. The international Court of Justice into the Hague denied however all requirements for possession on the occupied areas to Morocco, on which Morocco ignored the judgement simply. The UN demandedMorocco up to let in a popular vote the remaining and the refugee population of the west seeing era decide on liberty or affiliation to Morocco. Hassan II. this procedure, the tuning agreed however until today did not take place. Meanwhile Morocco operates onecomprehensive settlement politics in the seeing era to let well in order the Moroccan population portion up to the tuning become large to enough. A part of the saharouischen population lives in refugee camps in the Algerian seeing era. Because of the admission of the Arab democratic republic seeing era into the African union (OUTER ONE) Morocco preferred as only African state it not to be member that OUTER ONES.

See also: West seeing era conflict, list of the kings of Morocco, list of the French general residents for Morocco, list of the prime ministers of Morocco.

politics

Morocco are a constitutional monarchy, their present head of state, since that 23. July 1999, king Mohammed VI. is. King Mohammed VI. belongs to the dynasty of the Alawiden, for over three centuries over Moroccoprevails. It is not only lay, but head of the Moroccan population also mental as leaders of the Gläubigen. The king appoints not only the prime minister, who is usually suggested by the strongest political party of the parliament, but alsothe entire cabinet and has beside it numerous powers which support its position as the most powerful instance of the state. Compared with European monarchies the Moroccan king has more continuing authority, whereby however in practice the prime minister leads the political cash transactions.

Present prime minister is since that 7. November 2002 the non-party Driss Jettou. Morocco has since a constitutional reform of 1996 a parliamentary two-chamber system from national assembly and senate. Beyond that the condition of the country grants an independent Judikative.The judges of the highest Court of Justice are appointed by the king.

See also: Political system of Morocco

foreign policy

Morocco was the first country, which recognized the young United States of America in the year 1777 officially (see Web on the left of). The “Moroccan American TreatyOF Friendship " of 1783, which by US-American side of John Adam and Thomas Jefferson was signed, is thus also of Americas longest unbroken friendship treaty with another state. The US-Moroccan relations is so good that the United States Morocco thatStatus of an mainallied allied one outside of NATO (major Non NATO Ally) in June 2004 awarded (source: background note on Morocco, Oct. 2004 of the US State Department).

Of Morocco politics is decidedly pro-Western and per European, whereby it strong political, cultural and also social connections tooEurope maintains.

With Spain still unresolved territorial disputes over the Exklaven Ceuta and Melilla , as well as over the offshore islands Isla Perejil, Chafarinas , Alhucemas and Vélez de la Gomera exist. The sovereignty of Spain over the areas mentioned become ofMorocco not recognition. The controversy escalated 2002, when a tiny contingent of Moroccan troops occupied the Isla del Perejil. A Spanish army command overwhelmed the Moroccan soldiers unblutig and repatriated it. The controversy became diplomatic thereby by the switching of the United Statesfrom America and the European Union defuses. Regardless of this small incident, the practical co-operation of Spanish and Moroccan authorities turns out locally than excellently, which both sides protest always officially.

regions and provinces

in the context of a decentralization program became 1997 the provinces combined into regions.

Region surface
(in km ²)
inhabitant
(2. September. 2004)
Province inhabitant
(2. September. 2004)
Chaouia Ouardigha 7,010 1.655.660 Ben Slimane 199,612
Khouribga 499,144
set act 956,904
Doukala Abda 13,285 1.984.039 El Jadida 1.103.032
Safi 881,007
Fès Boulemane 19,795 1.573.055 Boulemane 185,110
Fès 977,946
Moulay Yacoub 150,422
Sefrou 259,577
Gharb Chrarda Béni Hsen 8,805 1.859.540 Kénitra 1.167.301
Sidi Kacem 692,239
Grand Casablanca 1,615 3.631.061 Casablanca 2.949.805
Médiouna 122,851
Mohammedia 322,286
Nouaceur 236,119
Guelmim it Semara 122,825 462,410 Assa Zag 43,535
it Semara 60,426
Guelmim 166,685
Tan Tan 70,146
Tata 121,618
Laâyoune Boujdour 139,480 256,152 Boujdour 46,129
Laâyoune 210,023
Marrakesch Tensift El Haouz 31,160 3.102.652 aluminium Haouz 484,312
Chichaoua 339,818
El Kelaâ of the Sraghna 754,705
Essaouira 452,979
Marrakesch 1.070.838
Meknès Tafilalet 79,210 2.141.527 El Hajeb 216,388
Errachidia 556,612
Ifrane 143.380
Khénifra 511,538
Meknès 713,609
Oriental 82,900 1.918.094 Berkane 270,328
Figuig 129,430
Jerada 105,840
Nador 728,634
Oujda Angad 477,100
Taourirt 206,762
Oued OD Dahab Lagouira 50,880 99,367 Aousserd 20,513
Oued OD Dahab 78,854
Rabat Salé Zemmour Zaer 9,580 2.366.494 Khémisset 521,815
Rabat 627,932
Salé 823,485
Skhirate Témara 393,262
Souss Massa Daraâ 70,880 3.113.653 Agadir IDA ou Tanane 487,954
Chtouka Aït Baha 297,245
Inezgane Aït Melloul 419,614
Ouarzazate 499,980
Taroudannt 780,661
Tiznit 344,831
Zagora 283,368
Tadla Azilal 17,125 1.450.519 Azilal 504,501
Béni Mellal 946,018
Tanger Tétouan 11,570 2.470.372 Chefchaouen 524,602
Fahs Anjra 97,295
Larache 472,386
Tanger Asilah 762,583
Tétouan 613,506
Taza aluminium Hoceïma Taounate 24,155 1.807.113 aluminium Hoceïma 395,644
Taounate 668,232
Taza 743.237


Oued OD Dahab Lagouira, the largest part of Laâyoune Boujdour and parts of Guelmim it Semara form the west seeing era, whose affiliation to Morocco is internationally not recognized however.

economics

general

Morocco had a according to the free market oriented economic system, which plans the protection of the property, trade and freedom to establish residence and competition. At times of Hassan II. Morocco placed a request to the admission into the EEC, whichhowever one rejected. Of Morocco a goal of the European Union to step with the signing of an association agreement with the European Union in the year 1996 (into force stepped in the year 2000) a piece moved closer. Since the 1990ern applies the Moroccan economy as the most liberaland open national economy of the Maghreb. Since the late 1980er years strives the kingdom to denationalize its state enterprises whereby up to the present time less than a quarter of these national enterprises went through this process. Only recently Morocco permittedforeign credit institutes the acquisition of minority participation in Moroccan banks. A further opening of the market for foreign investors was already announced.

With the United States of America a foreign trade zone was agreed upon. The US-Moroccan free trade agreement became to 22. July 2004 of the US senatewith a majority of votes ratified from 85 to 13 and becomes, as soon as it steps into force, which make trade for 95% of the industrie possible and the consumer goods without tariffs and which substantially facilitate trade with agrarian goods for both countries. For the year2010 are also the implementation of a foreign trade zone with the European Union planned.

Bodenschätze

Morocco it is rich at phosphate why approx. 75% of the phosphate from Morocco, promoted world-wide, come. Besides there is raw material occurrences of phosphorus, oil, natural gas,Coal, salt, iron ore, lead, copper, zinc, silver, gold, manganese, nickel, cobalt. Morocco can cover its need of energy only to approximately 13% from own means.

agriculture

the agriculture of Morocco makes 16% at the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT out (conditions:2003), can be regarded however as the most important sector of the economy, there here approx. 43% of the employed persons population are busy. Are cultivated grain, leguminous plants, vegetables, fruit, olives, Zitrusfrüchte, cotton, wine, almonds, Datteln and tobacco. The cattle breeding in the steppes of the Meseta, inThe east of the country and in the mountains is partly nomadisch operated (sheep, goats, cattle, donkey, camels, horses). Approximately 10% of the forest stand are cork oaks (Morocco is the third biggest cork producer of the earth). Coastal and Hochseefischerei at the Atlantic coast are important forthe export.

hashish production

on a surface of approx. 250,000 hectares hemp is cultivated, in order to produce hashish, which possesses a market share of approximately 70% in Europe. On the export, which covers about 3,000 tons hashish per year, liveroughly 200,000 farmers with families, i.e. about 1 million Maroccan.

industry

in the industrial sector, which becomes mining industry and the building industry altogether 33% of the gross inland product gained (conditions: 2003). The industry processes above all the agrarian and fishing yields. Importantlyis also the textile industry, whereby in addition, the traditional processing of leather, textiles and metal still plays a role. The moreover one are determining the production of electrotechnical goods, metalworking, the production of autoparts and the chemical industryfor the Moroccan industrial sector.

services and tourism

within the service range become 53% (conditions: 2003) GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT of Morocco gains, whereby it concerns here mainly services concerning the tourism. About 80% of the tourists, who visit Morocco,are Europeans.

foreign trade

to be exported annually goods in a total value of approx. 7.1 billion Euro (conditions: 2003). Main export goods of the kingdom are food and tobacco, which approx. 33.6% of the volume of exports constitute, consumer goods (22.1%), phosphates andFertilizer (21.7%) as well as fish and fishery products (14.5%). Principal clients of Moroccan goods are France (27%), Spain (13%), Great Britain (8%) as well as Germany and Italy (in each case 6%). To Morocco annually goods in the total value of approx. are imported. 9,6Billion Euro. Mainly it concerns here industrielle of Vorprodukte and semimanufactured products (23.8%), machines and means of transport (20.2%) as well as food (13.5%). Main suppliers of these import goods are France (24.3%), Spain (9.8%) and Great Britain (6.0%).

One that by farmost important sources of income of Morocco are however above all the money transfers of the abroad living and working Maroccans. However live in Europe approx. 1 million Moroccan work emigrants, who provide by their transfers for a foreign exchange supply of approximately 2.2 billion euro, a sumwhich exceeds the incomes from the tourism or the export of phosphates and for Morocco is thus essential.


traffic

Morocco has airports in Casablanca, Tanger, Rabat, Tétouan, aluminium Hoceïma, Fès, Oujda, Marrakesch, Ouarzazate, Essaouira and Nador. The airport most important for the tourism is Agadir. Motorways are likewise present.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

culture

gehördenden to the world cultural heritage

, Web on the left of

Commons: Morocco - pictures, videos and/or audio files



coordinates: 28°-36° N, 1°-13° W

 

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