Mars resounding plan
the Mars resounding plan, officially European Recovery Program (short: ERP) was the most important economical reconstruction program of the USA, which benefitted to the Second World War destroyed Western Europe. The program became after the US Secretary of State and Nobel peace prize carrier of the yearly 1953 George C.Marshal (term of office 1947 - 1949) designated, on whose initiative it decreases/goes back. It was prepared particularly by William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan in the State Department.
The plan was developed at a meeting of the participating European states at the 6.Juni 1947. The Soviet Union andthe Eastern European states were invited likewise, to Stalin saw the plan however as danger for the supremacy of the Soviet Union in the Eastern European states, which it wanted to use as safety belts. It forbade therefore the participation to the states under Soviet crew, that also all held themselves. The program1947 began and took 4 years. In this period the USA carried for the states out of the organization for European Economic CO operation (OEEC) approximately 12.4 billion dollar, correspond to 85 billion euro in the year 2005, at credits, raw materials, food and goods.
As thatProgram ran out, was excluded the economy of all participating states, Germany, more strongly than before the war. Over the next two decades it came into completely Western Europe to a never dagewesenem growth and prosperity. The Mars resounding plan is considered also as the first step for European integration. The establishment of onecommon institution (the OEEC) was a condition for the fact that tariff barriers were diminished. An intended consequence was the systematic assumption of the American style of leadership in enterprises. In the last years historians analyzed both the reasons and the effectiveness of the Mars resounding plan, with which most appliesit however still as good and very successful.
In the last years historians doubted both the reasons and the success of the Mars resounding plan. Some it believe now that the advantages of the Mars resounding plan the result of the new laissez-faire politics was actually, which permitted the marketsto stabilize by economic growth. Some Americans criticize the plan, since he justified the policy, problems more foreign, to repair failed national economies by money of the USA.
the Second World War
21 years after the end of the First World War the Second World War by the war of aggression Hitler - Germany on Poland one released. At the end Germany fought and the others Axis powers against the USA, which Soviet Union and the other allied ones. Acted with the allied ones however more around a purpose alliance, between the communist Soviet Union and the western allied ones with its liberal democracy and free-market economy existed a clear contrast. In that 6 yearscontinuing war large parts of Europe were devastated and several millions humans died. Above all the large industrial cities were destroyed by the bomb attacks, millions became shelterless. By the destruction of the agriculture it came in several parts of Europe to a lack of food, particularly badly was it into thatheavy winters 1946 and 1947. The smaller cities and localities in Western Europe had suffered less damage, were however isolated by the substantial destruction of the infrastructure. In their conferences of war the allied ones had tried to agree on the treatment of Germany after the war under it also overthe demand of reparations.
the European and above all
German economy had fallen development of Germany and Europe after the First World War into a recession. The policy at that time to hold Germany by the demand of high reparations from a renewed war had thoseSeizure of power of Hitler, and thus the renewed world war, along-cause. The USA had changed over after the First World War to the isolationism, even if they tried growth in Europe to support and partly in the Reparationsfrage for Germany used themselves.
30< /ref> after the Second World War was one itself inWashington unite that the crisis should not repeat itself after the First World War. The State Department under Harry S. Truman used itself for an active foreign policy, met with it at the congress however rather on refusal. At first one hoped that for the reconstruction of Europe not much donewill must, and that Great Britain and France succeed with the help of its colonies, a fast reconstruction of their national economies. However there was only small progress, which cold winter had the situation further intensified until 1947. The European national economies were at this time still present under their efficiencyBeginning of war. They pointed only few indications of a growth, a high work lot ratio and lack of food led in several states to strikes and unrests. Agricultural production reached 83%, the industrielle production 88%, the exports 59% of the Vorkriegsstandes. <ref> Michael J. Hogan. The marshal Plan pg. 30< /ref> after secondWorld war was one itself in Washington united that the crisis was not after the First World War
the dringenste Probelm the lack of food. Before the war Western Europe had imported food from Eastern Europe, this way was now cut off by the developing iron curtain. Those was particularly badSituation in Germany where everyone one 1946/1947 on the average only insufficient 1800 Kilokalorieen to itself to take knew.< ref> Alan S. Milward. The Reconstruction OF Western Europe< /ref> William Clayton reported Washington that “millions of humans slowly verhungern.” <ref> Gregory A. Fossedal. Our Finest Hour< /ref> Similarly importantly forthe fall of the economy was the lack of coal, which by the heavy winter 1946/47, which had been aggravated let hundred Germans erfrieren, again. The humanitarian demand to terminate this condition was a reason for the Mars resounding plan.
The only great power, their infrastructure the warnearly without prejudice to, were the United States had projected. Later than most European states took part in the war and on own territory only little damage had suffered. The American gold reserves were still still available, likewise the large agricultural and industrielle production basis. During the war yearsthe country, since it both for the own spleen acre and the allied ones produced, had the fastest economic growth of its history. After the war the factories changed production over fast to consumer goods, the lack of the war years by a boom with the expenditures for consumer goods were replaced. Neverthelessthe long-term development of the economy hung on the trade, in order to secure by the export durable prosperity. With the funds of the Mars resounding plan the Europeans goods and raw materials from the United States could buy.
development of the American-Soviet relations
to the Potsdamer conference, after thatEnd of the war in Europe, the opposite opinions and goals became visible. At this time still another consent existed over the demand of reparations of Germany, whose height was however disputed. Germany was divided in four zones of occupation, the allied control council should decisions for “Germany asWhole " meet. The food shortage in the hard winter 1946/1947 led to a reorientation of the Americans and Briten, since so the “reeducation” (Reeducation), Germans was not possible for which. This becomes for example in the combination of the American ones and the British zone the Bizonevisibly. A further reason for the reorientation was particularly for Great Britain the load by the crew costs, in the USA came it therefore particularly on the part of the republicans to demands after a return to the isolationism, the democratic US president Harry Truman was the opinion,the USA would have to notice their world-political responsibility. A reason for the American interest in the reconstruction of Germany was its economic meaning for the USA. Off the plan of a RH-Agrarisierung Germany (Morgenthau plan) one had gotten in July off 1947, when the JSC 1067 was replaced, asthen it became clear that the economy would have to suffer completely Europe under the De-industrialization of Germany.
confrontation to support Truman doctrine and
Mars resounding plan of the trips for the decision the European countries including Germany was the cold war beginning. As reaction to the situationin Greece Truman announced to 12. March 1947 the Truman doctrine, after which the USA will support all “free peoples” in the fight against totalitarian systems of government. Greece was the resolutions of the conferences of war to consequence British sphere of influence, nevertheless supported the Soviet Union the there communists in the civil war.Since Great Britain was not in the position, with the situation there to become finished it asked for the support of the USA.
as element of the Truman doctrine to 5. June 1947 announced George marshal in a speech before the graduate class of Harvard University: “It would neither fittings nor efficacious for this Government ton undertake ton draw UP unilaterally A program designed ton place Europe on its feet economically. This is the business OF the Europeans. The initiative, I think, must come from Europe. The role OFthis country should consist OF friendly aid into the drafting OF A European program and OF later support OF visits A program so far as it May practical for US ton of DO in such a way. The program should A joint one, agreed tons by ANUMBER, if emergency all European nation.”
(German: „It would be neither appropriate nor appropriate, if the government of the United States on its part would sketch a program, in order to accomplish the economic reputting of Europe. That is thing of the Europeans themselves. I think, the initiative must of Europego out. Our role should consist of promoting the draft of a European program in a friendly manner and to support this program later, as far as is practical for us. A common program should be sketched, behind that, if not all, so nevertheless a number of European nationsstand. “
- George F. Kennan prepares the fundamentals in May 1947 on behalf of marshal.
- Marshal places his idea of the European reconstruction for the first time to 5. June 1947 in a speech at the US-American Harvard university before students forwards.
- After the details of the Mars resounding plan on severalConferences discussed were, formed 1948 16 European countries the committee for European economic co-operation (OEEC), the forerunner of the today's OECD. The USA guaranteed in the context of the European reconstruction program (ERP ) up to the year 1952 financial support to these countries. This program was accompaniedof the states, who is to be settled from today's viewpoint between practical pieces of advice, involved by an information campaign for the population , political education and propaganda.
Originally the support for all countries war-involved was planned. But the Soviet Union forced a part of the countries in their sphere of influence on thoseTo do without means. Also at that time still democratic Czechoslovakia had to do without pressure of Moscow. So only the western countries could profit from it. Also the neutral states like Switzerland and Sweden got financial assistance.
After the break of Yugoslavia with the Soviet Union in the summer supported 1948the USA the country with auxiliary supplies and generous credits. First of several auxiliary supplies in the context of the Mars resounding plan for Yugoslavia took place to 23. November 1950 to Belgrade.
The countries had to be received however also obligations. The respective national budget had to be stabilized by currency reforms.
The original text of theMars resounding plan can be checked here:wikisource: Marshal Plan
achievements from the Mars resounding plan
Great Britain: 3.6 billion US Dollar
France: 3.1 billion US Dollar
Italy: 1.6 billion US Dollar
West Germany: 1.4 billion US Dollar
the Netherlands: 1.0 billion US Dollar
Greece: 0.8 billion US Dollar
Austria: 0.7 billion US Dollar
different States of (Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Iceland, Yugoslavia (starting from 1950), Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey): 2.4 billion US Dollar
in the context of the Mars resounding plan sixteen European countries received altogether about 14 billion US Dollar, the George C from 1948 to 1952. Mars resounding center goes evenof 16.2 billion US Dollar out.
the USA granted to Europe due to the Mars resounding plan of funds to the amount of altogether nearly 13 billion US Dollar (USD), West Germany received from it approx. 1,4 billion USD. The sum total corresponds to about 100 billion USD in the today's monetary value.
the administration of the means in Germany
a special meaning got the kreditanstalt fuer wiederaufbau (KfW), to 16. December 1948 in Frankfurt/Main their work took up. To 5. November 1948 had created the economic council of the united economic area the conditions. Hermann Josef Abs became executive committee.
in Western Europe
the Mars resounding plan was at the same time also a concept against crises of the post-war period. The British Empire was weakened by tendencies of decolonization strongly, stability relating to domestic affairs in France and Italy endangered, the future of Germany was open and the socialand economic problems awaited urgently to a solution.
Austria succeeded it as only country, which was occupied by Soviet troops not only of western, but also, to come to the funds of the Mars resounding plan. The agreement between the USA and Austria becameto 2. July 1948 closed, after which Austria got the means as Grants (gift) in the form of special goods. In response Austria had to stabilize the Schilling and to arrange the national budget as balanced as possible. The Soviets left themselves the agreement in the allied commission by another rate of exchangetheir cash assets buy.
The received goods had to be sold to the home-market price. The obtained funds had on a counterpart - account to be deposited. Goods deliveries took place until 1953 and reached a value of approximately a billion dollar. This account became to 12. July 1962 into the control of theAustrian state hand over, made of which then the private-economically led ERP rear developed.
The promotions for Austria failed relatively highly. But there were two reasons: On the one hand Austria before the Second World War was very weakly industrialized and had to establish only an industry, on the other hand one Austria had such as GermanyReparation payments to the Soviet Union pay. Due to these two reasons Austria was considered as particularly eligible for promotion.
liberals American business circles feared the economic
meaning for the USA after the Second World War because of the economic Niederganges Europe the loss of important sales markets and/or. Trade partner. The economic ErstarkenEurope was useful also to the American export.
the political meaning for the USA
beside it came to the program however also an important function in the framework since March 1947 of the USA pursued containment politics, the Truman doctrine in such a way specified opposite the USSR. ThoseConnection of the governments and national economies of the European countries to the USA were strengthened. Although the offer of American economic aid had been addressed officially also to the USSR and other communist countries, an acceptance could not be expected for ideological reasons. So seen was the Mars resounding plan alsoa “child of the cold war”.
the USSR and the Mars resounding plan
the USSR leaned Paris conference of minister of foreign affairs ( 27 by minister of foreign affairs Molotow on the occasion of that. June to 2. July 1947) as expected a participation in the ERP as interference into the sovereignty of the European states off. It preventedthe inclusion of the states of central and Eastern Europe into the Mars resounding plan, in their direct sphere of influence. Stated interest in a participation among other things Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary. Instead the USSR initiated the establishment of the Kominform and in January 1949 of the RGW as political economicalCounterpart to the containment politics and the Mars resounding plan.
Mars resounding plan today
at present administers the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs the special estate at a value of twelve billion euro and finances thereby programs for the promotion of economy development. For the future is planned to transfer the special fund to the national KfW bankers' syndicate. Alwaysagain there are public discussions over it whether a dissolution of this special estate is planned for the short term reorganization of the state household by the Federal Ministry for finances.
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Mars resounding plan - word origin, synonymsand translations|
- Originalton of George of marshal Rede to 5. June 1947 to the Harvard University
- of film and clay/tone documents to the Mars resounding plan in Austria
- US history: Marshal Plan
- Mars resounding plan time border, speech, reasons of etc.
- Mars resounding plan and Federal Railroads
- kalenderblatt.de: Mars resounding plan announces
- over „Mars resounding plan to entry “ in the Austria encyclopedia of AEIOU
- Truman PresidentialLIBRARY: Marshal plan 1946 - 1967 (EN)
- the American crew directive JCS 1067 (April 1945 - July 1947) (EN)
- the Stuttgart speech of the US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes to 6. September 1946
- German economy 1947, president report. (EN)
- German managing 1947, president report. (EN)
- Federal center for pole. Education The Mars resounding plan
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