Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger (* 26. September 1889 in Messkirch; † 26. May 1976 in Freiburg in mash gau) was a German philosopher, that particularly by its 1927 work appeared its and time of the philosophy 20.Century gave crucial impulses.

Table of contents


early time

The Mesmerhaus in Messkirch, in the Martin Heidegger buildup

Heidegger originated from a simple family and a rural environment. Owing to financial support of the catholic church it studied in Freiburg in mash gau first theology, late philosophy. Heidegger attained a doctorate 1913 over the science of the judgement in the psychology mash, 1915 it habilitierte with Heinrich Rickert over the meaning and category teachings of the Duns Scotus. In the following years he worked in Freiburg as an assistant Edmund Husserls and became trailer thatof this justified Phänomenologie. After an extraordinary Professur in Marburg from 1923 to 1927 Heidegger became 1928 in Freiburg professor as a successor on Husserls chair. 1927 appeared its attention exciting work its and time. Besides a public ensuredDispute with the Neukantianer Ernst Cassirer for larger admittingness Heideggers (publishes in the appendix of its book Kant or the problem of the Metaphysik).

national socialism

Heidegger stepped at the 1. May 1933 the NSDAP and became to 10. May1933 rector of the University of Freiburg. Already in February 1934 it withdrew as a rector again and dedicated themselves only to the teachings and research. Heideggers relationship to the National Socialist regime is ambiguous: Thus it forbade book burns as a rector onthe university, on the other hand one he did not undertake anything, in order to dam increasing anti-Semitic resentment at the university. It is important in this connection that there was for professors no obligation to party member shank, while other officials were obligated to the entrance into the NSDAP. Heideggerexpressed itself never in detail or clearly over its party member shank during the third realm.

However he speaks in a letter at Hannah Arendt of 1932 (appeared in the total expenditure) clearly about his attitude opposite Jews and resists reproaches, heis anti-Semitic adjusted. It calls there among other things Hannah Arendt, Husserl, Cassirer as vouchers of its friendship to Jews. After the seizure of power he did not express himself to this topic. The absence of an anti-Semitic attitude certifies also Safranski in its, He very probably speaks book “a master from Germany” (see literature) there however of Heideggers of temporary more obviously per-National Socialist attitude.

Also in a much considered interview with the mirror, which publishes on Heideggers desire only after its death in May 1976became, he did not come to a clear dissociation of his political attitudes. „I see the straight task of thinking in helping within its borders that humans attain at all only a to-calibrating nature of the technology. The national socialism is into thoseDirection gone; these people however were much too unbedarft in thinking, in order to win a really explicit relationship to, which happens today and is for three centuries on the way. “Heidegger has for the systematic destruction of the European Jews after the waronly one sentence found. Agriculture is nourishing industry, „in the nature the same “like the production of corpses in Gaskammern and extermination camps , motorized now, the same like the blockade and Aushungerung of countries, the same like the production of hydrogen bombs. (1. December1949)

There are contradictory statements concerning Heideggers behavior opposite Husserl to the 1930er years; Heidegger spoke here of purely philosophical disputes and confessed „human failure “. As Heideggers Hauptwerk: To be and time was again presented 1941, was missing the dedicationfor Edmund Husserl.

Heideggers refusal to take to the Holocaust position loaded its friendships among other things with Karl Löwith, Hans Jonas and Paul Celan. Its friendship with Hannah Arendt was interrupted during the time of the national socialism, became after the warbut revives. The first meeting with Arendt in Switzerland took place 1950. The Rezeption of Heideggers works was loaded after the war by its National Socialist past. It is possible that Heidegger was not anti-Semitic, although he denunziert Jews,and disputed, as far its sympathies for the national socialism extended.

This question concerns meanwhile the role of philosophy in the third realm at all. Heidegger however left 1953 over the national socialism still (in the pressure „of the introduction to the Metaphysik “, 1935 heldLecture) the cliche of „the internal truth and size of this movement “print. 1987 flashed with the publication of the book „Heidegger et le nazisme “from Victor Farías a new, to today final discussion. The crucial question thereby is whetherHeideggers thinking to fascism leads or whether it concerns a purely personal mistake (Heidegger: „Who thinks, errs largely largely “). Prominent positions represent among other thingsJürgen Habermas, which sees potentials of the resistance in the work 1933 ago rather, or Derrida, which considers the writings anti-fascist after 1945 due to its radical solution of the traditional Metaphysik. The sheath line of this debate runs unclearly between Germany and France.

late years

in the context of the Entnazifizierung Heidegger of that becameFrench Besatzungskommandantur, based on a brieflichen appraisal expressed by Karl Jaspers, which demanded research possibilities, a training prohibition. 1951 took place the retirement in Freiburg. In the following years and published he continued working, besides he held above all lectures, often inprivate circles. Beside the mentioned mirror interview it gave also isolates television interviews. Important for it still another journey was to Greece. To 26. May 1976 died Heidegger, was buried it in its place of birth Messkirch.


Heideggersentire work is certainly of its question or question about the sense of its, thus the question about what we mean, if we „is “, „am “etc. say. According to Heidegger this question came in the history of the Ontologie (its teachings)never to-calibrating into the view, also not in their Greek origins with Aristoteles, which supplies being ends to its “Metaphysik” a systematization and a categorization of the different regions of the Seins (with the main distinction of independent substance and dependent Akzidenz) to bring up for discussion however without the sense of its which could make the diversity of its meanings understandable.

Heideggers early philosophy develops on the phenomenological method of his teacher Edmund Husserl , which he extends and reinterprets to the Existentialontologie so mentioned. ThisAttempt kulminiert in „its and time “(1927); it looks for the entrance to its question in the existence. Thus Heidegger calls its which is „per I “certain being ends, i.e. being ends. Heidegger breaks with the philosophical tradition, ofthe general category „“to go out, and lights up humans instead an individual, „excellent “and „jemeiniges “its: „the existence “, which is everyone of us. Thus its concept differs in principle from anthropologischen as well as socialphenomenological drafts, like it in the works GeorgeHarsh ore Meads, Helmuth Plessners or Alfred contactor ′ formulated is approximately contemporaneous. Philosophy-historically Heidegger leads the individualistische Hegel - criticism Kierkegaards far as well as Nietz radical attack on the European Metaphysik.

The intention Heideggers in its and time is it to arrive at its question by anvisiert the time as transzendentalen horizon about the question its. However the fragment remained work arrives „to be and to time “not up to this point. The delivered piece of the work is limited upthe ontologische analysis of the existence, opening „the concern “as its existence and putting “the temporalness out” as sense of these „concern “. See for this the major item: Its and time

the development of its thinking in the connectionon „its and time “leads Heidegger starting from center of the 30's into the so-called „turn “. Heidegger meant to have recognized that its earlier Philosophieren and its representation had remained arrested for the tradition still too much, around itsto correspond appropriately. Also the late Heidegger gives the phenomenological method to Husserls (maxim: „To the things themselves! “) up, he does not bring up for discussion her however no longer explicitly and has the transzendentale view course leaned against Kant (question about the conditions of the possibilityan actual execution) as unsuitable discharges to in-course-long in right way into placing its question. After the turn Heideggers thinking leads away from everyone „scientific “methodology to a meditation on „its as such “and „its history “,their content to today no satisfying evaluation found.

The late Heidegger embraces on the ursprünglicheren sources of the Vorsokratiker back, in one „eddies of original questions “still behind the logical and metaphysical distinctions, particularly from subject and object orto decrease/go back from spirit and body. During in the earlier writings a equivalent role beside its, shifts Heidegger was awarded to individual humans („existence “) now „the people nature “into a happening, that from the four moments „earth and sky,the Göttlichen and the mortal ones “as „Geviert “exist. This motive unfolds Heidegger also in the argument („discussion “) particularly vorsokratischer Aphorismen as well as some seals of Stefan George, George Trakl and above all Friedrich Hölderlin. From these discussions Heideggers developslate language philosophy, in which the language is „the house of the Seins “.

Heidegger keeps itself against the designation „existential philosophy “for its thinking, although straight proceed from him the most important impulses for this direction of philosophy. Instead it speaksof the being LV thinking: The nature of humans is „Ek-sistenz “, i.e. was pending „“in its to understand and only about its even ago completely.

effect and Rezeption

important impulses of Heidegger received the Existentialismus in France and in Germanythe present Hermeneutik, which found a central exponent particularly with Hans George Gadamer. Heidegger affected numerous philosophers such as Maurice Merleau Ponty, Jean Paul Sartre, Emmanuel Lévinas, Jacques Derrida, Hannah Arendt, Gianni Vattimo or Ernst Tugendhat.To „the catholic Heideggerschule “(Erich Przywara) Gustav Siewerth, Johann Baptist Lotz, Karl Rahner and max Mueller were counted.

Its philosophical working was rejected however also by verschiedendsten sides, so for example of the Viennese circle. This criticismis above all languageanalytically and logically motivated. From large sharpness the attacks are on the part of the Frankfurt school, particularly Theodor W. Adornos, those the intellectual life in and the 60's 50's 20. Century polarized. Here is thereabove all questions, which concern the connection of philosophy and political commitment. Heidegger ignored these attacks.

Main earnings/services are Heideggers discovery of two time scales. Apart from the objectively measurable time there is a subjective time, some now of oneBefore and an afterwards differentiates. Both scales are independent and not one on the other reducible. This thought finds also in the current science theory attention. Certainly Heidegger thereby is located in a line with biological concepts of an per individual time, already in 19.Century were formulated, so by Karl Ernst von Baer and later by the Jakobs Johann of Uexküll.

More with difficulty to judge the remarkable absence of an ethics is in Heideggers work. Some see therein the cause of its to Nazi tables commitment. Others however findstraight here a lever, in order to overcome the European (Christian, logozentristische) rule thinking, which ontologisiert in that subject - object - divorce act of violence, in accordance with Biblical „power you the earth subject “. Heideggers preference for death found broad refusal. Alreadyits teacher Husserl contradicted, and the Gegenmodell „of the Geburtlichkeit developed Hannah Arendt, which had a Liaison with Heidegger, “against its concept of the number of deaths.

To the style of thinking Heideggers: he always works himself with Etymologien, in the form, which hegives them, not to occupy do not leave. Sometimes they are wrongly, never proof strong, but for many recipients berauschend and most suggestiv. Becomes remarkable this literature scientists in view of the daring interpretations, which Heidegger gives to some poems Hölderlins , Trakls , Rilkes and Georges. To itit is to be suspended in each case that these seals become reinterpreted the illustration taken by Heideggers of own world view and „“.

written one sources

  • the Martin Heidegger total expenditure appears in the Vittorio monastery man publishing house. It will presumably cover over 100 volumes.
  • Martin Heidegger: Itsand time, Tübingen 1993, ISBN of 3-484-70122-6
  • mirrors interview with Martin Heidegger: Only a God can save us. The mirror 31. May 1976

clay/tone documents

  • of the thing of thinking lectures, speeches and an interview (5 CDs),The hearing publishing house.
  • The set of the identity 1 CD Klett Cotta publishing house.
  • Martin Heidegger reads Hölderlin 1 CD Klett Cotta publishing house.
  • Hölderlins earth and sky 2 CDs Klett Cotta publishing house.


  • Rudolf Brandner: Heideggers term of history and the modern historical thinking, Vienna: Passages publishing house 1994.
  • Heinrich weighing and Petzet: Go toward a star. Meetings and discussions with Martin Heidegger 1929-1976. Frankfurt/Main: Societäts publishing house, 1983. ISBN 3-7973-0414-5 (, the apologetische biography sanctioned by the house Heidegger).
  • Dieter Thomä: The time of theEven and the time thereafter. To the criticism of text history Martin Heideggers 1910-1976. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp publishing house, 1990.
  • Dieter Thomä (Hg.): Heidegger manual. Life - work - effect. Stuttgart: Publishing house J.B. Metzler, 2003.
  • Ruediger Safranski: A master outGermany Carl Hanser publishing house, 1994 (this biography is at the same time an introduction to the work.)
  • Hugo Ott: Martin Heidegger. On the way to its biography. Campus publishing house, 1992.
  • Friedrich William of gentleman man: Ways in the event. FaM 1994.
  • Otto Pöggeler (Hg.): Heidegger. Perspectivesto the interpretation of its work. Weinheim: Belz Athenäum: 1994, 3. supplemented edition. ISBN 3-89547-010-4.
  • Heinrich Rome brook: The basic intention of the ontologischen Phänomenologie Martin Heideggers; in: ders.: Phänomenologie of present consciousness. Freiburg & Munich 1980, S.73-170.
  • Heinrich Rome brook: Philosophical one Time criticism today. Present paging in the light of fundamental history (1984), again-printed in: ders.: The world as alive structure. Problems and solutions of the Strukturontologie: Freiburg i.Br. (Row philosophy Bd. 5) 2003.
  • Victor Farías: Heidegger and the national socialism. Frankfurtat the Main: S. Fischer publishing house, 1987; from the French by Klaus Laermann.
  • Jürg Altwegg (Hrg.): The Heidegger controversy Athenäum, 1988 (a collection of critical statements on the Farias book)
  • Hermann Schweppenhäuser: Studies of the Heidegger language theory. Munich: edition text + criticism, 1988.
  • Thomas Rentsch: Martin Heidegger - its and death. Munich 1989.
  • Jean Francois Lyotard: Heidegger and “the Jews” Vienna: Passages publishing house 1988. ISBN 3-900767-11-4
  • Jacques Derrida: Of the spirit. Heidegger and the question. Frankfurt/Main: SuhrkampPublishing house, 1988.
  • Jacques Derrida: Sex (Heidegger), Vienna: Passages publishing house 2005.
  • Group nail: Heidegger for bar visitors. Duesseldorf & Bonn: Parerga publishing house, 1997.
  • Günter Figal: Martin Heidegger for introduction. Hamburg: Junius, 1999, 3. Edition, ISBN 3-88506-308-5.
  • Günter Figal: Martin Heidegger. Phänomenologie of the liberty. Weinheim: Beltz Athenäum publishing house, 2000, 3. Edition, ISBN 3-89547-721-4.
  • Günther differently: Over Heidegger. Hrsg. of Gerhard upper mud. With a Nachw. by Dieter Thomä. Munich: C.H.Beck 2001, ISBN 3-406-48259-7.
  • Karl cardinal Lehmann: Of the origin and sense of its question in thinking Martin Heideggers. Freiburg 1962 (thesis); Mainz 2003, ISBN 3-934450-12-1.
  • Emmanuel Faye: Heidegger, l'introduction you nazisme dans la philosophy. Paris: Publishing house Albin Michel, 2005.
  • Martin Heidegger: “Écrits of politiques. 1933-1966 ". Presentation, traduction et notes par François Fédier. Paris: Éditions Gallimard, 1995. ISBN 2-07-073277-0
  • François Fédier: “Anatomy d'un scandale”. Paris: Robert Laffont, 1988. ISBN 2-221-05658-2
  • François Fédier: “Regarder Voir”. Paris: Les Belles Lettres/Archimbaud, 1995.ISBN 2-251-44059-3
  • Hadrien France Lanord et Fabrice Midal (text rassemblés et édités par): “La fête de la pensée - Hommage à François Fédier “. Paris: Lettrage distribution, 2001. ISBN 2-901952-37-2
  • Hans's Dieter Carpenter: Martin and Fritz Heidegger. Philosophyand Fastnacht. Munich: C.H. Beck, 2005, ISBN 3-406-52881-3.
  • Elsbeth & Alfred philosopher: Martin Heidegger and its homeland. Stuttgat: Klett Cotta publishing house, 2005, ISBN 3-608-94092-8.
  • Gisbert Hoffmann: Heideggers Phänomenologie. Consciousness - reflection - even (I) andTime in the early work. Peppering castle: King living & Neumann 2005, ISBN 3-8260-3144-X
  • Manfred vulture: Martin Heidegger. Reinbek: Rowohlt paperback publishing house, 2005, ISBN 3-499-50665-3

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Martin Heidegger - quotations
  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and overMartin Heidegger in the catalog of the DDB


  • works Heideggers in all languages in the Heidegger collection of the university library Freiburg in mash gau [1]
  • literature over Heidegger in the Heidegger collection of the Universitätsbiblitohek Freiburg in mash gau [2]
  • Martin Heidegger web site of castle hardHeidegger. Biographic, current, information too: Meßkircher-Martin-Heidegger-Stiftung, Martin-Heidegger-Gesellschaft e.V., Martin-Heidegger-Forschungsgruppe.
  • Martin Heidegger -- Resources web page of Daniel Fidel Ferrer. Biographic and bibliographic, resources, research initiatives (on English).
  • literature, meetings and other pieces of news to the Hermeneuti Phänomenologie - the first Web logto Martin Heidegger and its philosophy
  • philosophy sides: Martin Heidegger (further one left)
  • the Heidegger song
  • introduction to the Metaphysik overview of Heideggers term of the Seins on the basis the second part of the “introduction to the Metaphysik”
  • Heidegger portal of the university library Freiburg in mash gau - most extensive ones Bibliographies with constant distortion of the dependent bibliography (magazine essays and book contributions)
  • criticism at Martin Heidegger in the culture-critical encyclopedia
  • entry into philolex predominantly critical argument with Heidegger
  • [3] franc Madro “the Herrchen of the Seins. Heidegger and the jargon of the dishonesty " from thatelectrical. magazine parapluie, over its Nazi manipulation and above all appropriate thinking/language structures, literature


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