the former Jewish fortress Masada (Hebrew: “Mezadá” מצדה, “fortress”) is in Israel at the southwest end of the dead sea. It became essentially of king Herodes I. (the large one) for instance between 40 v. Chr. and 30 v. Chr.onfor the place some decades of an older and smaller fortress builds. At its time it was considered as uneinnehmbar. Been on a high surface with rocky steep slopes, it was originally accessible only over three narrow seam paths. While the difference in height amounts to to the dead sea lain east over 400 meters,the slope direction the west is 100 meters high.
However by the situation and the good observableness of the access roads that was good 300 times 600 meters large and even summit plateau in form of a lozenge to defend. The fortress the mountain became by the buildings of the Herodes: it surrounded the plateau with a cheese mat wall with nearly forty towers. Within the fortress walls he let a large number of further buildings build, among other things depots, horse stables, accommodations and palaces, under it the north palace in-built over several stages into the mountain-slope.
Around the desert fortress in the case of FE storagein addition for a long time defend to be able, large food supplies were put on and 12 cisterns dug, which could take up several ten thousand cubic meters rain water.
Table of contents
to a FE storage came itonly some decades after Herodes' death (in the year 4 v. Chr.) with the Jewish rebellion against the Roman crew around 70 n. Chr. The Jewish-Roman historian Flavius Josephus delivered FE storage history Masadas in its work “the Jewish war”. Therefore defended themselves in the years 70to 73 n. Chr., after the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem, in Masada altogether 973 Zeloten against a supremacy of 15.000 Roman Legionären under the commander Flavius Silva. The field gentleman left first the mountain with one over four kilometers is enough for wall to surround, overthose besieged from their environment to cut off. Altogether eight camps were put on, whose remainder until today is visible. Subsequently, the Romans at the lower west side of the fortress built this very day a well received FE storage ramp, which was enough to to the walls of the fortress. Across this ramp ledit ramming supports and other FE storage machines to the fortress near, in order to bring the wall to the collapse, which finally also succeeded to them.
Flavius Josephus reports that besieged in view of their situation offering no prospects decided, rather than free humans to die than to the Romans into the hands toofall. When the soldiers the fortress stormed, they found only two women and five children living. All other humans in the fortress had selected free death. By this excessive quantity Masada became the symbol of the Jewish liberty will.
Masada in the modern times
after the case remained leaving Masada most time, apart from a temporary settlement by Byzantine monks. The fortress came into oblivion, until it was rediscovered in the year 1838; it was excavated then particularly in the sixties of the 20. Century under the direction of Yigael Yadin. Although Masada was forgotten for a long time and in addition the historical reliability of the reports of Flavius Josephus is disputed, the excessive quantity could unfold a large effect.
The procedures around the fortress Masada have a substantial influence on thatSelf understanding Israel Defense Forces, the Israeli army. The conclusion maneuvers of the military basic training end after two days duration on the fortress. In the oath of the soldiers the fortress becomes a symbol of the Jewish self statement will: “Masada is to never fall again”.
Today Masada is oneimportant station for tourist, those the dead sea, the desert Negev and the close convenient oasis EN Gedi visit. In the year 2001 Masada was taken up to the list of the world culture and nature inheritance of the mankind of the UNESCO. The objects of interest in Jericho and Qumran are inTo reach moment because of the strained security situation for tourists only with difficulty.
Masada in the film
into the 1960er years overturned Hollywood a film Masada (film). One of the catapults built for it is to be seen until today. It inspired Monty Python to its film the life of the Brian. 1981 produced the American Broadcasting company a fourth-hasty TV serial over Masada, which had been turned at the original scene (direction: Boris Sagal); the series was combined later into a feature.
- M. Avi Yonah et al., Israel exploration journal 7, 1957, 1-160 (excavation report Masada)
- Y. Yadin, Masada, London 1966, (German: Hamburg 1967)
- Y. Yadin, Israel exploration journal 15, 1965 (excavation report Masada)
Web on the left of
- articles Masada in the Jewish Encyclopedia
- reliability of Josephus
- LIVIUS: Jewish wars
- UNESCO world cultural heritage: Masada
- Israeli national park administration
coordinates: 31°19 ′ N 35°21 ′ O