Machine

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Here the concrete reason,why this article on the QA sides was registered:The introduction should be wikifiziert more concisely and. The section „western emancipation of the machine “is clearly too essayistic and thus no more NPOV Martin Zeise 21:54, 24. April 2006 (CEST)


machines (μηχανη griech. mechané: Stand, device, cunning) are used of humans and few mammals as aids to the mechanical effect, to the perception and articulation. Usually become from them a reinforcement of the own forces and abilities, a purposeful force employment and the more comfortable completionfrom routine tasks expects.

Machines are foreignorganized and are to function, without intending somewhat thereby. The machine and the recording (writing, picture) correspond themselves in expectations, which one has to it: They remain stable, make viewers and users directly and are opposite indifferent them.


Table of contents

demarcation

  • for information about abstract machine models, like it in thatTo computer science to be used, see automat (computer science).
  • In the literature of the baroque and the classical period also fabulous creatures were called machines, since in the seal the antique one was often it the fabulous creatures, which represented the mechanism, which history advanced,see literature.
  • Furthermore also social sciences and psychology take up the mechanical aspects of social and psychological necessities or restrictions, in order to present psychological or social circumstances as machines, as for instance the philosopher Gilles Deleuze.

definitions of theTerm machine

whether a tool a machine is alone already, is view thing. The spectrum of possible machines reaches from a lever to the plants of the Petrochemie extending over kilometers.

older definitions

  • End of 20. Century: In Europe the machine in the machine guideline 98/37/EG is defined. Conversion to German right by the equipment and product safety law (GPSG) and the 9. Regulation to the GPSG (machine regulation). A machine is essentially independent as independent unit of the environment functionally, while their individual components are usually not independently of the machine meaningfully usable, (see also 98/37/EG distinction manufacturer explanation versus to CE marking).

These definitions apply far away to the technical machine (z. B. Machine tool). If the biochemical machine (z. B. Protein transportation machine) with to include is, is not sufficient the definitions not and would have to be extended. In an electrical Antriebsstem the machine is operated by an engine.

definition by the task of a machine

sense of a machine is the one task mechanically to settle e.g. Admission and transformation of a drive energy into courses of motion with appropriate force development on the drift and/or. Work side (energy transformation) = prime mover. Another possibility is the treatment of a material (bore, turn, mill) with the help of oneMachine = machine tool.

definition machines after machine guideline

for manufacturers and users is above all the machine guideline (RL) the crucial size of. It specifies, which must be understood as machine (with the legal obligations itself from itresulted in).

After the guideline is a machine: „a whole of connected parts or devices, from which at least one is mobile, as well as if necessary of actuating gears, tax and energy circles etc., those for a certain application, like the processing, the treatment, thoseProgressive movement and the dressing of a material are joined GUIDELINE 98/37/EG article I paragraph 2a (publication of the European Official Journal of 23.07.1998),… “)

under the regulation range of the machine guideline do not fall however „machines, whose only source of strength is the directly used manpower,with exception of machines, which are used for lifting loads,… “) GUIDELINE 98/37/EG article I paragraph 2a (publication of the European Official Journal of 23.07.1998). This Eingrenzug of the term borders thus many devices from in the everyday life-linguistic sense the machines is.In the regulation text still further exceptions and additions are defined.

Examples:

reason: The only source of strength is humans, the energy is used but is however not directly stored.
(RL: CE-characteristic)
  • A tightener for workpieces, which the energy and the signals of a superordinate machine refer, is not a machine.
Reason: No function without superordinate machine.
(RL: Manufacturer explanation)
Reason: No cultivation at machine (intended use), no mobileParts, only with muscle power operated, no stored energy.
(RL: no marking)

view on developments of the definitions in the term machine

it gives standardization efforts to differentiate between apparatus , equipment , tool , instrument and plant: Apparatuses asmaterial and/or.to define subject-converting and devices as signal-converting technical things. Tools are appropriate devices, which do not function independently, instruments devices, which do not serve the conversion of work, plants complex systems from machines, apparatuses, devices, tools and instruments.

Work on []

The machine in mythology and literature

machine human being

for this also artificial life and Android

  • Hephaistos, the forging God is to have created mechanical women from gold, its most well-known creations is the Pandora and the bronze giant Talos
  • rabbi Judah Löw is artificial humans, the GOLEM, from loam created around the Prager Jew against their enemies to protect
  • end of the 18ten, at the beginning of the 19ten of century became parallel to the technical revolution also in the romantic literature thatartificial humans to the topic see.E.T.A. Hoffmann in its novel the sand man the artificial Olimpia a central role plays.
  • Beginning of the 20sten of century held the Androide and/or. the robot introduction into the literature, Isaac Asimov formulated “robots of laws” the oneBehavior code for automats specify.

the machine as devil work

remarkable often emerges the devil in the fairy tale in connection with mills and other technical things. The term 'devil work 'becomes frequent during the introduction of a new technologyused.

western emancipation of the machine

the machine (also in the symbolic sense of the blindly carried out rule) is since the Christian Middle Ages a warning example of the Gnadenlosigkeit. The most well-known symbol for it is the merciless ticking clock.

Grace as power and the ability to make exceptions is after medieval conception a characteristic of each fair authority. True authority sees the characteristics and is not not blind like a machine. In order to fulfill this demand, must the “merciless” In principle technology (the more efficient it is, the fewer exceptions can it make) to Untergebene to be delegated. Perfected technology was an indication of low social position.

A consequence of the fact was that Herrenlosigkeit was equated with Gnadenlosigkeit and with machine similarity: The soldier becomeswithout benevolent commander the merciless plündernden machine, as death without the benevolent instruction of God as highest judge the merciless Henker becomes. Abandoned dogs (or subjects) rot themselves together and behave then apparently like a merciless set of rules -a machine picture, still in the behavior research 19. and 20. Century was present. Right and left-wing extreme mass movements after the First World War, after the benevolent gentlemen were entmachtet, can be interpreted in this direction (about Elias Canetti: Mass and power). The conception that a physical urge clears against symbolic obstacles like social behaviour the way (may, unconscious), is traditionally connected with conceptions of the machine one.

The replacement of benevolent authorities by merciless machines is therefore a traditional (western) fright conception. The fear of the benevolent gentleman however was every now and then not less large as the fear of the merciless machine. Its grace became since the modern times less and less as the better alternative to the Gnadenlosigkeit of the equipments andMechanisms regards. This settles in erzählerischen motives such as Don Quijote or count Dracula . The emancipation of the controllable machines and mechanisms as replacement for uncontrollable grace is the basis itself the horror category in literature and film, since that 18.Century from religious warning conceptions developed.

Equal as one with the horror film before the merciless happening back-leaning and ease can, then with each machine is possible, if it is controlled by its users. Therefore the straight zwiespältige fear hasbefore the machine the development and emancipation of the machines in the western culture carry.

history of the machine

to the first industrially genutzen machines since the late Middle Ages belonged mills, further fields of deployment for machines were in the mining industry, to thatTextile production and the metal en and - treatment.

The machine steps thereby often into a competition relationship to the manpower, with the industrialization grew here the tensions and it came to the Maschinenstürmerei.

literature

  • Austellungskatalog: Machine fantasies - to culture history of theMan-machine relationship technical collections of the city Dresden from the 11.7. to 24.9.1994
  • marshal McLuhan: The mechanical bride - people culture of the industriellen humans Amsterdam: Publishing house of the art, 1996, ISBN 90-5705-021-8

see also

Wikiquote: Machine - quotations
Wiktionary: Machine - word origin, synonymsand translations
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)