The Massachusetts Institute of Technology
|The Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|slogan:|| Mens et Manus|
(spirit and hand)
|year of the foundation:||1861|
|courses of studies:|
|registered students:||approx. 10.320 (2006)|
|flächenbez. Study places:||(????)|
| Care relationship|
professor to studying:
|Graduate per year:|
|Woman ratio:||over 50%|
|of it professors:||630|
| coworkers scientific|
|address:|| 77 Massachusetts Avenue|
Cambridge, mA 02139-4307
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (WITH) (based 1861) a world-well-known is university in Cambridge (Massachusetts) in the USA. The WITH is considered as a university leading world-wide within the range of technological researchand teachings. It is a private, non-denominational technical university, which trained as first chemistry engineers and whom into the engineering education included economics, social and Geisteswissenschaften. The university is because of the Charles River in Cambridge, directly opposite from bad clay/tone and downstream ofHarvard University.
Under the most well-known research institutes are to be called:
- Lincoln lab
- ResearchLab OF Electronics
- lab for information and Decision of system
- computer Science and Artifical Intelligence lab
- Media lab
- WITH Sloan School OF management.
To WITH approximately 4000 „Undergraduates “and 6000 „Graduates “study. For some years are under it more students thanStudent. The WITH praises itself for the high level of the training, whereby the students are merged already early into the research activities.
was created the WITH to 10. April 1861 as three-membered mechanism, consisting of „A societyOF kind, A museum OF kind [industrial kind], and A school OF industrial science. “The founder William bar clay/tone Rogers, a well-known natural scientist, wanted to create an independent university, with adjustment increasingly on the requirements of an America industrialized. Because of of the American civil war could the first students only 1865 be accepted. In the subsequent years the WITH attained a first-class call.
Because of the continuous financing gaps around 1900 a union with neighbouring Harvard University was planned. This could however against substantial protests formerWith student not to be interspersed. 1916 were shifted the Campus from bad clay/tone to Cambridge at the opposite river bank.
After that 2. World war, in which the WITH contributed to the development of radar technology, continued to rise the reputation of the WITH. The arms race and thoseSpace travel in the time of the cold war produced a nationally promoted demand for high technology. The WITH contributed to it, with developments, like the early computer project „Whirlwind “, 1947 to 1952 under the direction of Jay W. To let listen attentively Forrester.
Further developments from the With laboratories of the post-war period were the ferrite core memory as well as the automatic space probe control of the Apollo program. Since arising the personal computer the WITH occupied also a central role in the key technologies of the information age.
2001 stated With president Charles Vest that the WITH had obstructed the career of female faculty members and researchers as institution in discriminating way. He announced organizational steps for the equalization of the sexes.
To 6. December 2004 arose to Susan Hockfield, a Forscherinthe area of molecular neuro biochemistry, the office as a sechzehnter president of the WITH on. She is the first woman in this position.
the With culture
the relationship of the students too „their “WITH is characterized by hate love. The students are confronted with high requirements, however to the predominant part highly motivates. The WITH reacted to reproaches, which would drive high requirements students even into the suicide: a more intensive psychological support is to improve the situation.
As at many American universitieslive the students usually quite restrained in hostels on the Campus. There are traditionally clear differences between different hostels: In some the Hippie culture is present, while other one stresses one civil style maintains.
For a musisch not coined/shaped university is thatPortion of actively making music students quite highly: There are a symphony orchestra and several classical choirs with student musicians.
The Ethos of the WITH is pronouncedly anti-authoritarianly, at the same time believes itself one in the sense of an achievement elite, their social status from intellectual superiorityjustifies, not from the origin or formal hierarchical positions.
Consent prevails over the fact that information is to be revealed and not to be covered to be allowed. Each statement is possible the subject of a critical examination, their acceptance may itself not on generally valid opinion orDirectives „from above “appoint.
This ethical attitude is accepted also with many hackers: To WITH the term chop far defined, in the sense of a surprising technical-sophisticated trick, whereby the best Hacks possesses a humoristic aspect. The term hacker became toWITH coined/shaped, some roots of the hacker culture can be retraced to WITH the 1950er and 1960er years: To WITH Urväter of the hacker scene worked such as smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Stallman, Jay Sussman and Tom Knight.
Approximately around the WITH a flowering has itselfScene from high technology - small companies develops: Into the late 1990ern risk capital was present in the abundance, so that the preferential career desire of many students consisted of creating High carousing a starting UP company. As Telecom passage well-known range along the state State of 128 developed in such a wayto a Gegenpol silicone of the Valleys.
organization of the teachings
the curriculum at the renowned WITH is very large in the lower terms. The ratio of successful course conclusions is high nevertheless. This explains itself from the anti-authoritarian culture andthe paradigm that acquired knowledge must be divided. In practice that means that older students and professors stand for the younger helpfully to the side.
Typically study contents are presented first by a professor in a lecture and afterwards of Assistants deepens and details. The assistants place then the student homework to the treated topics, which are usually solved in group work: here the actual learning process takes place . The compiled results are collected as „Bibles “and passed on from term to term.
Regularly during the term written tests take place. Less concrete knowledge is queried, but rather the ability of the students examines to solve complex problems. Thus there are hardly multiple choice - tests, the results of working are free to formulate. Analysis and correctionthese tests is therefore a laborious work.
In the context of the Undergrade Research Opportunities Program (UROP)already low terms are merged into the research activities of their institute. The practical work for this takes place to a large extent in the Friday afternoon and on weekend, if the normal training enterprise rests.
the WITH and other institutions
it give some traditional co-operation partners:
- The Charles Draper lab develops among other things rocket technology for the US military. It belonged in former times as instrumentation lab directly to, became however during the Viet Nam war abgespalten, in order to offer to the Viet Nam war opponents among the students less attack region. Still before separatingthe Apollo GUI thanks computer was developed here.
- The Woods gets Oceanographic institution has a common study program with the WITH for advanced terms.
- With neighbouring Harvard University the WITH is connected by a traditional rivalry. It gave in the start times of bothUniversities of plans to fold up these. These had to be dropped however due to the resistance by students and faculty members, as described here.
Nowadays there are co-ordinated study plans for lower terms, so that students courses can combine to WITH and at Harvard. Thatresembles applies also to the students at the Wellesley college, a steeped in tradition elite university only for female students.
- With the University OF OF Cambridge in Great Britain there are Southampton and the University an exchange program.
For some years the WITH goes strengthenedPartnerships with various universities as well as publicly and privately financed research labs. The projects are to be financed generally from the external partner to and serve thus the fund procurement of the WITH. The WITH as private-economical organization markets in this way its reputation andthe research capacity of the faculty members and students.
to architecture of the institute building
beside various already worn out working institute buildings gives it some architecturally remarkable:
- Baker House, sketched sketched by Alvar
- Aalto Kresge auditory, of Eero Saarinen
- WiesnerBuilding, sketched of I. M. Pei, with the tiled external area Stata center sketched by
- Kenneth Noland, finished 2004
from the founder years of the WITH are to be mentioned the Maclaurin Buildings, which form the input area to the Campus. They became of Welles Bosworthin the neoklassizistischen style of the time sketched. They were finished 1916. Characteristic particularly are the generous light arrangement and the central domed structure.
The Friese carries the names of large natural scientists, for example for Aristoteles, Isaac Newton, Benjamin Franklin, Louis Pasteur, Antoine Lavoisier, Michael Faraday, Archimedes, Leonardo da Vinci, Charles Darwin and Nikolaus Kopernikus, in each case surround by groups with names of suitable researchers, who contributed to the respective Forschungsgebiet „of the large ones “.
Lavoisier for example is inWreath/ring of Boyle, Cavendish, Priestley, Dalton, Gay Lussac, Berzelius, Woehler, Liebig, Bunsen, Mendeleyev, Perkin and van' t hope.
From the years 1950 to 1970 it lacks later buildings against it radiant emittance even if some of them of the With graduate M. Pei were sketched,so the Green Building (main building of the faculty for geo, atmosphere and planet physics), which Institut for chemical process engineering as highest building on the Campus and the Wiesner Building, in which the WITH Media lab is accommodated.
an extensive schedule of work in recent time covered the Stata center, sketched from franc Gehry, the Simmons resounds to student hostel, sketched by Steven Holl, the Zeisiger sports center and a new building, sketched from Charles Correa, for pico-who centersfor Learning and MEMORY, Institut for Brain and Cognitive Science and the McGovern Institue for Brain research.
For the Stata center had to yield 1998 an old building, which was established in the Second World War as interim solution. Actually it should at the latestsix months after end of war to be torn off, but long years proved as a breeding place for creative projects despite its ugliness.
The Stata center, that in its place in March 2004, discussed by architecture critics controversially (see for example here)one opened, of many users as user unfriendly one geschmäht. The conditions of work are clearly worse according to statements of institute members than so far. Instead of offices for few coworkers there are now open-plan offices, for personal documents of the research students must lockers hand. Place emergency is everywhereto feel.
Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Stallman explained beyond that that it due to doubts because of the RFID - supported safety system considers, the WITH to leave.
- WITH computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
- radiation Laboratory RK the Massachusetts of institutes OFTechnology
- WITH Media lab
- Whitehead of institutes for Biomedical Research
- the car ID lab dissolved 2003, after it its task, the bases for a RFID - to create supported identification system, when solved regarded.
from the WITH come out Nobelpreisträger
- Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations R. Schrock - chemistry, 2005
- George Akerlof, PhD 1966 - economic science, 2001
- Sidney Altman, S. B. 1960 - Chemistry 1989
- Kofi Annan, S. M. 1972 - The Nobel peace prize 2001
- Elias James Corey Jr., S. B. 1948,PhD 1951 - Chemistry 1990
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Feynman, S. B. 1939 - Physics 1965
- Leland H. Hardwave, PhD 1964 - medicine 2001
- H. Robert Horvitz, SELF-SERVICE 1968 - medicine 2002
- Henry Kendall, S. B. 1948, PhD 1951- Physics 1990
- Lawrence small, PhD 1944 - economic science 1980
- Robert B. Laughlin, PhD 1979 - physics 1998
- Murray Gell man, PhD 1951 - physics 1969
- Robert C. Merton, PhD 1970 - economic science 1997
- Robert S. Mulliken, S. B. 1917 - Chemistry 1966
- Robert Mundell, PhD 1956 - economic science 1999
- Charles Pedersen, S. M. 1927 - Chemistry 1987
- William D. Phillips, PhD 1976 - physics 1997
- Burton judge, S. B. 1952, PhD1956 - Physics 1976
- Paul Samuelson - economic science 1970
- John Robert Schrieffer, S. B. 1953 - Physics 1972
- Phillip Sharp - medicine 1993
- William B. Shockley, PhD 1936 - physics 1956
- Joseph Stiglitz, PhD 1966 - economic science2001
- Carl E. Wieman, S. B. 1973 - Physics 2001
- franc Wilczek , physics 2004
- Robert B. Woodward, S. B. 1936 - Chemistry 1965
further one famous With researchers
- Hal Abelson - computer scientists
- Manson Benedict - nuclear researcher
- Stephen A. Benton - physicist, inventor of the rainbow hologram
- Emilio Bizzi - brain researcher
- George Boolos - philosopher and mathematician
- Rodney Brooks - robot researcher and Verhaltenskundler
- Vannevar Bush - electrical engineer, inventor of the hypertext principle
- Noam Chomsky - linguist
- Morris Cohen - material researcher
- WilliamDavid Coolidge - physicist
- John Deutch - chemists
- Peter Diamond - economists
- mild-talk Dresselhaus - Physikerin, electronics engineer and Informatikerin
- Harold E. Edgerton - photographer
- Jerome Friedman - physicist
- Morris resounds - linguist and psychologist
- John Harbison - to musician music
- William Higinbotham - Atomic physicists
- Alan Lightman - physicists and writer
- Chia Chiao Lin - mathematician
- John Little - management advisor
- Francis Low - physicist
- Thomas liking anti - electronic engineer and computer scientist, management advisor
- Marvin Minsky - computer scientists
- William J. Mitchell - architect and writer, medium scientist
- Mario Molina - chemists
- Franco Modigliani - economist
- Philip Morrison - physicist
- Joel Moses - electronic engineer and computer scientist
- Nicholas Negroponte - medium researcher
- Seymour Papert - paedagogue and computer scientist
- Steven Pinker - consciousness researcher
- Gian Carlo Rota - mathematician and philosopher
- ashtray Shapiro- Engineer for technical mechanics
- Isadore M. Singer - mathematician (Abel price 2004)
- Robert M. Solow - economist
- Arthur von Hippel - electronic engineer and computer scientist
- Daniel Wang - procedure technician
- Sheila Widnall - space travel engineer
- John Waugh - chemists
- Edgar light - Organization psychologist
- Myron S. Scholes - economist
- Claude Shannon - computer scientists
- Richard M. Stallman - computer scientist, activist for free software, founder of the movement for free software FSF
- Ivan Suez ago country - computer scientist, pioneer of the Computergrafik
- Sherry Turkle - Psychologin and sociologies
- Joseph wheat tree - computer scientists
- Norbert Viennese - mathematician, founder of the cybernetics
acquaintance former With students
- Virgilio Barco - president of Colombia
- Hans Albrecht Bethe - physicist
- Manuel Bluem - computer scientist, Turing winner 1995
- Amar G. Bose - entrepreneur, developerof audio devices
- Dan Bricklin - Miterfinder of VisiCalc, the first spread-sheet analysis software for PCs
- Whitfield Diffie - Miterfinder of the Kryptografieverfahrens with public key and the Diffie Hellman Kryptografieverfahrens
- Donald Douglas - one the founder of the aviation company McDonnell Douglas
- K. Eric Drexler - Nano-technologist
- Luis A. Ferré - governor von Puerto Rico
- José Figueres Ferrer - president of Costa Rica
- Cecil H. Green - joint founders of the semiconductor manufacturer Texas Instruments
- William (Bill) Hewlett - joint founder of the technology company HEWLETT PACKARD
- Danny Hillis - joint foundersthe company Thinking Machines, joint founder of the Long Now Foundation
- David A. Huffman - PhD 1953, computer scientist, developed Huffman coding for loss-free data compression
- Shirley Jackson - theoretical Physikerin, president of the Rensselaer Polytechnic of institutes, prominent Afro American Aktivistin
- Larry punt - national championin the flea hopping play
- Brewster bald one - archivist of the WWW, Kämpfer for the uninformativeness
- Mitch Kapor - software entrepreneur
- Raymond Kurzweil - inventors on various areas (music instruments, writing and speech recognition software), future researchers and vision acre
- Daniel Lewin - Internet entrepreneur
- Arthur D. Little - founders of theconsulting firm of the same name
- Jack Little - joint founders of The MathWorks, the developer of MatLab
- Hugh Lofting - civil engineer, author of „Dr. Doolittle “
- Ray Magliozzi - radio moderator
- Tom Magliozzi - radio moderator
- Robert Metcalfe - inventors of the Ethernet Protocols for computer TZE, founder of 3Com
- Benjamin Netanjahu - former prime minister of Israel
- Robert Noyce - Miterfinder of the integrated circuit, joint founder of Intel
- Ken Olsen - founders of Digital Equipment corporation (DEK)
- Ieoh Ming Pei - architect
- all Razdow - developers and firm founders of Mathcad
- Tom Scholz - founders of the group of skirt music bad clay/tone and Scholz R&D, manufacturer of Tonanlagen
- George P. Shultz - Secretary OF State of US government
- Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. - Automobile entrepreneur
- Raymond Stata - founders of the semiconductor manufacturer similar to DEVICEs
- Louis Sullivan - Architect
- Lawrence H. Buzzer - economist
- Andrew Tanenbaum - computer scientist, programmer von Minix, a forerunner of Linux
- Fred Hapgood: UP the Infinite Corridor: WITH and the Technical imagination. Perseus Books, 1993, ISBN 0-201-08293-4 (descriptionthe research activity from the Insider perspective)
- Stewart fire: How Buildings Learn: What Happens after They' RH Built. Penguin, New York 1995, ISBN 0-14-013996-6 (architecture study, treats among other things different buildings on the With campus)
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