The term of the “masses” is often used devaluing (stupid mass),active humans (participants) bring nevertheless, who social changes to advance want, often socially high values such as justice and equality in the consciousness of the public opinion in masses.
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Sociologically Vilfredo Pareto differentiates „the mass “from „the elite “and„Reserve elite “. On the other hand a second, sociological Gegenbegriff is also the “quantity “. While „masses exhibit “for each individual case (often spontaneous, pretty often in addition, planned ) hierarchisierte structure connections, „quantities “tend to extract itself from social control by institutions andto make itself as it were invisible - see in addition The Lonely Crowd of David Riesman (their German translation the lonely mass leads in mad, because the quantity of the isolated ones and scared ones is meant.) see. also the manifestation of the single.
appearance and effect forms
the observable rapid tendency reversal („the Wankel courage “) of present masses are compared with the behavior by fluids. Social acting of masses own regularities follows nevertheless (see. „Figuration). Their participants (Participants) are coordinated thereby by signals and symbols. These e.g. follow traditional or general customs established again in a preliminary state, like it. Politics, religion, economic life, public opinion into (always present) the everyday life inside give.
Onecurrent mass is then for the creation of own social dynamics able:Rumor spreading, plundering, Pogrom, escape (up to the panic), Lynchjustiz, in addition, to a peaceful demonstration or demonstration, for proclaiming the storm on oneForcing castle or hate width unit official building, a rebellion, a war of liberation, (if necessary.charismatischen) leader up to proclamation of a new system of government (e.g. the republic).
spontaneous mass events are generally particularly in crisisful Zusammhängen erwartbar.
Social crises (price increases, hunger emergencies, epidemics, civil wars, invasions, colonizations etc.) supplied since everMass-act - therefore also the meaning of masses in shape ad hoc together stepping popular assemblies or army meetings (in the Roman realm often up to proclaiming a new emperor). It is general a main cause for mass acting that new crises notby the emergency measures worked satisfactorily in used communities to be mastered can.
The historical occurrence of humans as masses is thus not only a phenomenon of higher civilizations or the modern times, where it its cause in with the population growth the connectedsinking density and reduction of social networks, particularly since with rising urbanisation and thus the disconcertion by mostly economic crises has.
In the modern times however an orientation takes place to new methods of the influence of the masses: Mass media in the structure more largelyCompanies, which supply also different kinds of media, train own strategies as the mass forming, refer their self-dynamic structures and expect therefore one of them determined public opinion, better sale of goods or required authentication. Politics („propaganda “)and commerce („advertisement “) drive under assumption of the mass media their power tendentious in the total (see. Totalitarianism) and global ones (see. Globalization).
authentication of the mass
dominant one appointed and appoint themselves as their authentication pretty oftenon a support of the masses, erwartbar in democracies, gladly however since ever in ‚populist ` dictatorships (see. Tyrannis).
kinds of masses
become here among other things as terms uses:
- Arranged mass
- spontaneous or provoked acts of violence, purposeful against deviating particulars or small groups
- indifferent one mass
- the mass changes in its opinion to the opposite: the euphoria will be able rushing mass Demagogie and agitation to the hate and to the aggression
- “ Hosianna Kreuzige effect”) inferiority feelings on others to project; the certaintythe procedure facilitates the escape mass for the affiliation to the “good ones” against the inferior other danger threatening
- up to
- the readiness of its destruction escape mass in moments reacts irrationally; it aligns its movement not reasonable consideration, but increased every now and then the threat
- prohibition mass
- Rebelling against disadvantages lets a prohibition mass develop: a firmly organized mass (e.g. called in a strike
- reversal mass a suppressed mass reversal mass, if it proceeds by force against its eliminators, in order conditions to turn around (e.g. Rebellion).
was examined the mass phenomenon among other things of
- Gustave Le Bon, which ruled in its psychology of the masses (1895) that masses criticism and principleless, therefore easily steering and umstimmbar were. There it ideas and ideals rather in inferiordepravierter form to take up are able, their imaginative power not by reason, but by pictures (sensations, scandals) one steer. Then however they are able to convert these with highest passion and by forceness. Le Bon was a joint founder of the “mass psychology in such a way specified “
- Victory mouth Freud, mass psychology and I analysis (1921), to which the mass formation explains leader shape as a form narzisstischer projection of the individual on one - even narcissus tables -.
- Siegfried Kracauer, the ornamentation of the mass (1927), that the massas form of the setback of the modern Rationalität into mythisches consciousness understands.
- José Ortega y gas set, which formulated 1929 in the rebellion of the masses: “If the mass independently acts, does it it only in a kind: She lynches. “
- Hermann Broch, Mass illusion theory (1948 postum 1979), which a need of the masses striving for satisfaction and clarity states, which - in the pathological case - by leader ideologies (which it at the national socialism prove) to be fulfilled seems. It confronts religion founders to that, of themGoal eternity and mankind of totalitarian progress and the masses substantially differ. The democracy is not at present immune to a relapse by any means.
- Elias Canetti, mass and power (1960), in a historically expenditure-maturing transkulturellenStudy the nature of the mass as matching with the phenomenon of power recognizes, which it characterizes in the structure of instruction and prick. As steering leading principle it determines the urge to the self-preservation.
- Michael Günther, mass and Charisma.Social causes of the political and religious Fanatismus (2005), ISBN 3-631-53536-8, is the recent thorough investigation of the connection of these terms in the sociology of Gabriel Tarde, Gustave Le Bon and particularly from max of webers, which itwith Ferdinand sound-sneeze criticized.