Mass production

mass production is the production of large quantities of same products using exchangeable, standardized individual parts and building groups for a not predetermined time interval. Machine manufacturing and production lines are often for the mass production used technologies.

Table of contents

history

many centuries dominated the handicraftwithin the range of production. At present the Industriellen revolution was replaced to a large extent the handicraft by machines. Thus 19 formed against center . Century in the USA by the drive of the mechanization the “American system OF Manufactures “. It built on the principlesthe exchangeable parts, the special machines, the concentration on the manufacturing method and the division of labor up.

The true inventor of the system of the exchangeable parts " is however the French weapon-forges “Honore Le blank” this system already in the middle of the 18.Jahrhunderts invented. There the other French weapon waffenschmiede thereinbut a threat for their guild saw could not it in France not develop. Thomas Jefferson at this time in France lived, recognized the meaning of this technology and promoted after its return to America. Thus 1796 the famous American inventor Eli Whitney was assignedTo manufacture 10,000 mash ketene of means of the new technology. To it for it 2 years time were given, but it needed to manufacture altogether 8 years around the demanded quantity. It needed the time around the system to refine and the machines for such a production to build. However suppliedafter these years further 15,000 mash ketene, which it produced in only 2 years. The foundation-stone for the industrielle mass production was put.

The mass production is regarded as direct successors of the American system. Nowadays the term mass production is well-known also under the name Fordism, under which itits bloom time experienced. In order successfully to operate mass production, mass consumption is necessary, since otherwise an overproduction would be given. Therefore under Ford wage increases were aimed at when simultaneous reducing the products in price.

The principle of the mass production is used at present in all parts of the world.

A good example of thoseMass production is the motorring industry. Henry Ford explained at that time: “You can have each color, so long it black are.” This guiding principle does not apply already for a long time any longer.

Since however the competitive conditions in the course of the time changed, a new form of production, the so-called was opened custom-made mass production, which directs its focus toward individual customer's requests , flexibility and imperfect markets. Ranges of application of this recent production form are for example the automobile -, computers -, electric power tool - and textile industry. The advantage of this technology is in the combination of standardisation and individualizing.

Division of labor division of labor it had

principles of the mass production

[

works on ] the consequence that each coworker settled only some few, certain performing in the entire production procedure, which strict defaults were subject. Kontrolle, Überwachung of und Of disziplinierung of wurden of angestrebt. This led to it that efficiency and productivity could be increased, therethe worker in these a performing was specialized.

Famous pin - example of Adam Smith showed that by division of labor far higher quantities of pins can be manufactured, as if each worker settles all procedures substantial for production. Also Frederick Winslow Taylor pleadedin its basic principles of the Taylorismus for a high degree of the division of labor. Implementing work was separated strictly from the planning and mental work.

However the fact faced the principle of the division of labor that the area of responsibility of an individual worker was enormously limited, there its activity nowto monotonous performing one reduced. Therefore brought this setbacks in the range to the satisfaction and motivation among the workers. In the factory by Ford gigantic coworker fluctuations were to be registered.


standardisation

the production of exchangeable individual parts required the accurate manufacturing of the parts within defined tolerances. Parts, which lay outside of the range of tolerance, could not be used in production no more and than committee classifies, whose production lowers the total productivity of the production plant.

Therefore became end 19. Century of in the mass production strongly interested the weapon industry techniques and procedure forMonitoring of accuracy to size for the purpose of the productivity increase develops.

  • Exchangeability

by exchangeable parts was substantially simplified the production process. Now for example repairs could be accomplished in shorter time.

  • To ensure special

machines over within the range of the standardisation a certain tolerance, required it within the range of the manufacturing more particularlyMachines. For the time being these devices usually built in the own factories, later set one on co-operation with machine tool industries than suppliers.


focus on manufacturing methods

around products in same quality and under optimal material use to provide, was analyzed exactly the underlying manufacturing method andplanned. An example is production at production lines, which at the beginning 20. Century spreading by Henry Ford found, particularly by its Ford model T.

But also economy lay in the organization form of the enterprise, why factories were aligned after a functional organisational structure.


hierarchical organization with professional managers

the need of control and monitoring required for hierarchical structures. In the course of the mass production developed large and complex enterprises, which it applied to lead. Therefore the managers were occupied with the beginning of the so-called scientific one Management, also Taylorismus mentioned, after the inventor Frederick Winslow Taylor. The focus was on präxise time and motion studies, which pursued the goal of the productivity.


assembly-line production

in addition to the principle of the mass production developed the so-called river principle, which was realized by the assembly-line production.Thereby a uniform work speed should be created, which reduced and to economy contributed the work duration per piece of production enormously. 1913 took the Ford technicians the assembly belt in enterprise. In consequence the work time for the production of one car of 12 hours was reduced and 8 minutes to 2Hours and 35 minutes. Also this innovation of the finishing technique became the synonym of the mass production.

low ones costs and prices

around the masses for the produced goods as purchasing power to win, had to tune them also their prices. Since prices and costs accompany with one another, was the achievement of lower costs inevitably. This was obtained for example by substitution of humans by the machine or by Economies OF Scale.

Economies OF Scale

on the basis production in larger quantities, could be carried out Economies OF Scale. This fact becomes in the lawmore near describes the mass production.


vertical integration

was there the system of the mass production bound a very high priority to very high fixed costs, was constant running of the assembly-line. In order to ensure this, the entire flow of material had, from the suppliers to the dealersare focused, in order to encounter both the procurement side and paragraph side on no bottlenecks.


advantages

of disadvantages

  • Unflexibilität in the production process
  • discontent of the coworkers due to homogeneous work activities, alienation of the working, high physical and psychological loads
  • capital-intensive fixed costs

literature

  • Wittke, peoples: As industrielle developedMass production, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-89404-415-2
  • Pine, B. Joseph: custom-made mass production: New dimension in the competition, Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-901260-66-8
  • Piller, franc Thomas: Customization measured: A competition-strategic concept in the information age, Wiesbaden 2000, ISBN 3-8244-7156-6
  • Storp, Hartmut: Process planning and cost comparison calculation for changed work structures thatTo mass production, Husum 1982, ISBN 3-88716-008-8


see also

Web on the left of

 

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