of these articles is concerned with the academic degree. For other meanings, see master (term clarifying).

In Germany is the master (/'mA: stə/, from English. master, of lat. more magister for „chief, master “) the second academic degree, the student at universities than conclusion of onescientific training to attain know. A master is lent after an in to two-year full time study and attaches to a Bachelor or to one of the traditional single-step conclusions Magister, diploma or state examination (first with law and teaching profession, third with medicine). Depending upon adjustment can Serve master course of studies of the scientific recess of the previous study or the development of new fields of knowledge. Many master courses of studies are permission.

After the course of studies conversion in the context of the Bologna process the traditional single-step study conclusions (Magister, state examinations and diploma) keep their validity and not on the new conclusions are rewritten. The traditionalsingle-step conclusions of the universities and universities on an equal footing apply in the context of agreements in Germany as equivalent to the master. To the conclusion of the same name in the USA differences exist both in the structure of the study and with the acknowledgment of the conclusions.

Table of contents

the master in Germany

master courses of studies can research or application orientatedaligned its. Only universities lend the master as academic degrees (e.g. Professional schools or universities). It is individually examined by the universities whether a graduate becomes certified the master study.

There are two master types in Germany: konsekutive and not konsekutive. Depending upon type of the Masters are different conclusion designationspermissible. It is also permitted to the universities to use German degree designations (z. B. Magister of the sciences). A mixture of German and English is however not permitted.

conclusion designations (konsekutive master degrees)

a konsekutiver master course of studies is the direct continuation of a special Bachelor course of studies. It serves thatRecess of the existing knowledge within the theoretical and research-oriented range.

In order to ensure as high a measure of transparency and clarity as possible, the conference of Secretary of cultural affairs (KMK) decided that for konsekutive master courses of studies only four different conclusion designations are permissible. These orient themselves at contents of the course of studies. Technical additives are generally inadmissibly.

master OF kind (M.A.)

the master OF kind (usually in the Geisteswissenschaften, economic science and social sciences) can be attached to a Bachelor OF kind (in special cases also to a Bachelor OF Science).

master OF engineering (M.Eng.)

can instead of a master OF Science within the field of the engineering sciences to be acquired.

master OF Laws (LL.M.)

the master OF Laws is a jurisprudential structure course of studies and can both with an appropriate conclusion and Bachelor OF Laws and after the first state examination be acquired.

master OF Science (M.Sc.)

the master OF Science (usual in the engineering sciences, natural sciences and economic science) can be attached to a Bachelor OF Science (in special cases also to a Bachelor OF kind or Bachelor OF engineering).

conclusion designations (not konsekutive master degrees)

not konsekutive master courses of studies serve the purpose to train the studying further in a strange subject and obtain usually rather application orientated knowledge. They close to any, final study on (z. B. a Bachelor, in addition, to the traditional diploma, at the Magister or to firstMaster).

The conclusion designations can be selected by the universities freely (z. B. Masters OF rating), must however not inevitably of those for konsekutive masters permitted to deviate.

master OF Business administration (MBA)

(Executive) the master OF Business administration is the probably most well-known examplefor one masters not konsekutiven. It is to place graduates of an non-economiceconomics course of studies the restaurant knowledge, which needs it in leading positions.

master OF Organizational management (MOM)

the master OF Organizational management is an interdisciplinary post office graduating course of studies. It obtain authority for the analysis, organization and guidance of innovierendenand itself changing organizations (enterprise, off. - rechtl. Administration, Non profit institutions). For this knowledge of the technical disciplines management economics, law, engineer natures and social sciences is interlaced with one another and transferred into solution-oriented beginnings (methods, instruments).

master OF Business and engineering (MBE)

the master OF Business and engineering still is inquite recent academic degree, which is to place the graduate of an non-economiceconomics course of studies the restaurant knowledge and the economiceconomics graduate the technical knowledge. This postgraduale course of studies is considered as anglo-saxon counterpart to the industrial engineer.

master OF Education (M.Ed.)

the master OF Education can at oneBachelor OF Science or Bachelor OF to be kind attached. This master conclusion takes two years.

The master OF Education can itself also to a special Bachelor with adjustment on the school and except-school education work with children and young people: Study emphasis primary school and study emphasis main six-form high school, attach. ThisMaster takes only one year and makes the teaching profession possible at reason, main and six-form high schools. Programs with 2-jährigem master however aim at the Gymnasiallehramt.

Alternatively also appropriate Magister and diploma courses of studies can make the entrance to the master for OF possible Education.

The master OF Education is that 1.State examination on an equal footing and makes country widely the entrance possible to the Referenderiat, or where this is not necessary, directly the entrance to the teaching profession.

Note: The master OF Education cannot be acquired in each Land of the Federal Republic. Not each subject and/or. each fan combination is suitable for each school type (z. B.latin only at High Schools and comprehensive schools informed).

master OF computer Science (M.Comp.Sc.)

the master OF computer Science can be acquired at some universities after a study of computer science. This degree becomes at present also from some mechanisms, which in one very muchearly phase to the graduated system (Bachelor/master/doctor) changed over, when konsekutiver master degree lent. This degree runs out, i.e. it cannot be renewed with new and Reakkreditierungen by courses of studies no more. It is replaced by the M.Sc.

master OF Theology (MTh)

the masterOF Theology knows in co-operation with the University OF South Africa (Unisa) by the society for education and research in Europe (GBFE) and its attached institutes in Germany, Austria and in Switzerland to be acquired.

master OF publicly administration (MPA)

the masterOF publicly administration is a occupation-qualifying administrativescientific master conclusion in the course of studies public management. The MPA is qualifies necessary changes from administrative processes to to plan to accomplish and evaluate and the structures and - expirations more efficient and more effective to arrange. MPA are employed in the public administrations as well asnational and international organizations.

entrance to careers of the higher the MC in the public service

with conversion of the study conclusions also the conditions for entrance for the careers of the public service were to be adapted. With a common agreement of the Secretary of cultural affairs and of the Innenminsterkonferenz (resolution of the conference of the Secretaries of the Interiors of 6.June 2002 and the conference of Secretary of cultural affairs - IMK - of 24. May 2002) the access authorizations for graduates of the master and Bachelorstudiengänge were regulated.

For the statement, whether the education formations of master conclusions acquired at professional schools open the entrance to the higher service, it is to be specified criteria. Is upContents to turn study extent and examination requirements as well as the preceding study conclusion off. Whether a certain master conclusion at a professional school opens these conditions fulfilled and the entrance to the higher service is determined, in the accreditation procedure.

Career legal the Bachelor /Bakkalaureusabschlüsse is to be treated uniformly, so that neither the duration one Bachelor /Bakkalaureusstudiengangs nor thatUniversity type, at which the conclusion, still the contentwise adjustment criterion for the allocation was acquired to be to be able.

Three-year and four years old Bachelor /Bakkalaureusabschlüsse is independent of whether they were acquired at a professional school or at a university - in contrast to the master/Magister - fundamental the elevated serviceto assign.

As far as from the professional school requests, in the context of the accreditation procedure it is also determined whether master courses of studies at professional schools the criteria specified above regarding contents, study extent and examination requirements with consideration of the preceded study conclusion to fulfill.

If the accreditation precipitates positively, to the accreditation answer the additive is taken up: „ThatMaster conclusion opens the entrance to the higher service “.

The accreditation answer contains the o. g. , The conditions for education for the entrance to the higher service are fulfilled additive after § 13 BRRG in federation and countries. The statement, whether the course of studies for a certain career is technically suitable, remainson the other hand - as with all courses of studies - which reserve career-arranging authority (§ 13 exp. 3BRRG).

master /Magisterabschlüsse of the universities open the entrance to the higher service and require therefore for the entrance to the higher service of no separate accreditation.

Independently of it must for the permission to the general higherCivil service a period of instruction given by at least two years and the distribution of the career examination or a second examination obtaining the capability for the career its.

the structure defaults of the conference of Secretary of cultural affairs specify graduation authorization for master and Magisterabschlüsse that they open the entrance to the graduation- independently of whether they were acquired in in or two-year master study at a university or at a professional school.

Owners of a Bachelor /Bakkalaureusgrades acquired abroad in or can become in the way of a suitability statement procedure directly a graduation study certified. The universities regulate the entrance as well asthe arrangement of the suitability statement procedure and if necessary. cooperating with professional schools in their graduation orders.

exceptions to the entrance to the master study in Germany

also without occupation-qualifying university conclusion, however with universitärem Vordiplom, one can participate in Germany in few master programs, like z. B. at the three-year master course of studies,to the master the OF Science in Economics and management Science leads, the economiceconomics faculty of the Humboldt university Berlin.

the master in Austria

in Austria gives it on stage of the master studies likewise konsekutive and not konsekutive courses of studies. These courses of studies can be research or application orientated aligned.

conclusion designations in konsekutiven courses of studies

in konsekutiven courses of studies do not become master degrees, but degrees of Master of Arts, and/or. in the engineering sciences of the degrees engeneering graduate assign. These degrees are identical to the degrees, which are assigned also in the basicconstant diploma studies. Differently than in Germany the degrees becomethe professional schools, so far it in the context of a diploma, a Bakkalaureats or a Magisterstudiums to be lent, further marked by the additive (FH). Since a change of the university law in March 2006 the additive (FH) is void in the future at the time of conclusions in a Bachelor or a master course of studies. Furthermore the change plans thatin konsekutiven courses of studies, which are again furnished starting from the winter semester 2006/2007, in the future no more is assigned the Magister, but the internationally common master degree. So far furnished Magisterstudiengänge can be locked however also further with the degree of Master of Arts.

As in Germany a konsekutiver course of studies is the direct continuationa special Bakkalaureats course of studies (starting from WG 2006 Bachelor course of studies). It serves the recess of the existing knowledge within the theoretical and research-oriented range. There are the following degrees on master stage within the range of the konsekutiven courses of studies, whereby the additive indicates the approximate course of studies:

  • THOSE, and/or. rarely Dipl. - engineer (Engeneering graduate)
  • likes. kind.(Magister/Magistraartium, Magister/Magistra of the arts)
  • likes. Biol. (Magister/Magistra of biology)
  • likes. iur. (Magister/Magistra iuris, Magister/Magistra of the jurisprudence)
  • likes. iur. rer. oec. (Magister/Magistra iuris rerum oeconomicarum, Magister/Magistra of the right of the economy)
  • likes. med. vet. (Magister/Magistram medicinae veterinariae, Magister/Magistra of the veterinary medicine)
  • likes. Pharm. (Magister/Magistra of pharmacy)
  • likes. phil. (Magister/Magistra philosophiae, Magister/Magistra of philosophy)
  • likes. rer. nat. (Magister/Magistram rerum naturalium, Magister/Magistra of the natural science)
  • likes. rer. soc. oec. (Magister/Magistra rerum socialium oeconomicarumque, Magister/Magistra of the social and economic science)
  • likes. Sport. (Magister/Magistra of the sport sciences)

conclusion designations in university training courses

in Austria not will konsekutiven in courses of studies soas in Germany master degrees assign. These courses of studies belong to the so-called university training courses and are thus part of the academic further training. University training courses are offered, like the name already say, exclusively at universities and not at professional schools. The following degrees are assigned:

  • M.E.S. (Masters in/of European Studies)
  • MAS (Master OF Advanced Studies)
  • mA (master OF kind)
  • MBA (master OF Business administration)
  • ACT LIKE (Executive master in management)
  • M.B.L. (Master OF Business Law)
  • MBI (master OF internationally Business)
  • LL.M. (Master OF Laws)
  • MPOS (master in Psychoanalytic Observational Studies)
  • MPH (master OF publicly Health)
  • MSc(Master OF Science)

training courses universitären a character:

  • MPA (master OF publicly administration)
  • MPM (master OF publicly management)
  • MSD (master OF Security and Defense management)

the master in Switzerland

in Switzerland gives it on stage of the master studies likewise konsekutive courses of studies, which research-orientsor to be application orientated aligned can. Among them also conclusions in disciplines, which were not changed over in Germany to the Bachelor/master system, as within the range medicine or the jurisprudence. The following degrees are assigned in such courses of studies:

  • MA (master OF kind)
  • Mix (master OF engineering)
  • MLaw (master OF Law)
  • MMed (master OF Medicine)
  • MSc (master OF Science)
  • MTh (master OF Theology)

beside it gives it so-called post-graduate studies courses, which, similarly as in Austria, are ranked among the range of the academic further training. Such courses of studies are offered both at Swiss universities, and at professional schools. If such a post-graduate studies coursein the level, can be lent a master degree corresponds to a konsekutivem course of studies at graduates of such a course of studies. In most courses of studies it concerns thereby the degree of masters OF Advanced Studies (MAS) under indication of the field. An exception are conclusions in the range management economics, toDegrees of masters OF Business administration (MBA) lead.

To notice also is that, who absovierte after course of studies (old) the Lizentiatsornung, also mA or master OF kind to call itself it may lead, thus both titles may. Of course this can be also officially confirmed by a document, if desired. Howeverone may not do both titles, thus lic. and mA/master OF kind in the same document specify, since otherwise the impression could be aroused, one several titles would have acquired.

the master in England

in England lasts the master study until two yearsin the full time study. Zulassungsvorausetzung in addition is the English Bachelor (hone.), the German Bachelor equivalent thereby, the German diploma (university or FH), state examination or the Magister conclusion. Graduates with the traditional universitären conclusions (diploma, Magister) can let themselves be recognized depending upon university up to 50 per cent of the master study;a Masterthesis must be written in each case (this acknowledgment has to do with the fact that min. 50% of the study at the university/university to be made thereby it an academic degree assign. The universitäre diploma, state examination, Magister apply in England as equivalent to the master). The master workstations are permission-limited. A majority of the Bachelorabsolventen in England goes directly into the occupation. In England the accreditation of conclusions is as far as possible unknown. By the universities individually after previous university and person of the applicant is examined whether it becomes certified the master study. It becomes in Englandbetween so-called Taught masters Degrees and Research master Degrees differentiated. The curriculum of a Taught of Masters consists of a set of courses and ends, after completing these courses, with the writing of a Masterthesis. Thus such a English master conclusion in its structure corresponds to the master courses of studies into thatGerman-language countries. The Research master Degrees existing beside it possesses perfectly different structure. These courses of studies are pure research courses of studies and contain therefore no courses. Also the Masterthesis which can be provided with these courses of studies must therefore on a level between the thesis of a PhD course of studies and the Masterthesis oneTaught of Masters its. The degree lent in Research master courses of studies is at most English universities of the masters OF Philosophy (MPhil).

A very good English Bachelor (hone.) or German Bachelor makes the direct entrance possible to the graduation in England after strict examination of the conclusion. Betterto very good master (here also the note of the Bachelors must be at least good) or a traditional universitärer better to very good conclusion likewise.

international comparison

a generally valid equivalence list of in and foreign academic degrees existed, in Germany does not become inCase of doubt by an equivalence examination of the responsible ministry for education and cultural the equivalence determined. On European level an increasing harmonization of the university systems takes place, in the international comparison varies the systems however still very strongly. Here the most important differences to some other countries, which do not participate in the Bologna process.

Work on []

The master study lasts the USA in the USA until two years in the full time study. Zulassungsvorrausetzung in addition is the American or European Bachelor, the German diploma (university or FH), state examination or the Magister conclusion. Graduates with the traditional universitären conclusions can itself depending upon university up to50 per cent of the master study to recognize leave; a Masterthesis must be written depending upon university (it to have min. 50% of the study to the respective universities to be made, so that a master can be assigned. In the USA the diploma applies as equivalent to the master, becomes partialeven meetings in the PhD/Doktoratsstudium issue). Some universities make possible also a master conclusion “by coursework”, for D. h. it is sufficient to achieve the number „necessary for the conclusion Credit POINTs “by the successful attendance from lectures to. The master workstations are permission. A majority of the Bachelorabsolventen in the USA goesdirectly into the occupation. In the USA the accreditation of conclusions from the USA is very important, because there are many private universities, which are not under national control. Nevertheless by the universities individually after previous university and person of the applicant it is examined whether itthe master study becomes certified.

A very good American Bachelor or European Bachelor makes the direct entrance possible to the graduation in the USA after strict examination of the conclusion. Better to very good masters (here also the note of the Bachelors must be at least good) or more traditionallyuniversitärer better to very good conclusion likewise.

see also

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