the Matura (lat.: maturitas = „the ripe one “) designates the maturity examination after conclusion of higher education and/or. the Matura - or school leaving certificate and thus highest graduation in Austria and Liechtenstein as well as in the German linguistic area of Switzerland and Italy (Südtiol); in addition in Tschechien, and further unite Poland east, central and Southeast-European states. The Maturand possesses the university-level graduation and/or. the access authorization for a study at a university (University of, professional school, and. A.). The Matura corresponds formallythe Abitur in the countries of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Beside the Matura stands the Berufsmatura in Switzerland for a study exclusive at a professional school.
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Matura in Switzerland
The present structure of the maturity examination (Matura) in Switzerland was introduced 1995; (see also Berufsmatura). One differentiated up to then between different Maturitätsprofilen, the pupil arranges itself now after certain rules by the choice of Maturitätsfächern themselves an educational program.
Before the introduction of the new MAR (Maturitätsanerkennungsreglement) the system covered different types of Maturitätszeugnissen:
- Type C (mathematical scientific) type D
- (newlinguistic) type E (restaurant economics
- ) far one Seminarien of teaching profession certifications assigned
- type A (Greek and
- latin) to type B (
latin and English), likewise totest-free entrance into the university stage entitled. Today this organization does not apply any longer.
of the pupils is informed in the four years before the Matura in seven basic subjects, an emphasis subject and an auxiliary subject.
The basic fan are:
- the Erstsprache(German, French, Italian)
- a second national language (German, French, Italian)
- a third language (a third national language, English or an old language)
- natural sciences: Biology, chemistry and physics
- spirit and social sciences: History, geography and introduction to economics and right
- Bildneri shapes and/orMusic
the emphasis subject is from the following subjects and/or. To select groups of fans:
- old languages (latin and/or Greek)
- a modern language (a third national language, English, Spanish or Russian)
- physics and applications of mathematics
- biology and chemistry
- economics and right
- philosophy/Pädagogik/psychology, PPP abbreviated
- Bildneri shapes
the auxiliary subject can be:
- applications of mathematics
- religion teachings
- economics and right
- Bildneri shapes
portion of the groups of fans of instruction
- basic fan - languages: 30 40%
- basic fan -Mathematics and natural sciences: 20 30%
- basic fan - spirit and social sciences: 10 20%
- basic fan - art: 5 10%
- emphasis subject, auxiliary subject, Maturaarbeit: 15 25%
the examination takes place in five subjects , which are examined in writing and verbally (ineinigen Kantonen entfällt beautiful nichtsprachlichen Fächern mündliche die Prüfung, in anderen Kantonen gilt dies nur für Mathematik):
- second national language
- emphasis subject
- a further subject; the conditions for the choice of this subject put the cantons firmly
the results of these examinationsflow to 50% into the final note of the subject, the note of the last yearly count likewise 50%. In the subjects without Maturitätsprüfung only the note of the last yearly counts. Is rounded toward the test note, it become fundamentalonly half notes gives (6, 5,5, 4,5, 4, etc.).
existence of the Maturitätsprüfung
the Maturitätsprüfung is not considered as existed if the double sum of all note deviations from 4 downward is larger than the sum of all note deviations from 4upward and no more than three notes under 4 were given.
The result of the Swiss federal Matura consists of the achievements of the nine Maturitätsfächer. High Schools kantonalen on a kantonale Matura is lent in each case, which is Swissly federal recognized; inthese are additionally contained depending upon canton different further notes (Maturaarbeit , philosophy etc.).
the Matura in Austria
the Matura becomes depending upon school type in the 12. or 13. School stage put down. General screen end higher schools (AHS) closein 12. School year off;Professional training higher schools (BHS) in 13. School year. The graduates are the Maturanten, the conclusion with the Maturaball in such a way specified are celebrated.
The official designation of the Matura is „maturity examination “.
The Matura becomes generally at the schooldecreased, which a Maturant visited last. For persons, who did not visit a middle school, there is the possibility of a Externistenmatura or a professional maturity examination. The examination is not accomplished with same tasks for all pupils of a class. The tasks forthe examinations are only uniform for a grade, those for the verbal examinations differ from test specimen to test specimen. Each teacher can place the questions about the emphasis of its instruction. The Matura stands thus contrary to the central Abitur in somecountries of the German Federal Republic or the French Baccalauréat.
The test questions must at the national school advice (in Vienna at the city school advice) or with the specialized supervisor to be submitted, nevertheless the Matura from school can to school and even within a school from class to classanother level have. However the Benotung of the written examination must be confirmed by the national school advice. The verbal examination takes place before a commission , in whatever teachers from other schools are involved.
With the verbal examination gets each candidate perSubject two core material - ask a special question from subjects of the upper stage, from which it one select may, and to its in advance selected special field. The special field can be selected by the pupils in arrangement with the teachers themselves andalso a topic can be, which was not treated in instruction or only at the edge.
in generally forming higher schools exists the maturity examination (Matura) from 3-4 written examinations to ever 4-5 (languages mostly are 5-stündig; Mathematics4-stündig) Hours and 3-6 verbal examinations to ever 15-25 minutes plus additional preparation time. The written examinations are usually put down in the course of one week in May. The verbal examinations follow about one month later and are for each Maturanten on onehalf and/or. whole day distributes (depending upon number of examinations).
In the context of the Matura candidates have the possibility of making to at the beginning of of February of the start yearly a specialist area work. This is comparable a short scientific work - with a short seminar work. Becomesthe specialist area work accepted, then reduces the number of examinations to 3 written work and 3 verbal examinations each.
Written examinations in German and mathematics as well as in (living persons or dead) a foreign language are obligating. The fourth final inspection can in onefurther foreign language, computer science, representing geometry, biology or physics to be put down, if in these subjects at the latest starting from the 11. Were written to school stage homework.
For the verbal examinations those are divided school fan into several groups:
- Group of A: Religion, ethics(at schools, which participate in this school attempt), German, history and social customer, psychology and philosophy, musician drawing, Bildneri education
- group of B: Foreign languages
- group of C: Geography and restaurant economics, mathematics, representing geometry, biology and environmental customer, chemistry, physics, computer science
for the verbal examination must at leastan article from group of B to be selected. Which further articles must be selected, depends on the kind of the AHS. The verbal examinations are public.
If a candidate did not write a specialist area work, he must in the process of his verbal Matura alsoa deepening, a fan-spreading or a supplementing examination placing. Independently of it, which selects these variants of the pupils, he gets two questions, from which he may select himself one; it keeps a question from one of him additional before in agreementwith the examiner selected special field, which must represent an addition of the core material.
Candidates, who wrote a specialist area work, must begin in that subject, the work is assigned to which, to the verbal examination; additionally they must itself however in the context of theseExamination to a test discussion about their work place, and these present.
The deepening Matura is possible only in a subject, which the pupil in the course of the upper stage selected as obligation to vote subject. Here he gets in this subject additionally to the two Core material questions and the special question two questions to material areas, which were through-taken in the obligation to vote subject.
With the fan-spreading Matura two arbitrary test fan are connected. Additionally to the core material and special questions in both subjects the candidate gets two asking one of it is tooanswer, which thematically in both fan and deal during their answer he must fit also with both fan. As examiners thereby the professors both function fan.
The supplementing examination becomes in any subject in connection with a language orwith computer science held, whereby this language and/or. Computer science inevitably as Maturafach to be selected does not have. The pupil must answer thereby additionally to the core material and special question a core material question in the selected language.
over 60% of the AustrianMaturanten placing their final examination („maturing and diploma examination”) at one the numerous „professional training higher one schools “, which, in 5 school years after the compulsory school, apart from which Matura obtain also still another professional training with national conclusion. Depending upon school type (field) to it different applyGuidelines. After some years of practical occupation work the graduates of the technical and agricultural BHS may (see.Higher technical institute) the Austrian condition designation engineer (on request with the responsible Ministry) lead. Although the BHS only one secondary level school actual thus no university,the school-leaving certificate is recognized European-wide in the sense of the European Union guideline 92/51 EEC, appendix D, as diploma (comparable „nationally examined technician “in other countries). With their school-leaving certificate the graduates can also immediately take up a study at a university.
the Maturazeugnis contains only the notes of the examination work and the verbal examinations. The Benotung takes place via notes from 1 (very well) to 5 (not sufficient). Additionally it contains a summary of the achievements:
- With excellentSuccess existed: With a note cut of maximally 1.5 and only very well to satisfying (3) as partial notes.
- With good success existed: Existed with a note cut of maximally 2.0 and only very well to satisfying (3) as
- partial notes
- Not existed: With or several with not sufficient judged partial examinations.
Pupils, who did not exist the Matura with the first time, have the possibility, to the Nebenterminen in September/October and January/February and/or. to repeat in the coming school year the maturity examination.
professional maturity examination
a central request of the Austrian educational system is it to ensure the entrance to higher education conclusions than lifelong chance. The 1997 imported professional maturity examination is a further step in addition. 2000 gave it a novella, whereby now also occupational groups,the BRP so far, the entrance to the BRP remained refused for those is possible.
It entitled to a study at universities, academies and Kollegs. In addition the existed professional maturity examination fulfills the condition for entrance for training in the elevated civil service with the federation.
Thus openfor graduate inside the binary system (with Lehrabschlussprüfung), for graduates of at least three-year middle schools, of vocational schools, like for health and nursing for the sick or for the medical-technical specialty service new career opportunities and new educational facilities.
- German: 5-stündige written examination work with the requirements of oneMaturity examination of a higher school
- mathematics: 4-stündige written examination work with the requirements of a maturity examination of a higher school
- living foreign language: after choice of the test candidate a 5-stündige written examination work or a verbal examination with the requirements of a maturity examination of a higher school, in thatRule „English “
- specialist area: 5-stündige examination work over a topic from the vocational field of the test candidate (including the technical surrounding field) and a relevant verbal examination with the goal of an argument on higher level.
partial examinations for professional maturity examination can be put down after the curriculumone:
- General-forming higher school (AHS) excluded the specialist area
- commercial academy (HOOK)
- higher one technical institute (HTL)
- other form of the professional training higher school (for example HBLA,…)
See also: School types in Austria
the Matura in South Tyrol
the maturity examination (speak: Matura)becomes after conclusion of the 13. School stage (5. Class high school) put down. The graduates are the Maturanten.
Latin name Matura for the maturity examination and/or. the school-leaving certificate is only colloquial the used; the official name reads simply maturity examination or formally: National final examination. The examination is at school removed, which the pupil visited last. Test article are thereby three written examinations, as well as a fan-spreading, locking verbal examination. In principle the examinations cover all fan of the school year run off.
The maturity examination becomesgenerally removed in the school, which the pupil visited last. The acceptance effected thereby via six teachers, in the test commission are and an external test president (usually a director of another high school)
sincethe reform of the system in the school year 1998/99 each pupil becomes, that 13. School year completed, even if it did not experience a positive evaluation in all subjects, for examination certified. Only exception are not pupils, due toput down homework, not to be classified. Entitled to take part are further also pupils of the 12. Class stage, if these reached a note over 8 (well) in all subjects.
Further also privatists (external ones) can begin to the examination, if them for this in time a request(Request) placed.
the final examination consists of four parts. Three written examinations and a verbal final examination.
- First written examination: This covers an six-hour work in German for the German school and Italian for the ItalianSchool. Altogether three types stand to the selection: A text analysis, an essay and/or. a report, or a discussion. The topics are given partially in each case by the education office in Rome, as well as the education office of the south animal oilers federal state government.
- Thosesecond written examination an six-hour work, contents is however different from school to school type to school type enclosure likewise and covers a speciality of the respective school type. The test subject several months before the examination admits given. Possible fan are toExample Greek, latin, mathematics, bookkeeping, electronics and computer science.
- The third written examination becomes split in South Tyrol. On different days one three-hour examination each takes place. The first part covers an examination, those in a secondary languageto be put down must: thus Italian for the candidates of the German-language schools of South Tyrol and German (or another foreign language) for those of the Italian schools.
- The second part covers a fan bundle and it by the teachers of the conclusion class is arranged. Usuallywith it topics not yet by the written examinations taken off are treated. This examination can be taken also in the form of multiple Choice.
- The total point number results from the arithmetic means of the two examinations.
- Finally a verbal examination takes place(Test discussion), questions are placed in a random sampling way to all subjects. This examination can be introduced when desired the candidate with a paper of the candidate (the duration of the lecture is limited to ten minutes). A test candidate decides for it,it must prepare and before training the commission submit its specialized topic in writing. Three variants are available to the candidate:The deepened topic treats in more detail a topic of the school year run off prepared in way. The written documentation in addition covers fewSides. The skilled work compiles in detail any topic, which covers documentation in addition a larger number at sides (usually lengths between 30 and 80 sides result). At trade high schools additionally also a compiled project can be presented. Is also here topicand form freely selectable, usually corresponds the project however to the expertise obtained by the school (for example, or developed electronic projects such as robots programs).
the contract note of the examination is expressed in hundredths. ToExist the examination are at least 60/100 necessary, maximum note are 100/100. The point numbers result as follows:
- 15 points for everyone of the three written work, thus altogether 45 points. Sufficient evaluated work receives at least 10 points.
- The verbal examination can alsomaximally 35 points to be evaluated. A positively evaluated discussion is benotet with at least 22 points.
- Each candidate can collect in his school career up to 20 points for „the education assets in such a way specified “. These points result from the note cuts of the11. - 13. School year. Become maximum in the 11. and 12. Class 6 points assign, in the 13. 8 points.
in the school year 2004/2005 put 2935 regular candidates and 199 privatists (external test specimens) in South Tyrol the final examinationoff. There is Italy far over 480.000. Of it approximately 97% nevertheless create the examination, from the privatists after preceding evening education 85%.
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