Of Mauritius

of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Mauritius (term clarifying).
Republic of OF Mauritius
Republic of Mauritius< /font>
Flagge von Mauritius Wappen von Mauritius
(Detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: Stella Clavisque Maris Indici.
Latin, „star and key of the Indian ocean “
office languages English
capital haven Louis
system of government Republic of
head of state Anerood Jugnauth
head of the government Navin Ramgoolam
surface 1,860 km ²
number of inhabitants 1.220.481 (conditions July 2004)
population density of 656 inhabitants per km ²
independence 12. March 1968 (of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
gros domestic product/inhabitant 4,244 US-$ (2004)
currency Rupie
Time belt UTC +4
national anthem MON ago country
Kfz characteristic ms
Internet TLD .mu
preselection +230
Standort Mauritius'
Karte der Hauptinsel Mauritius (ohne Rodigues)

the Republic of Mauritius (dt.: [maʊ̯ˈriːtsi̯ʊs], English: [məˈɹɪʃəs]) an island state is in the southwest of the Indian ocean, approximately 900 km east of Madagascar. In the norththe Seychelles are and in the west are the French Überseedépartement La Réunion.

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geography [

work on] in the Indian ocean. In the west the island Madagascar is about 900 kilometersremoved. Up to the African continent approximately 1,800 kilometers are to be put back. La Réunion is appropriate for about 200 km in the west and India is about 4,000 km in the northeast. To Mauritius still a great many smaller islands belong like for example Pc. Brandon, Rodrigues and the Agalega islands. Together with La Réunion and Rodrigues belongs to Mauritius to the MASK arenas.

landscape

the State of Mauritius consists of two large and several smaller islands: There as the first would beOf Mauritius, which largest island of the country, on which also the capital haven Louis lies. The second larger island is called Rodrigues and counts approximately 40,000 inhabitants. It lies approx. 600 km east on approximately the same height.

The Cargados Carajos islands lieapprox. 500 km northeast from Mauritius. This Inselgruppe has a length of approx. 100 km and extends from north to south. The Agalega islands lie over 1.000 km northward far away from Mauritius near Seychelles. ThoseHauptinsel Agalega has about 50 continuous inhabitants, who live on fishing. By the influx of a hotel planned by coworkers this number could increase.

climate

the climate is tropical: The average temperature is because of the coast with 23,3 °Cand on the heights at 19,4 °C. The relative humidity varies between 70% at the coasts and 90% to 100% in the mountains. The winter goes from May to November and is relatively drying, whereas that Summer from November to May is quite damp.

Mauritius is afflicted all five to six years in the summer by Zyklonen, which arrange heavy devastations on the island.

cities

the largest cities are (conditions 1. January 2005):

  1. Haven Louis: 155,226 inhabitants
  2. Beau basin Rosehill: 110,822 inhabitants
  3. Vascoas Phoenix: 106,761 inhabitants
  4. Curepipe: 84,200 inhabitants
  5. Quatre of fount: 80,961 inhabitants

see also: List of the cities on of Mauritius

population

of about two thirds of the inhabitantscome from the Indian Subkontinent. A large part of the remaining population are so-called Kreolen (former slaves from Africa and Madagascar, with other groups, above all Europeans, mixes). Well two per cent of the Mauritianer are Chinese descent, the white minority is somethingsmaller. Native does not give it, since Mauritius was uninhabited before the Kolonialisierung.

Morisyen, a Kreolsprache, which is based on the French, is used of nearly the entire population in the everyday life and spoken of over 80 per cent as native language. ItMorisyen an official status gives to give efforts. Besides also a mixture from northIndian languages and dialects is spoken, which resembles the Hindi (12%), as well as dravidische languages from south India, above all Tamil (3%). The Chinese speak partially still differentlysouthChinese dialects. The official languages are English and French, whereby English is the official office language, while French is further the native language (4%) of the Oberschicht, although the Frenchmen do not control the country already since over 200 years no more. The Frenchcontrol the mass media and the public area. The position of the French is strengthened also by related Morisyen, which most inhabitants speak.

The furthest common religion is the Hinduismus, to which scarcely half of the population belongs. To Christianity about 35 per cent of the population, whereby the majority is catholic, only about 8 per cent are Protestanten admit themselves. 12 per cent are Sunniten, about 3 per cent of Shiites.Buddhisten place about a per cent of the population. The Hinduismus and Islam becamebrought from the Indian workers to Mauritius, who were used from the Englishmen to abolishment of the slavery on the sugar piping plan days.

history

the island was probably already well-known Arabs and Malaien, although there are for it no proofs. Discoveredby Europeans the island became 1505 (other sources to call 1507 or also 1510) of the Portuguese Pedro Mascarenhas. Of it this very day the name of the Inselgruppe of the MASK arenas reminds (consisting of Mauritius, Rodrigues and Réunion).

Netherlands time

the admiral van Warwick took the island 1598 for Holland in possession and designated it after the prince Moritz von Oranien (ndl. Maurits, lat. Mauritius). Of 1598 - 1710 were Mauritius in Netherlands possession. One settledit only 1638 of the Dutchmen. France took the neighbouring islands Rodrigues and Réunion in the same year in possession. After the retreat of the Dutchmen Mauritius was temporary in Piratenhand. The island was nearly completely cleared and exterminated the animal existence(Dodos) and/or. strongly dezimiert.

French time

1715 was then conquered the country by the Frenchmen, who renamed the island in „Île de France “. Haven Louis was created here 1725 and the governor seat was established. Owner of theIsle was up to their bankruptcy in the year 1767 the French-eastIndian commercial company. It let put on and manage sugar piping plan day by slaves from East Africa and Madagascar. Starting from 1767 the island was French crowning colony.

the British

occupied British time 1810after a successful sea-battle against France and they designated the island in Mauritius. Also Rodrigues fell into British hands, while Réunion was returned after the war at France. Starting from 1814 of Mauritius was British crowning colony and belonged to the Commonwealth. The British Besatzer exerted only little influence on happenings and conditions on the island. Many things of the Frenchmen remained therefore, like for example the code civil Napoleon and the French language.

In 19. Century set a mass immigrationfrom India , after the British colonial power had forbidden the slavery starting from 1835. Starting from 1871 for “contract workers so mentioned “an immigration stop was imposed, because on the Plantagen active Indian had reached in the meantime 60 per cent population portion. Because of the Monokulturthe economy on the island depended particularly on the development of the sugar tubing world price.

The crisis of the sugar tubing industry on of Mauritius end 19. Century led to the drift of a large part of his population.

The population remained, despite over 150 years British rule,by the descent of the dominant Oberschicht until today French coined/shaped.

independence

starting from 1958 prepared Great Britain Mauritius for its Selbstständigkeit. The general right to vote and political autonomy were granted. After 150 years of British rule Mauritius became to 12.March 1968 independently, remained however still a component of the Commonwealth. First prime minister became the leader of the labour party, Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, which Mauritius governed in the first 14 years of its independence. Since July 2005 its son is a prime minister.

To 12. March 1992 became Mauritius after introduction of a new condition a republic.

politics

since independence are the government one of the few stable representative democracies in Africa with free elections and warranties for human rightswithin the state.

The parliament of Mauritius consists of at least 62 and maximally 70 members. These are selected every five years in the 21 „constituencies “districts mentioned, to each district place three delegates, with exception of Rodrigues, which places two. Thoseremaining eight are „the best losers of “all districts, which determined underrepresented Ethnien in “the normal” election result belong must. The Sinnhaftigkeit of the Best of loose systems, which on a census of the 70's - years is based, is disputed and could in the course of a discussed Wahlreformare painted.

The head of state is a president, who is selected after the elections by the parliament. He selects from the delegates of the parliament the prime minister, who leads the government and suggests candidates for the individual offices for Minister, which then again from the presidentare used.

The Mauritian labour party (MLP) governed in the time of 1947 to 1982 continuous either alone or in a coalition. The alliance of Mauritian militantly Movement and Mauritian Socialist party (MMM/PSM) won the elections of 1982 and gotall 60 seats awarded.1983 overflowed politicians of the MMM to the PSM and united to militantly the Socialist Movement (MSM) and formed a majority in the coalition with the MLP.

In July 1990 the MSM with that closedMMM together and they won 1991 59 of the 62 directly selected seats in the parliament with the elections in September. In December 1995 again the MLP, this won times however in coalition with the MMM. After the prime minister Ramgoolam of thatMLP 1997 the coalition partner MMM of the Regierungsgeschäften excluded, continued to govern the MLP by small parties alone.

2000 won the coalition from MMM and MSM the national elections. Despite arguments of the two parties they stepped in July 2005 againtogether with the elections against a MLP led social alliance on. The social alliance could however - won with 42 seats - an outstanding victory bring in.

economics

general

the stable political situation on the islandafter independence to a considerable degree foreign investors tightened , which brought in of Mauritius one of the highest Pro-Kopf-Einkommen of Africa. In the last years the economic growth was strongly slowed down by natural catastrophes and falling sugar prices, which to protests due to the standard of living that outweighing kreolischen population led. The Rohrzucker, which is cultivated on nearly 90% of the cultivated surface, is one of the main sources of income of Mauritius: it constitutes 25% of the export incomes. Also the textile industry is an important industry, however due to limited export quotaslikewise under pressure is guessed/advised.

structural change

before independence depended the economy in Mauritius nearly only on Zuckerrohr. But the country created it the industrie to remove and promote bank and tourism industry, which to thatled relatively high standard of living. In particular the Edelsteinschleiferei developed to an important branch of industry. In July 2005 the voted out government wanted to make Mauritius a Cyber Iceland and a goal of outsourcing. Probably the new government leads the Cyber Iceland Strategyessentially away.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

culture

the colonial past is reflected also inagainst, then the culinary map of of Mauritius elements from the Netherlands, France, India of the culture and of the Kreolen contains. Also within the other culture ranges a mixture of the influences of two colonial powers as well as Africa and Asia prevails.

Further Mauritius for its stamps is famous, the red one and blue Mauritius (in English however as „talk penny “and „the Blue the penny “well-known). They were printed 1847, when Mauritius began as the fifth country of the earth to use stamps. Itare today very rare and therefore also very valuable.

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coordinates: 20° 17 ′ S, 57° 33 ′ O

 

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