Max Ernst

Max Ernst, Habakuk (nach einem Modell von 1934), Kunstverein für die Rheinlande und Westfalen, Dauerleihgabe an die Stadt Düsseldorf (Standort: vor der Kunsthalle Düsseldorf)
Max Ernst, Habakuk (according to a model of 1934), art association for Rhine country and Westphalia, continuous loan to the city Duesseldorf (location: before the arts center Duesseldorf)
Max Ernst, Habakuk vor der Kunsthalle Düsseldorf
max Ernst, Habakuk before the arts center Duesseldorf

max Ernst (* 2. April 1891 in Brühl; † 1. April 1976 in Paris) was a German painter and sculptor of the Dadaismus and the Surrealismus.

Table of contents


max Ernstthe son of the deaf-mute teacher was Philipp Ernst and his Mrs. Luise. It had still eight further brothers and sisters.

For painting max of its father was trained. After the Abitur it began 1910 at the University of Bonn a study in the subjectsPhilosophy, psychology and history of art. Here he became acquainted with also the expressionist August Macke .

By August 1914 until November 1918 Ernst was as a Freiwilliger in the 1.Weltkrieg in France and Poland in the use. 1918 he married Luise Straus. With it gotit 1920 the son Hans Ulrich (1920 - 1984), later under the name Ernst in the USA than surrealistischer painter admits Jimmy to which became. 1926 became the marriage divorced.

1918 created max with Hans Arp the Cologne Dada group, to alsoits wife Luise Straus seriousness was involved; he became acquainted with 1920 the writer Paul Eluard and went to Paris, where he expanded 1924 the collage as artistic technology and invented the technology of the Frottage. Starting from 1924 Ernst one was thatmost important painter of the Surrealismus. To the exclusion of Paul Eluard from the group it went on distance.

Seriousness beautiful gardener (1923) was shown in the diffamierenden exhibition “degenerate art “, which is since that time verschollen picture. it pulled 1938itself with Leonora Carrington after pc. Martin d'Ardèche into a remote farmhouse back, where despite adverse circumstances important works were completed like little peace and the fascinating Zypresse. After the invasion of the German armed forces he became as “suspects foreigner”into several camps interns, but after some weeks dismiss, starting from winter 1939 come it several times again into detention. 1941 arrived with support of the influential Mäzenin Peggy Guggenheim via Spain and Lisbon into the USA, where he important influence on thoserecent painter generation exercised. Here he married its former friend Guggenheim. Also this marriage lasted not for a long time. he married 1946 in Beverly Hills the artist Dorothea Tanning. In the same year it won the Bel revision modification competition with its painting thoseTemptation of the holy Antonius.

1953 it returned to Europe. On the Biennale of Venice 1954 it was honoured with the large price for painting.

The relationship to its birth city Brühl was after several events before the background itsfirst German single exhibition in the city 1951 long time clouded. 1966 it rejected the honour citizenry. For the first time it visited this 1971, in order to attend the inauguration of the max seriousness well before the city hall.

In the year 1975 max became Ernst with the Goslarer emperor ring distinguished.

Max Ernst died one day before its 85 birthday at the 1. April 1976 in Paris. He was buried after its Einäscherung in the Columbarium of the cemetery Père Lachaise to Paris.

In Brühl became to 4. September 2005 the new max seriousness museum opened.

artistic work

Ernst rejected the conventional techniques of the academic oil painting and could particularly by (steered) the coincidence be inspirien, z. B. by coincidentally found material structures such as woods or sheets, which it then with the sixCoincidence principles;Frottage, burr days, Decalcomanie (poor copy), Fumage, sand and Farbdripping (see. Jackson pole LOCK Action Painting) revised. These techniques partly invented it.

Particularly into the 1932ern Collagenromane from Holzstichen, also printed , appeared.

A recurringMotive of seriousness is the bird and/or. the figure of the “bird-upper Loplop”, which emerges again and again since its Paris time and can as a kind age Ego of the artist be interpreted.

works (selection)

  • 1922, “with the rendezvous thatFriends ", museum Ludwig, Cologne
  • 1923, “holy Cäcilie - the invisible piano”, state State of, Stuttgart
  • 1925, “Histoire Naturelle”, Tehran museum OF Contemporary kind, Teheran, Iran
  • 1927, “Forêt soleil”, Saarland museum, Saarbruecken et
  • 1928, “thoseChose the bad one ", new national gallery, Berlin
  • 1929, “La Femme 100 tetes”, Collagenroman.
  • 1940, “La toilet de la mariée”, Guggenheim museum, New York, the USA
  • 1946, “the temptation of the holy Antonius, Duisburg, William loam bridging museum
  • 1950, “God messenger”, Frottage, new national gallery, Berlin


Web on the left of

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| | * Literature of and over max Ernst in the catalog of the DDB



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