Max Erwin by Scheubner judge

Ludwig Maximilian Erwin of Scheubner judge (* 21. January 1884 in Riga; † 9. November 1923 in Munich) was a German diplomat and a guidance figure in the early phase of the NSDAP. The 1. Part of Hitler's book „my fight “is dedicated to him.

Table of contents

Biografie to 1920

Scheubner judges as max of judges as a son of baltendeutscher parents one bore. It received the name additive “of Scheubner” after the marriage with by 29 years the older noble Mathilde from Scheubner.

early years

from 1904 to 1906 it studied chemistry in Riga, where it joined the German-Baltic student connection Rubonia. To revolutionary unrests in Russia 1904/1905 Scheubner judge went to Germany. To 10. August 1914 announced itself to Scheubner judge as a war kriegsfreiwilliger. After different front employments, various DEK local ions and transport he was abkommandiert into Turkey.

the 1. World war/Scheubner judge and the genocide at the Armenians

in the context of its activity as a German diplomat were a Scheubner judge during the 1. World war as a German vice-consul in the Turkish Erzerum stations, where he became a witness of the genocide at the Armenians by the troops of the young-recent government.

To 20. It reported May 1915 to German Ambassador Wangenheim in Konstantinopel: “The masses of the evacuated Armenians pull, by few gendarmes accompanied, in broad river over the fields freshly ordered with trouble or camps on the same. The cattle feast the Saaten off. ... The misery - despair and embittering are large. The women and their children threw themselves before my horse and asked for assistance. Armenian population sees her natural Beschützer in me as only representative of Christian power. Situation with difficulty and embarrassingly. Ask Ew. Excellency to want to support me if possible by appropriate steps with the gate (Turkish government). “

Scheubner judge succeeded to save it individual Armenians, its interventions in Konstantinopel and Berlin remained however ineffective.

As a vice-consul it led a politico-military expedition from August 1915 to June 1916. Afterwards changing employments followed among other things in Straubing (Munich), in the regiment under Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg, and in Stockholm, finally 1917/18 in the supreme command of the army in Riga. Scheubner judge had ascended 1917/18 after tropical war service inability already to the director/conductor of the Pressestelle compulsory health insurance scheme (army headquarters) of the VIII in Riga and took part in the advance of the German troops in spring 1918 in Estonia, for which he received the EK I.

Holocaust research

the historical research assumes that Hitler experienced later by Scheubner judge detail of the genocide and thus in the acceptance was encouraged that other European powers a brutal - possibly also mass executions or at least the death of large people numbers by the extraction of their base of life in purchase taking measures would accept - procedure against the Jews in the German sphere of influence later protestless, if one would place them before completed facts. I.e. if the murder Deportation of the Jews is final into remote areas. In this connection frequently the eight days before the assault on Poland 1939 by Hitler expressed sentence is rated: “Who today still speaks of the Armenians? “

after that 1. World war

after the war attached Scheubner judges the Baltic free corps under August Winning, there met it also the likewise Baltendeut Alfred rose mountain. In March 1920 Scheubner judge took part in the cut Putsch and was from Wolfgang cuts as a boss of the intelligence service of the new PUT CH government intended: to which it did not come however to the failure of the Putsches. After the failure of the Putsches it had to flee to Munich, where it created among other things the “economic structure combination” as connecting organization between German right ones and Russian monarchistic emigrant.

Biografie starting from 1920: Scheubner judge and Hitler

Scheubner judge met in October 1920 for the first time with Adolf Hitler . In the consequence it dessem advisor with regard to foreign policy became and one finances the party. It became the most important and far away most successful investigator of undreamt-of and extensive pecuniary resources and thus one of the crucial promoters of the ascent of the Nazi party.

finance the NSDAP

the financial and political connections of Scheubner judge ran to Industriellen, Prussian June core, Aristokraten like the Wittelsbachern, high church places and wealthy Russia emigrants. Scheubner judge used these relations - to emphasize are v.a. its widely distributed contacts to conservative and right-wing extremist circles in Germany around the world war general Erich Ludendorff and to exilierten Russian Royalisten, by a support of the NSDAP an influence of the German policy in the direction of a removal of the Soviet Union and a reestablishment of the Zarentums in Russia expected - over with extraordinary fate considerable financial means for the party to open. Thus it brought and others the funds for the purchase of the newspaper “Munich observer” up, who became under the name of Völki observers the party organ of the Nazi party. Scheubner judge arranged also the contact for Hitler to “steel baron” Fritz Thyssen, which became the financial sponsor of the Nazi party so at a time, when the remaining large-scale industry faced it still to a large extent rejecting.

Scheubner judge two “

non-profit” organizations, which it made for its friends possible to send tax-privileged the NSDAP donations, created methods of the funds procurement for the procurement of funds. In order to make for the payers a donating more attractive, it presented them respectable Gallionsfiguren of its respective circles, whose goals were carried vorgeblich by the donations: the conservative one the representative of the Vatikan in Bavaria and convinced fascist baron Theodor von Cramer Klett, for the exile Russian the large princess Viktoria Fedorowna, valid their husband of requirements on the vakanten Zarenthron made - and those their jewels in favor of the party shifted - and the former Russian general Vasilij Biskupskij. Biskupskij for his part placed Scheubner judges and thus the NSDAP contact for the commerce, industrie Russländi in of Paris residents and trade association, whose members likewise expect a transformation of Russian conditions to their favour. In a letter from the year 1939 the general those rated the party on Fürsprache of Scheubner judge financial assistance granted by exile Russians on a half million Goldmark. Characterizing for the pecuniary resources which it opened was thus v.a. the “many angularness” over those the money its way from the donors to the NSDAP found.

march on field-gentleman-resounds

to for the Hitler Ludendorff Putsch - which coup d'etat by force for removal that Weimar democracy - Scheubner judge had sketched a Putschplan, which was not continued to pursue first together with Alfred rose mountain. In the evening 8. November 1923 it fetched personally the loading village from Ludwig height with the car, indispensable for the success of the Putsches as conservative identification, and brought it to the waiting insurgent ones in Munich citizen brewing cellars. On the next morning it marched beside Hitler, Ludendorff and Hermann Göring at the head of the demonstration march of the Putschisten to Munich field-gentleman-resounds. After the course of the insurgent ones had already been able to break through a police post chain, met it on the Odeonsplatz on a further Cordon of armed policemen. From until today not completely clarified reasons came it to a shooting into its consequence 12 Putschisten (later two further before the Bavarian war Ministry) and 4 policemen died. Scheubner judge was first that deadly met to soil sank. Hitler, that with him going down act had by the dying also to soil tore itself. Hitler kugelte itself the arm out, had however the luck to be during the following shooting because of the soil so that the balls passed over his head and remained to a large extent intact it. Thus Scheubner judge possibly saved Hitler the life by his death.

Hitler appreciation for its Gefolgsmann comes obviously therein to expression that he did not express it only - like 13 others the dead ones of the failed Putsches also - which to first part of its book my fight dedicated but also: “All are not replaceable, only one: Scheubner judge! “.


  • Kursell, Otto of: “Memories of max of Scheubner judge”, s.l.1967.
  • Leverkuehn, Paul: “Posts on eternal guard. From the adventurous life of the max of Scheubner judge " (tendencious work), meals 1938.
  • Baur, Johannes: “The Russian colony in Munich 1900-1945. GermanRussian relations in 20. Century (publications of the institute for Eastern Europe Munich, row history, Bd. 65), Wiesbaden 1998 "


  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)