Maxim Gorki

of these articles is concerned with the writer Maxim Gorki; to the airplane of the same name see Tupolev ANT-20.
Bildnis Gorkis an der Bibliothek Donezk (Ukraine)
Portrait fermenting gravel at the library Donezk (Ukraine)

Maxim Gorki (Russian МаксимГорький (translated: bitterly); actually Alexei Maximowitsch Peschkow, АлексейМаксимовичПешков, wiss. Transliteration Alexej Maximovič Peškov; * 28. March 1868 in Nischni Nowgorod; † 18. June 1936) was a Russian writer.

Table of contents


the social unfairness

Maxim Gorki
grows childhood

and youth Maxim Gorki Alexej Peschkow in Russia become an important topic of the literary and social argument in a time, in thatis, in poorest conditions up. Its grandfather was Wolgatreidler, its father, who died early, carpenters. The family lives frequently in cellar holes; physical force within the family is not anything unusual.

Starting from its tenth Lebensjahr Alexej - first as rag collecting tanks - must make even money.Before it can live on its literary activity, it works and. A. when run boy, kitchen boy, bird dealer, salesman, icon painter, baker-associated ship unloading plant, bricklayers, night watchmen, railroadmen and attorney assistant.

In the late 80's 19. Century comes he into Kazan', where he itself unsuccessfully overan admission at the university endeavored, for the first time in contact with the revolutionary movement. He works at a baker, whose shop is at the same time library of a Marxist secret circle. It reads much and is suitable as an autodidact a comprehensive, but unsystematical knowledge on. The insurmountable gap betweenit and the studying youth makes for it to create with difficulty and possibly is the reason for 1887 a committed attempted suicide. It perforates itself thereby the lung which entails a lifelong Tuberkulose.

writer and political activist

1889 the tsarist police becomesbecause of its revolutionary contacts for the first time on it attentively. In the same year it submits Vladimir Korolenko a Poem to the writer and harvests a relentless criticism. It turns away provisionally from the literature and pulls to foot by Russia, the Ukraine and over the Caucasusuntil low-read. There he with revolutionaries and student come into contact, that encourage it to record its experiences literarily. Its first narration Makar Tschudra, to 12. September 1892 in the province newspaper Kawkas appears, signs Alexei Peschkow with the alias Maxim Gorki (the bitter one).

Gorki pulls after SAM era, where he got a place on switching Korolenkos as a journalist during a province newspaper. 1894 succeed to it with the narration Tschelkasch the break-through as a writer. Also the 1898 published sketches and narrations are a large success. 1901 writesit after a student demonstration in sank Petersburg, which ends by the brutal intervention of the police in a mass massacre, the song of the storm bird. The storm, of this bird with Kraft of the anger, the flame of the passion and the certainty of the victory tells,in revolutionary circles as the revolution and the Poem on relevant meetings is understood is spoken.

After the success of his plays the small citizens (1901) and night shelter (1902) Gorki is so popular that the different attempts of the regime release to proceed against him protest towers again and again. During oneIts friends and Verehrer - among them Fjodor Schaljapin and Iwan Bunin - in Podolsk prepare journey on the Krim, where he is referred because of the signing of a treatise against the official representation of the mentioned demonstration , for it a triumphalen receipt. Against the resolution Zar Nikolaus II., Fermenting gravel appointment as the honour member of the Academy of Sciences to cancel, protest and. A. Anton Tschechow and Vladimir Korolenko. After its protest against the Niedermetzeln of unarmed civilians to 9. January 1905, the Peter citizen in such a way specified Blutsonntag, he becomesin the Peter and Pauls fortress arrests, but, after also the foreign press about it was indignant, again released.

before the revolution

in the short time of political loosening after the revolution of 1905 Gorki over publications and meetings is untiringly active for the revolution.With the magazine Nowaja Schisn (new life), which it along-justified has, becomes acquainted with it Lenin , who works there as an editor-in-chief.

When the political climate becomes again stricter already soon, it goes abroad. In France it agitates against a loan of the western states to thatafter the Russian-Japanese war weakened Russia. When the loan is granted nevertheless, it writes the insulting lampoon the beautiful France. In the USA he is to collect party donations, remains however relatively unsuccessful, after its opponent the fact that he with its companion Marja Andrejewa notis married, against it out-played.

In a country house in the Adirondacks - mountains writes Gorki and. A. the novel the nut/mother, which to it Lenin will reproach later again and again than positive example of its literature and which in the Soviet Union to the classical author one will high-stylize.

After its open agitation against the loan it is not possible for Gorki to return to Russia. He spends the years 1907 to 1913 on the island Capri, where he concerns himself however exclusively with Russian and revolutionary topics. It creates one with Lenin supportSchool for revolutionaries and propagandists, receives numerous visitors (z. B. the Russian writer Nowikow Priboj), those to it pilgern and answer innumerable letters of people from Russia, which contact with their concerns and hopes him.

Into this time fermenting gravel first argument falls alsoLenin. Gorki, for which the religion always played an important role, follows the theories of the God designers around Alexander Alexandrowitsch Bogdanow , which are condemned of Lenin as „deviation from the marxism “. The conflict entspinnt itself particularly around fermenting gravel writing a Beichte, inwhich he tries, Christianity and marxism to reconcile and 1913 flash again, when Gorki in a writing pleads against „the decomposing spirit Dostojewskis “for it, „the God search aside to leave temporary “.

An amnesty on the occasion of the three hundred-year old anniversary of the house Romanow in the year 1913 offersGorki the possibility of returning again to Russia.

Fermenting gravel skepticism in relation to the October Revolution of 1917 is the reason for its second large argument with Lenin. Gorki is fundamental for a social revolution, means however that the Russian people for it is not yet ripe; that thoseMasses only necessary consciousness to develop must, in order to rise from their misery. He speaks later of his fear at that time that the dictatorship of the Proletariats could lead to the dissolution and destruction of the only trueful revolutionaries Kraft, which we possessed at that time: bolschewistischen, politically trainedWorker. This destruction would have the idea of the social revolution on long time also compromised [...].

opposition and emigration

right after the revolution creates Gorki different associations, around the purge of science and culture against preparatory work, feared by it. The committee toImprovement of the living conditions of scholars about is to support member of the Intelligenzija, which after the revolution particularly from hunger, cold weather and political arbitrariness to suffer to have. 1918 become the magazine Nowaja Schisn - now fermenting gravel platform, in which he polemisiert approximately Lenin Prawda and Lynchjustiz and the poison of power brands - forbade. Soon fermenting gravel becomes opposition Lenin so annoyingly that it suggests to it to let its Tuberkulose in foreign sanatoriums treat.

Gorki in Berlin spends the years 1921 to 1924. Sceptically opposite Lenin successors it decides alsoto its death to return to Russia but does not go again to Italy. The fascist government permits it only after some hesitating to establish itself in Sorrent. There he remains for Lenin until 1927 and writes memories of Lenin, in those he as humans designation,which he loved at most. In addition it works there on the extensive novels the work of the Artamonows and the life of the Klim Samgin.

Soviet presenting writer

Maxim Gorki with the NKWD boss gene-smell Jagoda, Moscow, November 1935

to 22. October 1927 the communist academy in a sticking decides 35-jährigem author anniversary on the occasion of of fermenting gravel to recognize it as a proletarian writer. When Gorki returns soon thereafter to Russia, become him all possible honours assign: Gorki gets the Lenin medal and becomes member of the central committee of the CPSU. Its sixtieth birthdaygenerally speaking country is solemnly committed, numerous institutions, and. A. Muscovites the artist theatre and Muscovites Literaturinstitut, are designated after him. Its birth city Nischni Nowgorod is renamed in Gorki.

In numerous literature-scientific works of the time those elements of its work are emphasized, into thatCanons of socialist realism fit, others discreetly. The nut/mother, fermenting gravel only work, in which the hero is a factory hand and thus a genuine proletarian, is to serve as model for the new, strictly reglementierte literature.

In these last Lebensjahren Gorki designates its earlier skepticismthe revolution opposite as mistake and presenting writer becomes Stalins. On journeys by the Soviet Union he admires the achievements of the progress of the last years. He does not seem to notice the shade sides. So he is also an editor of the book the white sea Baltic Sea channel, in that the workhundred-rope that forced laborers of a number of well-known writers as large achievement besungen becomes. He spends most time in a mansion in close proximity to Moscow, where he is supervised around the clock by informers of the KGB. It actual like already before - overthe clearing-up of the population and the promotion of young writers endeavor and base and. A. the well-known bibliography row the life of remarkable personalities and the magazine literary teachings, which want to teach young authors the literary handicraft.

To 18. June 1936 succumbs to Gorki the consequences of a pneumonia.The rumors that it was vacated by Stalin from the way, to have so far just as little to confirm leave themselves like those that it is pleased despite gravel tables to the victim a conspiracy.


  • the song of the old oak (1890)
  • Makar Tschudra (1892, dt. 1901)
  • Two Barfüsser (1894)
  • My going away (1894)
  • on the rafts (1895)
  • Tschelkasch (1895)
  • the song of the falcon (1895, dt. 1901)
  • The old Isergil (1895, dt. 1901)
  • Storm bird (1895)
  • the married couple Orlov (1897)
  • been people (1897)
  • Malva (1897)
  • the Tunichtgut (1897)
  • Konovalov (1897)
  • the Gauner/the pilgrim (1898)
  • Kain andArtjom (1898, dt. 1899)
  • Twenty-six and one (1899, dt. 1901)
  • Foma Gordejev (1899, dt. 1901)
  • Three humans (1900, dt. 1902)
  • The small citizens (1901, dt. 1902)
  • On the reason dt. Night shelter (1902, dt. 1903)
  • Children of the sun (1905, dt. 1906)
  • The summer guests (1905, dt. 1906)
  • The enemies (1906, dt. 1907)
  • The nut/mother (1906/1907, dt. 1907)
  • The life of useless humans (1908)
  • the Beichte (1908)
  • the small town Okurov (1909, dt. 1926/1954)
  • A summer (1909)
  • the romantic (1910)
  • the Mordwinin (1911)
  • Wassa Schelesnova (1910/1935, dt. 1962)
  • The life of the Matvej Koshemjakin (1910-1911,dt. 1927)
  • The city of the yellow devil
  • migrations by Russia (1912-1917) consisting of 29 narrations and sketches: and. A. Birth of humans, a Mrs., Eisgang, humans of more easily kind; first as partial collections: My childhood publishes recordings of a Wanderers
  • and a confusion (1913, dt. 1917)
  • Understrange humans (1916, dt. 1918)
  • Narrations 1922-1924 (1922-1924) contain 9 narrations: among other things The a settler, Karamora, the blue life, over the injurious character of philosophy, narration of the unusual one, the Versucher, narration of unreturned loving, narration of a novel
  • My universities (1922, dt. 1926)
  • The son of the nun (dt. 1925)
  • The work of the Artamonovs (1925, dt. 1927)
  • The life of the Klim Samgin (1927-1937, dt. 1952-1957)
  • As I to write learned (1928)
  • Jegor Bulytschov and the others (1932, dt. 1946)
  • Dostigajev and the others (1932, dt.1962)
  • Old-fashioned thoughts over culture and revolution (1917)
  • the discovery
  • history with the Silberschlo ss
  • fair in Goltwa
  • from boredom
  • blisters
  • Christmas eve
  • of the tourist guides
  • of the vagrants
  • Pawel, the poor devil
  • the conflagration
  • the history the baker-associated
  • history of a crime


Gorki-Haus in Bad Saarow
Fermenting AI house in bath Saarow


  • „not in the head, but in the heart the beginning is appropriate “- for M. Gorki
  • „I believes that a time will come, where the work fermenting gravel is forgotten, but it is doubtfuly whether one will forget humans Gorki also in thousand years can. “(Anton Tschechow)


  • Boris Bjalik: Revolution and art. Views over the relations between Lenin and Gorki. Berlin and. A.: Structure. 1974.
  • Christa Ebert: Maxim Gorki in Saarow 1922/23. Frankfurt (or): Bran sp intending and research establishment. 2003. (= Frankfurt multicolored books; 33) ISBN 3-9807802-9-5
  • Nina Gourfinkel: MaximGorki. With self certifications and picture documents. 5. Aufl. Reinbek with Hamburg: Rowohlt. 1999. (= Rowohlts Monographien; 50009; Rororo Bildmonographien) ISBN 3-499-50009-4
  • Hans Günther: The socialist superhuman. M. Gor'kij and the Soviet hero myth. Stuttgart and others: Metzler. 1993. ISBN 3-476-00901-7
  • Beatrice Haas: Drama translation. Languagetheoretical and dramaturgische aspects, represented toExample of the play of “summer guests” of Maksim Gor'kij. Hamburg: Buske. 1982. (= Hamburg contributions for Russian teachers; 25) ISBN 3-87118-501-9
  • Nikolaus Katzer: Maksim Go´rkijs way into the Russian social-democracy. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 1990. (= publications of the institute for Eastern Europe Munich; Row: History; 58) ISBN of 3-447-02962-5
  • vultures Kjetsaa: Maxim Gorki. OneBiography. Hildesheim: Claassen. 1996. ISBN 3-546-00109-5
  • Armin Knigge: Maksim Gor'kij. The literary work. Munich: Wewel. 1994. (= sources and studies to Russian history of ideas; 13) ISBN 3-87904-111-3
  • Nadeshda Ludwig: Maxim Gorki. Life and work. West Berlin: Publishing house the Europ. Book. 1984. ISBN 3-88436-126-0
  • Wolfgang Pailer: The earlyDramas M. Gor'kijs in their relation to the dramatic work A. P. Cechovs. Munich: Sagner. 1978. (= Slavistische Beiträge; 122) ISBN 3-87690-148-0
  • Henning Rischbieter: Maxim Gorki. Velber: Friedrich. 1973. (= Friedrichs dramatist of the world theatre; 69)
  • Cecilia of Studnitz: With tears you do not delete the fire. MaximGorki and its life. Duesseldorf: Droste. 1993. ISBN 3-7700-1004-3
  • Henri Troyat: Gorki. Storm bird of the revolution. A biography. Munich and. A.: Piper. (= series of Piper; 978) ISBN 3-492-10978-0

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