Maximilian I. (HRR)

Maximilian I. of Albrecht Dürer
Maximilian I. by Peter Paul Rubens (1618)

Maximilian I. of having castle (* 22. March 1459 in Viennese new city; † 12. January 1519 in Wels, upper Austria) was emperor of the holy one Roman realm of German nation.

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Maximilian became on the castle in Viennese new city as a son emperor Friedrichs III. born.

1462 and 1463 it experienced the arguments between its uncle Albrecht VI. as 4-Jähriger. and his father emperor Friedrich III in Vienna. The Viennese opened at that time the gates for Albrecht, although Friedrich stayed to Albrecht its avowed opponent in the city andwas. They celebrated this as a new commander and Heilsbringer for the city and besieged together with him the yard castle and fired at them several-day-long with cannons (Vienna had at that time only two cannons!). Maximilian never twist that the Wienern. Therefore it heldsich trotz der Tatsache, dass Wien praktisch Reichshauptstadt war, später nur selten dort auf und residierte eher in Wiener Neustadt.

1477 he married Maria von Burgund, the daughter duke of Karl of the bold one and heiress of the house Burgund, alsowhich it had rapidly two children:Philipp the beautiful one (1478) and Margarete (1480). After early death Marias by a hunt accident (1482) fell Maximilian and/or. its and Marias son the Netherlands, those Free county Burgund as well as the actual duchy Burgund too, which was however French Lehen and by France one occupied immediately. To back-conquer also further formerly French territories from the burgundischen inheritance Maximilian could prevent its attempts 1479 by the victory of its troops.However he got engaged soon thereafter its small daughter with the young French king Karl VIII., which it should bring in evenly those territories as dowry (to which it did not come however, S. and).

1486 still became Maximilian lifetimes of its fatherto the Rex Romanorum selected.

he married 1490 by procurationem, i.e. without personal presence, Anna, the young duchess and heiress of Brittany. He had to experience however, like 1491 the marriage not carried out yet was dissolved and Anna Karl VIII. married,therefore the Margarete sent back, although she had spent in the meantime a majority of her childhood at the French yard.

After the death of its father Friedrich 1493 Maximilian began its follow-up.

As 1495 Karl VIII. in the hand caper the Kingdom of Neapel conquered, on itsCrown it requirements made, formed Maximilian with the duke of Milan, for the Republic of Venice , valid the Pope and king Ferdinand II. of Aragón the so-called. Holy alliance. On this occasion he got engaged its daughter Margarete with Ferdinands sonJohann, präsumptiven inheriting of the crowns Aragons and Kastiliens. Since Johann died briefly thereafter, he married 1496 its son Philipp with the Johanna of the mad ones advanced as a aragonesisch kastilische heiress to the throne. Thereby France felt at the same time threatened by the east and southwest,and the habsburgisch French contrast began, which should coin/shape European history for the next 250 years.

1495 initiated Maximilian on Reichstag a realm reform , the one realm-far tax, comprehensive to Worms, the common Pfennig, and an eternal land peace, latter however against the will Maximilians planned and on pressure of the realm conditions. The reform could not break the complex structures open of the holy Roman realm of German nation however. From the institutions, which followed from it, the newly formed realm circles had and the realm Court of Appeal existence.

Maximilian nimmt die Huldigung der weltlichen und geistlichen Stände (einschließlich des Papstes) entgegen. Aus: Liber missarum der Margarete von Österreich, von Petrus Almaire (um 1515).
Maximilian receives the Huldigung of the lay and religious conditions (including the Pope). Off: Rather missarum the Margarete of Austria, of Petrus Almaire (around 1515).

1508 took Maximilian with agreement of the Pope, but without coronation/culminationin Rome on. It called itself from then on “chosen Roman emperor”.

In order to decrease the increasing pressure, that by assistance contracts of the rulers of France, Poland, Hungary, Böhmens and Russia on the realm rested, in addition,in order to secure Böhmen and Hungary for having castle, Maximilian met 1515 with the jagiellonischen kings Wladislaw II. by Hungary and Böhmen and Sigismund I. of Poland in Vienna. It set also the family Radziwill into the realm prince conditions.The weddings arranged there brought in for the house having castle one decade later the crowns of Hungary and Böhmen.

Maximilians successor as emperors became its in the Netherlands of grown up grandchildren Karl V., son already 1506 the deceased of the Philipp and Johannas. ToGuardian of its grandchildren and to the Regentin over the Netherlands had Maximilian after of Philipps death its occasionally with Philibert of Savoyen married, but early verwitwete daughter Margarete appoint, those their task up to their death 1530 with firm hand and diplomaticFate followed.

Maximilian I. will-faithfully (will of Wels) in its baptizing church, the pc. George chapel of the castle in Viennese new city, under the stages its first, was buried a gothical high altar - like its father Friedrich the Ornat of the pc. George of knight medal-, so that priests stop during the fair exactly over his heart. Its famous large tomb in the yard church in Innsbruck with numerous bronze figures, among other things of Peter of Vi D. A. and Albrecht Dürer (draft thatFigure of the king Artus), which had given Maximilian during lifetimes for the pc. George chapel in order, left only its grandchild Ferdinand I. in particularly of it for it built yard church set up. The tomb contains however a Kenotaph and remained unfinished.

Maximilians working

Maximilian, even highly in an educated manner and a friend of the human and the Renaissance, maintained a large interest in science, literature and art and made themselves earned around their promotion in the realm. It gave even poeticWorks, which were conceived by him, by it, partly of Marx Treitzsauerwein of Ehrentreitz, Melchior Pfinzing and Hans Ried were partly written out. The Theuerdank, to a large extent of own hand, allegorisiert Maximilians bride advertisement, the Weisskunig (unfinished), written from MarxTreitzsauerwein of Ehrentreitz, reports from its acts to 1513. Both illustrated Hans Burgkmair the older one, Hans Schäufelein and other artists with woodcuts. The Freydal, a third planned work to the tournaments of the emperor, remained a project.

Probably mediated over Willibald Pirckheimer approached Maximilian 1512 to Albrecht Dürer ; starting from 1515 it granted it an annual pension of 100 guldens.

Maximilian received the surname “the last knight “, because he embodied still the ideal already shrunkthe old burgundischen ride ore around. It showed itself at the same time however as a foresighted, modernizing ruler of the starting modern times.

Its body physician was since 1514 Paul cuts, an human and a Kabbalist.


Maximilian I. und seine Gattin Maria von Burgund
Maximilian I. and his wife Maria ofBurgund

first marriage: Maximilian married Maria von Burgund (1457-1482).

Johann: Maximilian married BiancaMaria Sforza of Milan. This marriage remained childless.

Illegitime descendant:

  • George of Austria, bishop von Lüttich (1505-1557)


  • “Bella gerant alii, do felix austria nube.” („Liking other countries of wars to lead, you marries lucky Austria. “)

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  • Trilogie:
    • Theuerdank: 1517 published seal with a knightly character (to a large extent of Maximilian I. even written)
    • the Weisskunig. A narration of the Thaten of the emperor Maximilian first: Erstdruck 1775
    • Freydal
  • secret hunt book
  • the fishery book


  • Bernd gumption Mueller, Stefan Weinfurter (Hrsg.):The German rulers of the Middle Ages. Historical one of haven advice of Heinrich I. to Maximilian I., Beck, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-406-50958-4

Web on the left of

  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over Maximilian I. (HRR)in the catalog of the DDB


Commons: Maximilian I. of having castle - pictures, videos and/or audio files

Friedrich III.
List of the Roman-German rulers successor
Karl V.


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