Macedonia

of these articles treats the today's State of Macedonia. For the historical region see Macedonia, to the Greek province see Macedonia (Greek province).
РепубликаМакедониjа (mazedon.)
Republika Makedonija
Republika e Maqedonisë (alban.)
Republic of Macedonia< /font>
Flagge Mazedoniens Wappen Mazedoniens
(Detail) (detail)
Office languages Macedonian (locally partial additional Albanian, Turkish, Romani, Serbian and Vlachisch)
capital Skopje
system of government Republic of
president Branko Crvenkovski
Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski
surface 25,333 km ²
number of inhabitants of 2.063.122 inhabitants (2004)
population density of 81 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 2.404 US-$ (2005)
independence 8. September 1991
national holiday 2. August (Ilinden rebellion of 1903)
currency of Macedonian Denar
time belt UTC +1
national anthem Denes Nad Makedonija (ДенеснадМакедонија)
Kfz characteristic MK
Internet TLD .mk
preselection +389
Lage Mazedoniens in Europa
Karte von Mazedonien

Macedonia (also Macedonia; Macedonian Македонија/Makedonija, Albanian Maqedonia) is a state in southeast Europe. It has at present two official names. The official self designation is Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian РепубликаМакедониjа/Republika Makedonija, Albanian Republika e Maqedonisë), from the UN is the statesince 1993 according to international law provisionally under the designation former one Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (English molder Yugoslav Republic of OF Macedonia) recognition.

Macedonia is appropriate for peninsula in the center the Balkans -. It was the southernmost partial republic earlier Yugoslavia and called only somethinglater than Croatia and Slovenia its independence out. It borders on Serbia (inclusive Kosovo), Bulgaria, Greece and Albania.

Table of contents

geography

highest mountain of Macedonia: Korab (2764 meters)

Macedonia is a Binnenstaat and borders on Serbia(partly to the Kosovo), Bulgaria, Greece and Albania.

The state is an expressed mountain country with several dozen two-rope transmitters, among them unite summits from 2.700 to 2,800 m.u. Adria. The highest mountain is that GOLEM Korab.In the northwest the mountains Šar Planina lie. The river Vardar rises in the western high mountains the close border to Albania and/or. the Kosovo and the entire country flows through toward southeast. It forms the main orientation axle of the country and hasfour larger tributaries.

In the southwest at the border to Albania Macedonia has portion of the Ohridsee and of the Prespasee ever approximately to the half. These seas (height of 700 and/or. 900 M. and. Adria) are about 400 km ² largely and are from tectonics in a geological weakness zone of the earth's crust resulted. The Prespasee is very deep and rich at fossils; both seas and the national park all around rank among the UNESCO world cultural heritage.

The climate is relative in the gebirgigen interior rau. Generally liesit in the transition between the mediterranen and the continental climate.

Population

nationalities

after the census of 2002 builds itself the population up as follows after nationalities:

in the national south live the descendants of refugees into and around the cities Prilep , Bitola, Gevgelija and Strumica from the timethe Greek civil war, to a large extent member of the Macedonian minority from the north of Greece.

The native language of the majority of the population is the Macedonian , the language with the second largest number of nut-linguistic speakers the Albanian spoke. Besides it givesfurther minority languages.

Office language on the level of the total state is excluding the Macedonian, on local level is starting from a portion of 20% of the respective ethnical minority of the respective local population also Albanian, Turkish, Romani, Serbian and Vlachisch office languages.

Religions

church Sveti Jovan Bogoslov at the Ohridsee

after the numbers of the census of 2002 are about 32.4% of the population orthodox Christians, 16.9% are Muslims and roughly 5% belong to other religious communities, among other thingsthe Roman-catholic church. About 45% gave or are not not gläubig no data their denomination.

The orthodox Christians in Macedonia are to a large extent member of the Macedonian autokephalen church.

Largest cities

the largest cities of Macedonia are after the censusof 2002 (numbers of inhabitants referred in each case to the area of the entire municipality):

  1. Skopje 467,257
  2. Kumanovo 103,205
  3. Bitola 86,408
  4. Prilep 73,351
  5. Tetovo 70,841
  6. Veles 57,602
  7. Ohrid 56,520
  8. Gostivar 49,545
  9. Štip 49,371
  10. Strumica 48,065

see also: List of the cities in Macedonia

political arrangement

Since that 11. August 2004 is a new territorial administrative law into force, which subdivided the State of Macedonia now in 84 municipalities (opštini). The past 123 municipalities were partly summarized, however in the region Skopje the past 8 municipalities were increased to 10.

See also: List of the municipalities of Macedonia

history

major item: History of Macedonia

only the southern part of the today's State of Macedonia around Bitola was ranked in the antique one among the historical region Macedonia. The northern part with the capital Skopje was in the antique oneunder the name Paionien (Paionia) admits.

  • Immigration of slawischer trunks in 6 - 7. Century n. Chr.
  • In 9. Century part of Serbia
  • end 10. Century emergence of a realm under the Bulgarian Zaren Samuil (976-1014)
  • of the 11. Century to beginning of the 15. Century part of the Serbian realm
  • of the beginning 15. Century to 1912 osmanische rule in the area of the today's Republic of Macedonia
  • end 19. Century increasing resistance against the Turkish foreign rule, influence of the neighbouring national states Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece,Establishment of the internal Macedonian revolutionary organization (IMRO)
  • 1903: Ilinden rebellion
  • 1912/1913: Balkans wars, end of the Turkish rule, the region Macedonia one divides between Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria. (The Serbian part, late Vardar Macedonia so mentionedmany later than republic Macedonia will become independent.)
  • 1914 - 1918: In the First World War Vardar Macedonia is occupied by Bulgarian troops.
  • 1918 - 1941: Vardar Macedonia becomes part kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (starting from 1929 Kingdom of Yugoslavia). Between 1929 and 1941 the today's Republic of Macedonia as well as parts of southern Serbia formed administratively the Vardarska banovina due to Zwistigkeiten relating to domestic affairs.
  • 1941 - 1944: Renewed Bulgarian occupation. Establishment of a partisan movement. Communist partisans of Yugoslavia 1943 recognizes the existencean independent Macedonian nation on.
  • 1944: First ASNOM meeting to 2. August in the monastery „holy pro choir Pčinjski ". Establishment of the Yugoslav partial republic Macedonia.
  • 1991: National independence due to the decay of Yugoslavia, on behalf of and symbol controversy with Greece.
  • 2000/2001: Relating to domestic affairs one Crisis, rebellion like civil war of Albanian nationalists.
  • 2001: Outline agreement of Ohrid
  • 2004: Delivery official European Union - request for entry to 22.03.2004

politics

home policy

the home policy was in the last years particularly by conflicts between the two largest nationalities, the Mazedoniern and the Albanians, coined/shaped.

Foreign policy

with regard to foreign policy is coined/shaped the situation of the circumstance that all neighbours are afraid an expansion of the Macedonian state.

One of the reasons is the condition of Macedonia: In article 49 it is explained that itself the republicfor the status and the rights of the Mazedonier in the neighboring countries begins, including the former Macedonian groups of peoples (Expatriats). This article obligates Macedonia to promote all Mazedonier in their cultural development and to promote their connections to the old homeland. Greeceinterpret this as encouragement to the separatism in relation to his minority of the Macedonian Slawen. It looks for Greece like a sign for potenzielle territorial requirements of Macedonia. After a commercial blockade by Greece Macedonia has its condition changed and avowedly now expressly,that it does not have territorial requirements opposite the neighbour states.

Greece ascended in the meantime to the largest investor in Macedonia. Greek companies are an important restaurant factor for the country and contribute to economic growth and to the job creation.

Greece seesitself as exclusive inheritance of the antique State of Macedonia. From this disputes result concerning history and the name. Greece stresses the name “Macedonia” for itself, since there is a province in Greece Macedonia; see: Name controversy Macedonia. With it is linkedthe problem that both Macedonia and Greece Alexander the large one and Macedonian king historically stress.

Another controversy between Greece and Macedonia could be settled: The sechzehnstrahlige star of Vergina (Vergina sun) was a symbol of the antique Macedonian state.Greece did not accept its original use in the flag of Macedonia, on which Macedonia, set from Greece economically under pressure, changed the flag.

Bulgaria recognized the independence of the Republic of Macedonia as the first country. Bulgaria rejected it however for a long time, thoseTo recognize existence of a separate Macedonian nation and a separate Macedonian language. That leads during the signing of the agreement between both countries to some complications.

Bulgaria argued that the Macedonian language was only one dialect of the Bulgarian language, and that the Macedonian SlawenBulgaren are. Bulgaria gives the Slawen in the republic to Macedonia the right to receive the Bulgarian nationality. Of it so far approximately 10% the entitled use made. A large part of the Bulgarian population believes that the country Macedonia, his population,its traditions and its language are historically seen Bulgarian.

In the year 1999 the Bulgarian and the Macedonian government settled its language controversy for many years, which loaded the bilateral relations heavily. Bulgaria recognized the self-sufficiency of the Macedonian language and nation for the first time officiallyon, Macedonia renounced in response to any influencing control on the Macedonian minority in Bulgaria.

The Republic of Macedonia has very good relations with Bulgaria in political, economic and military area. The governments of both countries work to deepen the economic relations. Bulgariasupported also the admission of Macedonia into the European Union. Bulgaria gave tanks, cannons and military technology to the Macedonian army.

Bulgaren and Mazedonier understand themselves because of the very similar language problem-free, there both languages their roots in Altkirchenslawi have and their developmentto beginning 20. Century similar and/or. directly ran. The two modern Standardsprachen are based on different groups of dialects within the ostsüdslawischen dialect continuum, which are generally mutually understandable however despite phonological and morphologic differences. The coding of the modern Bulgarian Standardsprache becamein the area of the vocabulary and the Orthographie strongly by the Russian one, that the Macedonian Standardsprache in the same areas strongly by the Serbian one one affected, which also by political conditions in Eastern Europe in 20. Century was conditioned. Therefore it givesnumerous differences in the technical term treasure, and the two Standardsprachen use two different versions of the cyrillic alphabet, whereby the posting of the Macedonian one is however morphologically and partly etymologisch developed phonetically/phonologically, that of the Bulgarian one.

With the Bulgaren play also memories of longpast large Bulgaria a large role. A part of the inhabitants of the Oblast Blagoewgrad in the southwest of Bulgaria regards itself as Mazedonier in the sense of the nationality, because this area is after the Balkans war the 1913 of Bulgaria occupied “jetty in Macedonia”. There are nationalistic prejudicesagainst the Mazedonier in Bulgaria, since they are regarded as Bulgaren.

1980 gave it with Yugoslavia at that time propagandistic arguments around the ethnical origin of the Mazedonier. Although both countries called themselves as socialist, they belonged to different blocks, whatalways times again to tensions led. At that time Bulgaria had to resist propagandistically Yugoslav requirements on the Macedonian province of Bulgaria. It concerned however only local propaganda over radio and newspaper, which were not noticed internationally at all. With theseTensions were shot 1980 also two of Bulgarian anglers by Yugoslav border soldiers at a border brook.

Serbia sees critical its southern neighbours, because Macedonia of Yugoslavia abgespalten themselves has and on sides of NATO in the Kosovo conflict. Because of these circumstances is thoseMacedonian policy particularly designed for appeasement. Apart from an advancing of the country to an entry to the European Union the country manufactured important relations with the USA. Like that the Republic of Macedonia with a small troop contingent is involved in the Iraq war. Washington recognizedthe country briefly after the US-American presidency elections in November 2004 thereupon under the name Republic of Macedonia on. This still led in the same moment to an eclat in Greece and a quotation of the US Ambassador in Athens into the Greek State Department. The European UnionGreece assured however not to follow the US-American example. Meanwhile 121 States of, under it also Turkey, Russia and China, explained, to use in the international relations the constitutional name of Macedonia. The regulation over the according to international law recognized namesremains unaffected by it.

Albania requires the keeping of the rights of the Albanian minority in Macedonia. In Albania again exists a Macedonian minority in the Prespa Seengebiet, to which it is permitted the school in the Macedonian native language to visit. Since short the Mazedonier hasOf Albania an own political party based.

In all other respects the pickling rides desired are central topics of the Macedonian foreign policy to NATO and European Union.

See also: Name controversy Macedonia

current events

in the context of the affair over the kidnapping of the German-Libanese Khaled aluminium Masri end2003 was raised heavy reproaches against the Macedonian inland secret service. This refused it aluminium Masri held to the New Year's Day 2003 with its entry arrested, 23 days long illegaly, the contact to German authorities, in order to finally hand it over the CIA. AluminiumMasri was abused five months long in torture camps so mentioned of the CIA in Afghanistan, rather he with the argument was released, it a Namensverwechsung had concerned. Internationally the case was rated as example of the fact that the Macedonian Staatsaparatin parts of the USA one controls. This provides for continuous conflicts, since Skopje requested the European Union membership.

In December 2005 the status of an official European Union entry candidate was lent to the country.

Infrastructure

main traffic axle is the broad Vardar running toward southeast northwest- Valley with the most important railway line. It connects - like also the parallel running motorway - the capital Skopje with Belgrade and the Greek port Thessaloniki.

At times of the commercial embargo by Greece and during the Kosovokonfliktes it cameRestrictions in the transit traffic. In order to reduce the dependence on the neighbours in the north and the south, one strives therefore for the development of the east west connections with Albania and Bulgaria. International airline connections exist from Skopje and from Ohrid .

InMacedonia is to develop until 2006 the largest WLAN network of the world. 90% of the population should be supplied with WLAN then. Already today a surface covering WLAN for the capital Skopje exists.

Economics

Macedonia was already into the SFR Yugoslavia one that economicalmost backward areas with an only small developed industry and only small raw material occurrences. In the year 2000 9.7% were still gained GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT in the agriculture and 31.6% in the industry. The unemployment ratio remained with 32,3% on furthercausing concern level. By the economic growth of the last years (2.5% in the year 2004), relatively low compared with other transformation states, the economic development continued to drop back, with a pro head gros domestic product of 2.904 USD is Macedonia one of the poorest states of Europe.

Throughthe recent state at certain isolation, which is strengthened by its situation as Binnenstaat without direct entrance to the sea , suffers the difficulties with its neighbours. The shadow economy constitutes GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT in Macedonia 45%.

The country suffersunder the typical problems of a post office-socialist state, like z. B. a pronounced corruption, a too large bureaucracy and becoming outdated of the industriellen of enterprises.

High unemployment represents one of the economic Hauptprobleme. The commercial balance sheet deficit is high, the imports exceeds thoseExport over over 70%. It becomes balanced predominantly by transfer payments of the abroad living Mazedonier.

Largest direct investor in the country is followed Greece, of the Republic of Cyprus and Bulgaria. During the process of the privatisation the largest and profitabelsten becameEnterprise of the country already sells. Remained now numerous unprofitable enterprises and cases of reorganization. In order nevertheless to attract foreign investors, in the past years a ambitioniertes control program interspersed with a relatively low enterprise taxation (body expensive 20%, numerous temporary tax exemptions andTax reductions on accumulated capital profits).

Important export products are food, beverages (v.a. Wine) and tobacco as well as iron and steel. The most important Zielländer are Serbia and Montenegro (31.4%), Germany (19.9%), Greece (8.9%) and Croatia (6.9%). The largest portionat the import to Macedonia have Greece (15.4%), Germany (13.1%), Serbia and Montenegro (10.4%), Slovenia (8.6%) and Bulgaria (8.1%).

Culture and sport

of holidays

sport

largest one sporty successes:

  • Kometal Skopje wins 2002 the European Cup the hand ball champion League of the ladies. The champions League is the highest European play class for hand ball association crews.
  • Football EM-qualification 2004: England - Macedonia 2:2
  • football WM-qualification 2006: Macedonia - the Netherlands2:2
  • 1987 becomes Vardar Skopje sensationally Yugoslav football master
  • storm-hunting Darko Pancev (red star Belgrade) wins 1991 the “golden shoe of Europe” as a goal scorer king of all leagues.

Preview: Due to the hand ball euphoria the European hand ball federation (EHF) at its annual congress has in the year 2004Macedonia the addition for the adjustment of the Mrs. Handball EM 2008 gives.

Literature

  • walter Lukan (Hrsg.): Macedonia. Geography - ethnical structure - history - language and culture - politics - economics - right. (=Österreichische east booklets. 40,1/2). Vienna and others 1998
  • Daskalovski Židas: TheMacedonian Conflict OF 2001. Problem of OF Democratic Consolidation. Libertas PAPER 56. Libertas, Sindelfingen 2004. ISBN 3-921929-16-4.
  • Steven W. Sowards: Modern history of the Balkans. The Balkans in the age of the nationalism. BoD, north first EDT 2004. ISBN 3-8334-0977-0.

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coordinates: 41° 39 ' N, 21° 43 ' O

 

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