medal is an intending or a looking coinage, those to special opportunitiescoined/shaped, when honour honor assigned is created or as art object. It may not be confounded with a coin, which is provided with a nominal value as official currency coined/shaped and.
The word medal originates from the French, the term goes on the means latin word medalliafor a small coin back. It resembles the plaque and occasionally with this is confounded; Plaques usually show a one-sided raised representation, whereas medals on both pages exhibit motives for picture or writing. Originally it made of metal poured, since Münzprägeverfahren became generally accepted, find theseexcept for isolated exceptions also for medals application. Medals can be manufactured in positive or negative coinage and be accepted with larger depth of the motives also the character of a small plastics. In the Renaissance medals were used for the first time as art objects, the Roman heavy money served as model. InMedals do not only know contrast to coins of national and/or. official side e.g. separate considering some fewer restrictions. also by enterprises, associations or private people to be manufactured and spent.
Medals are above all common
- as intending coinages without nominal value from cause of an event, anniversary, tooHonour a personality o.a.
- when and isolates honors for outstanding sporty, scientific, vocational or
- cultural achievements as coinages made of melted metals of special origin, so e.g. Pieces from a fallen airship, a locomotive or the copper roof of a city hall
in particular in the sport is an honour of the threebest sportsman and/or. Crews by gold -, silver - and a bronze - medal alternatively for the delivery of a cup admits. In accordance with above definition it concerns thereby however pretty often plaques, the numismatisch precise designation is reflected thus not consistently generally linguistic usageagain.
The fact that medals have always two (picture) sides, led also to the phrase of the drawback the medal. With it it is to be expressed that circumstances concerned can be regarded and evaluated from two points of view.
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medals with many important sporty meetings are lent. The winner medals are most well-known with
for outstanding scientific achievements are lent (selection):
- Physics: Max-Planck medal, lent from the German physical society
- Physics: Petrol cock medal for the promotion of the scientific new generation of the Max-Planck company
- physics: , British institutes lent max fount medal the OF Physics physics
- from: CAN gate medal
- mathematics: Falling DS medal
- computer science: Konrad Zuse medal, lent from the society for computer science
- psychology: Hugo Münsterberg medal of the professional association of German psychologists
- psychology: William Wundt medal for outstanding scientificWork
- medicine: Paracelsus medal of the presidency of the German congress of physicians
- Parasitologie: Lent by the DGP
- Florence Nightingale medal, of the international committee of the red cross Henry Dunant medal
- , promotion the German of the language and culture lent Rudolf Leuckart medal
- from the international committee of the red cross: Goethe medal, lent from the Goethe Institute
- Gregor Mendel medal
- Leibniz medal
- medal of the Royal Society
- cancer medal
for military achievements e.g. become. lent:
for achievements in social areas is lent:
- the Kainz medal of the city Vienna for outstanding actors and directors
- the Hermann Kesten medal for specialEarnings/services within the range of the literature
- Leonard Forrer: Biographical dictionary OF medallists: coin, in accordance with, and seal engravers, mint masters, & C., ancient and decay; with references ton theirs works; B.C. 500 - A.D. 1900. London 1904-1930. (6 volumes).
Web on the left of
- Numismati on-line encyclopedia
- regulation on the production and the selling of medals and marks of the federal security administration in Germany (pdf document)
- references to the use of the regulation on the production and the selling of medals and marks of the federal security administration in Germany (pdf document)
- German society for medal art receipt and promotionthe German medal art