as Megalithkultur (Greek mega = " largely " and lithos = “stone”) are summarized a row related with one another primarily European cultures of the Jungsteinzeit and the Bronzezeit.
They draw on the one hand by buildings from arranged (Malta) or rough stone blocks out. On the other hand put up stones become, the one weight up to 350 t (Grand Menhir Brisé), i. D. R. but 15 - 20 t have, and stone setting are called connected, with these cultures. They are however, exceptthe fact it all around agriculture-driving humans it acts, not by other obvious thing in common characterized why the term is misleading “culture”.
The buildings and/or. the lists become in Germany depending upon execution and assumed intended purpose as Hünengräber , Dolmen, Course graves, Menhire, stone circles or stone rows or stone setting designates.
Table of contents
The temporal and spatial propagation of the Megalithkulturen
Palestine (9000 - 2000 v. Chr)
Malta (5000 - 2000 v. Chr)
Sardinien (6000 - 200 v. Chr)
Korsika (7000 - 1000 v. Chr)
France and Brittany (4000 - 1500 v. Chr)
iberischePeninsula (4000 - 1500 v. Chr)
Ireland and England (3000 - 1500 v. Chr)
Holland, Scandinavia, north and Central Germany (4000 - 2000 v. Chr)
central and Northern Europe
in central and Northern Europe became by the members of the recently-in-temporal Funnel cup culture (TBK) and waiting mountain culture first Megalithanlagen establish. Both were affected by the preceding Rössener culture and took over from it the cult space configuration and the Domestikate. Since approximately 4,200 v. Chr. in the north German lowlandses between the Netherlands and the Weichsel inPoland as well as in southern Scandinavia proven the delighted TBK just like primarily in Westphalia and Hessen spread waiting mountain culture however starting from 3.500 v. Chr. the cult plants completely new at this time. By means of large Findlinge partial large accessible chamber became predominantestablished, in which entfleischte bones (Exkarnation) added and were deposited. Under the popular name “Hünengräber” (Hüne: Giant) collective graves represent well-known plants in accordance with earlier conceptions. Probably they served a settlement chamber or a region as cult placeand over some generations were used and locked then and covered with an earth hill. The Megalithanlagen was eliminated if necessary and after-used by the members of cord ceramic(s) and the Kugelamphoren culture KAK. With cord ceramic(s) however the resignation of intact bodies begins inthese stone chambers and in different plants.
Brittany and Great Britain
from in particular more near not determined cultures became in Brittany starting from approximately 4,500 v. Chr. and later also on the British islands likewise megalithische buildings or stone setting establishesthose even the Shetlandinseln and the Orkney (Maes Howe, ring OF Brodgar) included. They become, just as the plants divided in the north circle into different types. See Nordi Megalitharchitektur and British Megalithik.
From the regions Brittany, Ireland and Great Britain are beside this large Megalithanlagen for instance starting from 3300 v. Chr. Stone circles and Alignements admits, its most well-known examples Stonehenge (Salisbury, England), of Callanish (Isle OF Lewis, Scotland) and Carnac (Brittany) are. Their function and the exact beginning of their listare still unknown. Apart from astronomical functions also ritual is accepted. Independently of their function the buildings point to a high level of organization and technical abilities developed far. In connection with its dating one knows an increasing extent with some building types andincreasing complexity likewise recognize, like finaltemporal fall. Between the low stone circles of the early period in Beaghmore and as complex cult places as (Stonehenge, Avebury) at the end the epoch are stages of the progress. The oldest circle-like Megalithbauten comes from the Göbekli Tepe in (Anatolien) and 11,000 years are old.
on the iberischen peninsula is associated last the copper-temporal Almeriakultur with megalithischen Monumenten. Beyond that are Megalithanlagen of the Cardial and/or. the postcardialen cultures in Portugaland in the edge regions of Spain, Galicien and Asturien with exception of the east coast. Its own, later version developed on the Balearen with Cuevas, Navetas, Talayots and rope-read.
Western Europe and western Mediterranean
the Western part of Switzerland, Belgium, Southern France, Aquitanien, South Italies, North Africa and the westmediterranen islands Korsika, Sardinien, Sicilies and Malta possess likewise important megalithische buildings. On Malta very early proper temples from large worked on stone blocks were established, which because of the good raw material (soft Globigerinenkalkstein) was.They do not possess any parallels.
Those in rock gehöhlte grave plants (e.g. the Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni and the rock graves of the Balearen (Cuevas) and Sardiniens (Domus de Janas)) as homogeneous are not understood, they are however either thoseModels (Mallorca, Malta and Sardinien) or companions of the Megalitharchitektur. The Dolmen so typical for Continental Europe arises on Malta and Sardinien only in the Bronzezeit. Similar forms are also in Apulien, on Sicilies and in North Africa (Tunesien, Algeria).There the Dolmen was used from the Numidern into the Roman time for funerals.
Megalithstrukturen are also in other areas, e.g. in Turkey, in south Russia, Georgien and Palästina, in addition, on the Osterinselor with the advanced cultures Mesoamerikas, in India, Indonesia and Korea. In South America a after-Christian Megalitharchitektur (Tiahuanaco) developed. In Africa are megalithische buildings in the stone circles of Wassu in the Gambia and in Senegal.
Theories about the spreading of the Megalithidee by migration (Hyperdiffussionismus) must be called speculations. On the one hand even large periods lie between the occurrence or to large distances between the contemporaneous occurrence in Europe either much to. In Central Americathis is particularly clear. Thus everything speaks for a homologous development.
The designation “Megalithkultur” is thus misleading.