Mekka

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day of the Haddsch in Mekka

Mekka (Arab: مكة Makka, in more recent time usually مكةالمكرّمة Makka aluminium-Mukarrama, „Mekka, the venerable one “) is distant 80 km a city with 1.294.168 inhabitants (conditions 2004 ) in western Saudi Arabia, for scarcely from the Red Sea. It is capital of the province Mekka in, and is appropriate for the region Hedschas between the coastal plain and the high country in a wild-like basin.

Table of contents

meaning for the Islam

Mekka is thoseBirth city of the prophet Mohammed, the last prophet and more verkünder Islam, and therefore the holiest city of the Muslims. Each year pilgern millions of Muslims to this place of pilgrimage. Their favorable situation at the crossover of some caravan roads made the city alreadyearly to an important commercial centre. It means, the Kaaba, a windowless, würfelförmiges building in the yard of the main mosque, was built by the prophet Abraham. It forms the center of the city and is the most important barrier travel goal. In the southeast corner thatKaaba is a black stone - possibly a meteorite (Hadschar) - of is said, the angel Gabriel gave him to the prophet Abraham. Already in before-Islamic time the Kaaba was a Zentralheiligtum of Arab trunks.

Since the time of theProphet Mohammed Mekka was several times besieged. In 13. The Egyptians the city took century. Starting from that 16. Century stood for Mekka under the sovereignty of the Osmanen. In this time extensions were built for the first time around the Kaaba. From 1517 on governedthe Scherifen from the sex Hasans, a grandchild of the prophet Mohammed. The Grossscherif Husain I. ibn Ali, which became late king of aluminium Hidjas, thrashed 1916 the Turkish rule over Mekka. 1924 occupied Abd aluminium-Asis Ibn Saud, at that timeSultan of Najd, Mekka. It made the city the religious center of Saudi Arabia.

Mekka is considered because of the holy mosque in their center as the holiest place of the Islam. It is the goal of the annual Pilgerfahrt (Haddsch), for Muslims, who can afford it health and financially, a religious obligation is. Non--Muslims is not permitted the stay in Mekka.

geography

Mekka lies enclosed between two mountain ranges. The part of the city around those, lain more deeplyKaaba is the older settlement core; the upper city lies in the north. Some side valleys offer also residential districts.

The holy mosque with the seven Minaretten, in whose center the Kaaba stands, is considered as the most important Heiligtum of the Islamic world. and is thoseStrongest city of the world

history

the city became for the first time in 2. Century n. Chr. from the Egyptian geographer Ptolemäus under the name Makoraba mentions.

Already before Mohammed Mekka possessed a great economic importance: it was because of that Weihrauchstrasse of the south coming to Egypt and it gave branchings for the commercial caravans after Schuaiba (Dschidda) as well as eastward to Persian Gulf and after Mesopotamien.

In the year 630 submits the city Muhammad, since 623,after his emigration after Yathrib (Medina), had several times military conflicts with Mekka.

literature

  • Suraiya Faroqhi: Ruler over Mekka - the history of the Pilgerfahrt. Duesseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-760-81227-9

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Mekka - word origin,Synonymous one and translations


coordinates: 21.42 N, 39.83 O

 

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