Melbourne

of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Melbourne (term clarifying).
Melbourne
base data
Federal State Victoria
administration Melbourne town center Council
surface 1,705, 1 km ²
inhabitant 3.384.671 (2005)
population density 1,985 Einwohner/km ²
city arrangement 31 municipalities
of quarters 270
height of 14 m and. NN
geographical situation of 37° 49 ' S, 144° 57 ' E
web page melbourne.vic.gov .au
E-Mail address
lord Mayor John Chun Sai like that
situation of Melbourne in Australia
Karte von Melbourne
map of Melbourne
historical map (around 1888)

Melbourne [ˈmelbən] is the capital of the Federal State Victoria in Australia. The number of inhabitants amounts to 3.384.671 in the actual city and 3.730.212 in the population centre (conditions in each case 1. January 2005). Melbourne was designated 1837 after the British prime minister at that time lord Melbourne and is catholic as well as anglikanischer archbishop seat.

The city is the most important economical, cultural and political center Victorias. To the population numerous Chinese, British, Greek, Italian, Irish and vietnamesische immigrants belong to the city. In addition Melbourne is a center of Jewish immigration.

Table of contents

Geografie

geographical layer

the city is because of the Yarra River close its delta into the haven Phillip bay of on the average 14 meters over the sea level.

The Metropolregion extends from north to south over approximately 70 kilometersand from east to west over approximately 50 kilometers. The geographical coordinates are 37.51 degrees southern latitude and 144.44 degrees of eastern length.

city arrangement

metropolitan Melbourne is divided into the following 31 local Government AREAs:

Banyule, Bayside, Boroondara, Brimbank,Cardinia, Casey, Darebin, franc clay/tone, Glen Eira, Greater Dandenong, Hobsons Bay, Hume, Kingston, Knox, Manningham, Maribyrnong, Maroondah, Melbourne, Melton, Monash, Moonee Valley, Moreland, Mornington Peninsula, Nillumbik, haven Phillip, Stonnington, Whitehorse, Whittlesea, Wyndham, Yarra and Yarra of rank.

climate

Melbournelies in the subtropical climate zone. The average yearly temperature is with 14,6 degrees Celsius. The warmest month is February with an average temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. The coldest month is July with 9,4 degrees Celsius on the average.

Thosemiddle yearly amount of precipitation amounts to 567 millimeters. Most precipitation falls in October with on the average 62 millimeters, few in March with only 34 the millimeters on the average.

history

1803 became the area, in which the city lies, for the first time ofEuropeans explores.1835 settled groups from Tasmanien, rivaling there , and gave it the name haven Phillip.

As founders John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner is considered. Batman was a representative in the same year by a group ofBusinessmen from Launceston created haven Phillip Association. He bought approximately 240,000 hectares country of the residents Aborigine - to trunks and based on the north side of the Yarra river a settlement. In October 1835 closed John Pascoe Fawkner, in the following the those, And a group of tasmanischer settlers advanced settlement activities on purposefully.

Melbourne was contrary to other settlements in the southeast of Australia a penal colony, but from the outset than populated area with broad roads and extensive parks was never planned. In the year 1837 receivedthe city in honours of the prime minister at that time of Great Britain, William Lamb, Second Viscount Melbourne, their current name. Around 1840 lived already over 10.000 humans in the region approximately around Melbourne.

1851 came the city of new South Wales to thatagain-created British colony Victoria and their capital became. Melbournes largest growth period began into the early 1850er years, when in Victoria gold was discovered (in particular with Bendigo and Ballarat). At this time the city developed to the handels and business centerthe gold graves here-flowing out of overseas.

End 19. Century the city an important railway junction, their port was removed, and important industrial companies settled. After the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia in the year 1901 Melbourne was occasional seat thatAustralian Federal Government.1913 became Canberra the new Federal Capital, but the government of the country moved only 1927 there. 1956 took place the olympic summer games in Melbourne.

inhabitant development

the number of inhabitants of Melbourne has itself since end of the 1950erYears on 3.4 million in the year 2005 doubles. The city (Urbanized AREA) has a surface of 1.705, 1 square kilometer. The population density amounts to 1,985 inhabitants for each square kilometers. In Berlin there is to the comparison 3.800.

In the rural regions outside of thatAbout 350,000 humans on a surface of 7,125 square kilometers live city. There the population density is only with 48 inhabitants for each square kilometer. In Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania there is to the comparison 74. In the entire Metropolregion (Melbourne Statistical division) live on oneSurface of 8,830 square kilometers 3.730.212 humans. The population density amounts to 362 inhabitants for each square kilometers.

The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants after the respective area conditions. Until 1871 it concerns around estimations, from 1881 to 2001 around census results and 2005 oneComputation. The numbers refer to the actual city without suburb belt (Urbanized AREA).

Skyline von Melbourne bei Nacht
Skyline of Melbourne at night
Year Inhabitant
1840 10,000
1850 41,000
1861 139,900
1871 193,700
3. April 1881 282,900
5. April 1891 445,200
31. March 1901 496,100
2. April 1911 591,800
4. April 1921 766,500
30. June 1933 991,900
30. June 1947 1.226.400
year inhabitant
30. June 1954 1.524.100
30. June 1961 1.911.900
30. June 1966 2.110.200
30. June 1971 2.394.100
30. June 1976 2.479.200
30. June 1981 2.578.500
30. June 1986 2.645.500
30. June 1991 2.761.995
9. August 1996 2.865.329
7. August 2001 3.160.171
1. January 2005 3.384.671

politics

Melbourne covers 31 districts (so-called “local councils”) with independent mayors. This“local councils” are comparable with the urban districts in the German large cities Berlin and Hamburg, whereby there is a larger number of districts in Melbourne.

The mayor of the town center OF Melbourne is called lord Mayor, although he no jurisdiction overthe other quarters has. This lies at the government of the Federal State Victoria. The central district Melbourne (town center) has about 52,000 inhabitants.

partnerships between cities

Melbourne maintains with the following cities partnerships. In parentheses the year of the establishment.

culture and objects of interest

museums

were Memorial

with the Melbourne museum in November 2000 the largest museum complex of the Southern Hemisphere were opened. The architecturally fastidious building accommodates on approximately 80,000 square meters over 16 millionExhibits. The most important attraction is the 30 meters high Forrest Gallery, in which 82 planting and 25 animal species are met. To the museum complex further the Royal Exhibition belongs resounds, the Scienceworks museum as well as to immigration the museum.

Further well-known museums in the citythe museum OF Victoria, in that the earlier national museum OF Victoria with its departments for Zoologie , is geology and anthropology is come up and national the Gallery OF Victoria with collections of paintings and photographs.

Buildings

Downtown

the townscape Melbournes control numerous Bürohochhäuser. Buildings worth seeing are among other things the State Parliament House, the Royal Exhibition Buildings, the 1968 open stock exchange, the Saint Patrick' s Cathedral and Flinders Street station.

In the Fitzroy Gardens became thatHouse developed, in which the English sailor and discoverer James Cook (1728 - 1779) its childhood spent. It took the east coast of Australia for Great Britain in the year 1770 in possession. Likewise worth mentioning the Government House, the Herbarium is nationaland the Royal Botanic Gardens. The pc. Patrick's Cathedral is a 105 meters high church, it 1937 was finished.

2005 are opened that to 1 Freshwater Place with 205 meters height and 62 floors, it become the second largest building Melbournes behindthe Eureka Tower its. For the year 2006 the completion of the Eureka Towers will be approaching, it then the largest building Melbournes will be with 291 meters height and 91 floors.

spare time and recovery

art in Melbourne

thoseCity Melbourne celebrates annually the “Melbourne Cup Day”, which is generally work-free in the city. On first Tuesday in November the horse running liked all-side takes place around the Melbourne Cup.

In the summer months runs “buzzer Fun in the parks” - the program. Here free find in the eveningOpen air jazz - concerts in the various parks and observation nights of the south starlit sky of the Victoria Astronomical Society instead of. To these and many further offers the Melbourner appears rare without the company of a picnic basket.

The artist quarter of Melbourne is insoutheast quarter Prahran, where, particularly in the Chapel pc., many galleries, fashion shops are and with young people and artists announced bars and restaurants.

Important international Sportveranstaltungen, which take place annually in Melbourne, are the tennis Grand Slam - tournament Australian openand the prelude to the formula 1, that large price of Australia on Albert Park Circuit in pc. Kilda. Likewise in Melbourne annually the final Australia football League ( AFL) in the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) takes place.

Onethe most important routistic attractions is partially the aquarium put on in the Flussbett of the Yarra River underground. A popular recreation area for the inhabitants of the city are also the Dandenong of rank, a mountain range east of Melbourne.

economics andInfrastructure

economics

view of Melbourne

in Melbourne become among other things ships and oil products from the shipyards and refineries at the haven Phillip Bay as well as chemicals, printed products, metals, motor vehicles, electrical and electronic devices, machines, textiles, clothes,Paper and food manufactured.

With stealing and mining industry company the Broken Hill Proprietary company, Ltd. (BHP), whose headquarters is in the city, accommodates Melbourne the largest industrial enterprise of Australia. Other companies of the country with seat in Melbourne are national those AustralianBank and Pacific Dunlop, an enterprise, which manufactures and markets different consumer goods.

traffic

Flinders Street station

the city is railway - and traffic junction. The main airport Melbourne internationally air haven lies 22 kilometers northwest from the center in the suburb Tullamarine. A further airport, which is used by cheap airlines, lies southwest from Melbourne in Avalon.

The public suburban traffic is still called by many Melbournians also since the privatisation and fragmentation into different companies “The Met”. To 11. November 1885 opened streetcar net in Melbourne is beside the streetcars in Adelaide and Sydney the last remaining on the Australian continent and at 238 kilometers of length one to the largest world. Besides also still another Eisenbahnnetz belongs to the Metand numerous Buslinien. In the motor traffic the Hook turn is a Melbourner characteristic. Rechtsabbieger at some crossings turn due to the streetcar traffic of the left trace.

education

the 1853 delighted university from Melbourne is in Parkville.Further educational facilities of the Metropolregion are the La Trobe University (1964 open) in Bundoora, the Monash University (1958 open) in Clayton, the Swinburne University OF Technology in Hawthorn (1968 open), the Deakin University (1974 open) in Geelong as well asthe Royal Melbourne of institutes OF Technology - RMIT (1882 open) and the Victoria University OF Technology (1990 open), which are both in the town center OF Melbourne.

Yarra River in the dawn, with the cent ral business district (left) andSouthbank (right)

personalities

of sons and daughters of the city

Web on the left of

Commons: Melbourne - pictures, videos and/or audio files


coordinates: 37° 49 ' 14 " S 144° 57 ' 41 " O

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)