Menachem Begin

Menachem Begin (* 16. August 1913 in Brest Litowsk; † 9. March 1992 in Jerusalem) was an Israeli Prime Minister and minister of foreign affairs.

Menachem Begin in Camp David
Menachem Begin in Camp David

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life and work

activity in the underground

Begin were born in Brest Litowsk ( at that time Russia, today part of white Russia). Its father was a secretary of the there Jewish municipality, its nut/mother came of to a Rabbinerfamilie. Both became during the Holocaust of thatGerman national socialist murders. Menachem went on the Hebrew Misrachi school and visited thereafter a Polish High School.

Since 1929 it belonged the zionistischen Betar - to movement. It studied jurisprudence at the university in Warsaw and ascended at the same time into prominent positions of the Betar. From 1936 to 1938if he was Secretary-General of the Czechoslovakian Betarzweiges and 1939 became he a boss of the Polish Betar, in the same year fled he from the engaging Germans to Lithuania, however by the invading Russians was arrested there and as „an agent of the British imperialism “to eight years hard labour inSiberia condemns.

In the year 1941 it was left freely, joined voluntarily the Polish army and into the middle east was later transferred. When it became to dismiss 1942 from the army, it occurred the Jewish underground organization Irgun (also as Etzel well-known) and became 1947 their leader.

It was responsible for the explosive notice on the King David hotel in Jerusalem, with that 91 humans around the life came (28 British citizens, 41 Arabs, 17 Jews and 5 from other countries). Menachem Begin, also the responsibility for the massacreof 9. April 1948 in Deir Yassin carried, of the British as a terrorist was searched. It strove to create weapons for the Irgun to Israel whereby the cargo boat, which Altalena, after which bombardment sank on instruction of Prime Minister David Ben Gurion.

Work on []

Political activity in Israel

after the proclamation of the State of Israel 1948 dissolved the Irgun, and Begin created the Herut - a party, which later prominent Kraft in the Likud - block became. When Begin at the end of of 1948 in New York was, over under Americans alsoJewish background money for the again created party to collect, 26, mostly Jewish intellectual ones, under it to the New York Time , wrote Hannah Arendt and Albert Einstein a sharp reader letter in which they condemned its past of terror and which criticized a Herut party.[1]

Its party, the oneExpansion of the borders of Israel on the borders of the antiquity aimed at, became already 1949 third-strongest Kraft in the Israeli parliament. Begin held itself however in the background and due to its past of terror was also avoided. Center of the 1960er years became he opposition leader in the parliament. After the six-day war 1967became he a Minister in the cabinet of Levi Eschkol. The cabinet agreed the peace plan of the US-American minister of foreign affairs, who required a retreat of the Israeli troops on safe borders.

In the year 1977 the Likud party became strongest Kraft of the government and Menachem Begin starting from May 1977 the sixth Prime Minister of the State of Israel. In the November of the same yearly it came to the historical meeting with of Egypt president Muhammad Anwar as-Sadat. On switching of US president Jimmy Carter was characterized the year 1978 by negotiations on its holidays seat Camp David, those in an agreementculminated and in March 1979 to the Israeli-Egyptian peace agreement led. Begin and Sadat received the Nobel peace prize of the yearly 1978 for the Camp David agreement.

After the principles of the present Treaty Israel handed the Sinai peninsula over at Egypt. All Israeli settlements (also the city Yamit ) were removed at the same time.Begin had to expose itself to substantial resistance within the own government camp, this led at the same time to a break within the Likud block. In June 1981 its political role was confirmed however by renewed elections, and he remained an Prime Minister.

It had arranged the bombardment of the light-water reactor Osirak briefly before,since he feared a direct atomic threat of Israel by the Iraq and with a choice victory of the work party of the following government no decided measures thought capable of. Above all its settlement plans for the West Jordan territory and the occupation of the Golanhöhen in Syria brought it the voices of most orthodox and sephardischen Jews, while it hit a recent conflict course thereby on international level.

1982 let the army march Begin into Lebanon. He justified this with the reason that the Palestinian liberation organisation PLO steered from there out via the northern Israeli border missile attacks. Sothe operation began „peace for Galiläa “, which took only six months, although the Israeli occupation troops remain until 2000 in Lebanon. World-wide attention excited the occupation of Beirut in September 1982 with the massacre in the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Schatila: Christian Lebanese militias massakrierten thereHundreds of Palestinians - women, men and children -, without the Israeli army units stationed in Beirut intervened. After an Israeli investigation had the chief executive for the Lebanon intervention, which Secretaries of Defense at that time Ariel Scharon, to withdraw. to 17. May came it to a Israeli-Lebanese agreement, whicha complete retreat of the Israeli troops planned. In the July of the yearly Begin actually took a part off of the troops.

Begin stepped in August 1983 disappointed and deprimiert over the war, from grief over the death of its wife and because of long illness back. It died 1992 in Jerusalem.

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