|of these articles are occupied with modern humans, the kind Homo sapiens, for its closer Anverwandten see the kind humans (Homo), for the somewhat more removed Anverwandten and ancestor the group of genuine humans|
that modern humans (Homo sapiens) are a mammal from the order of the Primaten (Primates). There it belongs to the subordination of the drying nose apes (Haplorhini) and to the family of the anthropoids (Hominidae). In former times humans (Hominidae) and anthropoid (Pongidae) became in particular due to the specialmental development of humans as two separated families regarded, recent investigations see between both groups a closer Verwandtschaftsverhältnis and placing they therefore into a common family. Modern humans are the only to today survivors kind of the kind Homo.
Sometimes for modern humans also the scientific designation Homo is used sapiens sapiens, which is to express that the Neandert (h) belonged to all ( then Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) to the same kind as modern humans. This opinion applies today howeveras very doubtful, why the modern designation is simply Homo sapiens. It leads itself from latin of homo „humans “and sapiens „rejects “.
Table of contents
the singular position of humans in the animal realm
like some other animals exhibits humans some highly specialized characteristics. In several characteristics it differs from that today well-known remaining animal species:
- Cultural evolution: The biological evolution stepped in relation to the faster “cultural” evolution, which is very much promoted by the human language, into the background. Due to its intellectual or also cultural “abilities” he is able, itself changed environmental condition muchmuch better and faster to adapt than every other animal. This process under the term of the Memetik (evolution detached by Memen by genes ) is investigated by some scientists. Other animal species against it go through the evolution after today's knowledge with their “culture”.
- knowledge transfer: In this connection that other animals do not possess in the same measure as humans the ability, their is to be determined in the phenotype developed abilities, their learned knowledge, on thoseto transfer following generations. Humans possess a historical consciousness: It stands not in the necessity to have to always make information either by the genetic transmission to received or experiences exactly the same as its predecessors on the new even but itit can fall back to actions and information which created many generations before it (whereby it comes in addition, with other animal species to the tradition formation, for example with anthropoids). Humans are probably much stronger than every other animal able,in its temporal consciousness past to bring present and the future into causal connections. Thus it can compare, plan its actions and a future thus partly sketches (creativity), which it can at least partly reach by intentionful actions.Humans are able to arrange the living conditions of its kind conscious by work as long as it cannot to select itself and it other obstacles from it prevent its work. Luhmann: Humans are the only organism, that the prospecton a future hunger already makes concerns.
- To third human individuals are conscious itself and of their own number of deaths (self-confident its). As a result of foreseeable dying the question about the sense of the life arises only for humans and the life after death. These questions are in philosophy and religion central and recurring topics. However also anthropoids a self-confident its seem to possess, probably however probably not in the extent and/or. in the kind like humans.
- Not alone typically for humans, however with it particularly strongly pronouncedly, its characteristic is to unite highly organized in larger groups which one can to be observed in a very much more weakened form also with other animals as for example wolves or apes.This favoured by the language of humans complex compared with other animals, who make a differentiated division of labor possible. On the other side it stands to assume that the development of the civilization promoted also the development of the language in close reciprocal effectand both in the long run to the highly developed cultures led, which mankind possesses today.
with the history of the development of the mankind from their beginnings to the today's jet time human being is occupied the Paläanthropologie, of themmost important data sources the archaeology supplies. Still the procedures of the people becoming from ape-like ancestors , probably in the east of Africa , are not finally enlightened up. The present conditions of the realizations are pointed out in the article Hominisation.
Apart from the biological development is forhowever also his cultural development relevant, which is to due to the development of the language, to exchange with that it humans became only possible for humans ideas. The cultural level of development of humans was first constant over century thousands away almost. With thatEmergence of modern humans and its following emigration from Africa accelerated itself however the cultural innovation, until since end of the last ice age with the arising of agriculture and cattle breeding humans intervened for the first time spaciously arranging in his environment. Since thisTime possesses humans over by far more than a few generations going back history, on whose basis the individuals must act.
Typical characteristics of modern humans in the comparison:
- The brain volume of Homo sapiens is somewhat smaller than that of theNeandertalers.
- The forehead is at the steepest of all Hominiden upper
- and lower jaw is minted easily reduced
The scientific term Homo sapiens is used pretty often in easily humoristic allusion as collecting main for the creation of new terms, which represent characteristics of the Homo sapiens, for example
- Homo oeconomicus
- Homo reciprocal to
- the Homo more faber (novel of Max freshness)
- Homo ludens
- Homo sociologicus
- Homo ötzi
- Homo sheet metal (film of Heinrich Pachl)
the development of humans must be seen also clearly in connection with the development of our planet, to the earth. Thus the many forced Ice ages humans to adjust itself to the new conditions. Humans were thus in a the position to adapt again and again and he came and get along with the most diverse living conditions. In contrast to it most animals are on a habitatlimited.
all today living humans very close is
with one another, closer to spreading of modern humans over the globe related as other biological kinds, as molecular-biological investigations mitochondrialen to the ribosomalen RNA and DNA showed. The largest differencesare within the African populations. The populations outside of Africa are - with exception of some only relatively late from Africa emigrated group genetically very uniformly. Modern finds support „the Out OF Africa “- thesis, thus the propagation of themodern humans from the African continent.
There are fossils, which are added to biologically modern humans, for approximately 160,000 years, strengthened since approx. 100,000 years. Long time lived the kind in Africa time parallel to the primarily European Neandertaler, thatparticularly to the life in moderate zones was adapted. In Africa, in before 50,000 years, later approximately before 46,000 years also in Europe, both seemed to the Near East at the same time together, of it in Africa and the Near East altogether several 10.000Years. For the propagation of the Homo sapiens from the Balkans to the Iberi peninsula the research accepted so far about 7000 years. Paul Melars of Cambridge University reported recently in Nature (2006) that it took probably only 5000 years. SomeGroups spread along the Po-level in Italy, others selected the way by the Danube valley. The propagation speed amounted to on average 400 m/year. The Atlantic coast on the Iberi peninsula became finally forwards approx. 41,000 years reaches. The new realizationswe owe to revised results of the carbon data (C14), which make also a shorter coexistence time with the Neanderthaler in Europe probable.
It is, whether both kinds mixed themselves, the majority of the fossils exhibits clearly recognizable morphologic differences unclearly.The newest molecular-genetic analyses mtDNA speak against a mixture of both kinds. In the meantime very extensive find material above all also in the Middle East, proves on a Koexisitenz of these genetically primarily very different biological kinds. Probably they knew each other, had howeverto mix itself hardly inclination. In the Middle East they settled several times alternating the same residential areas.
The alternative theory assumes the Homo developed sapiens at different places of the globe independently from the Homo erectus, which forwardswould explain the different Physiognomie of the human races to everything. After the molecular-genetic investigations, to this thesis however no high probability comes to the recent time.
An unexpected support of the Out OF Africa thesis took place recently via gene analysis from head lice,Team around David Reed of the University of Utah submitted. Our Urahn was familiar the head louse already as a landlord. 1.2 million years ago also the head louse with the Homo drew erectus northward. There the gene population developed independently ofthe African further. As 1 million years later homo sapiens opened itself from Africa to Europe to come, brought it the old African population also. It must be assumed the populations met, because they exist boththis very day. Ergo had the Homo sapiens at least indirectly contact with the Homo erectus and/or. Neanderthaler, which carried the new European population of head lice.
the Genographic Project
mankind can on genetic basis divided into numerous groupsbecome. These could develop, since there was no continuous gene river of all populations in former times due to geographical distances and cultural differences.
So the relational relations between the human populations can be determined relatively exactly. The Genographic Project examines with the help of more modernMethods, how mankind settled itself as it from Africa the remainder of the world into ever more groups split up. Everyone can participate in the project, by letting its DNA sample examine. In this way one can find out, from wherethe own ancestors come. Or that first humans, who applied from East Africa to Asia continued to select a route along the coast of India to Southeast Asia and to Australia and the migrations and very fast went - within onlyless thousand years. Because newest results of genetic analyses state, how little it is probable the fact that it - as so far assumes - by the interior of the middle east traveled.
before 65,000 years
first humans dividedbefore approximately 65,000 years into the following three today still living groups up:
the two groups of the African remained on their homeland continent during the Nichtafrikaner to Asia emigrated. The San and KhoiKhoi live today in the southern Africa, it differ from all other African genetically and by their language (clicking sounds).
before 55,000 years
also the Nichtafrikaner divided not for a long time after its emigration before approximately 55,000 years againin a northern and a southern group up.
The southern group split few thousands of years later further into
- Australians (today's Aborigines, Tasmanier and Papuas),
- Negritos (today Andamaner, Aeta, Semang, Senoi) and
- south Asians (today south Chinese, Thai, Khmer, Indonesier, Philipinos, Polynesier and other inhabitants Ozeaniens) up.
before 45,000 years
the northern group divided before approximately 45,000 years into
- “white one” (Indian, southwestasiatic peoples, Arab, North African, lightmembranous humans of European descent) and
- north Asian (today Mongol, Tibeter, Siberian population, north Chinese, Japanese, Ainu, Korean, Inuit) up.
before 30,000 years
of the north Asians then the Indians (north and South America) separated themselves between 30.000 and 14,000 years.
In prähistorischen timesthe different populations of mankind at the regional borders of its circulation area mixed themselves again and again, whereby this effect was only small long time.
Today humans are also over 6 billion individuals up to some wild and mountain regions, someTo find islands and the Antarctic on the whole globe. By the increasing mobility the different genetic groups mix themselves ever more, after they remained genetically from each other separated in former times by geographical distance or cultural differences. Thus ever more new formEthnien (e.g. Colored one in the USA). Other groups like e.g. the San and Khoi Khoi are about however to disappear completely since their culture is ever more destroyed and it into cities to move and mix themselves there.
One goes of itout that summed up on earth so far about 100 billion Humans lived. Depending upon computation this number varies however around ~30 billion upward or down - dependent on the underlying definition of the beginning of mankind.
the human body is a complicated thing, which consists to 60 to 70% of water, about 20% proteins, 15% fats and 5% minerals and inorganic materials. An adult humans has a typical body size between 150 cm and 200 cm. The anatomy of the body is in detail described in the article anatomy of humans: As also is the case for other vertebrate animals, the body can be structured in a supporting and a movement motion, the internal organs, the nervous system and the sensory organs. But the reduction seizes an indispensable framework for its spirit and its experiencing the world on a purely functional view of the body too briefly, the body of humans places as basic condition for the existence of humans.
the human Genom contains both coding and non-coding DNA - of sequences, which are recognizably homologous that other organisms and with DNA sequences very close of related kinds like other anthropoids agree even complete. On the basis more quantitativeOne can back-close measurements of the similarity of these chains of pair of cousins in reverse on the Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse. This confirms Schimpansen, gorillas and Orang Utans in this order as next human relatives.
Why the biologically opened animal has „humans “special characteristics, examine and/or answer in the broader sense the anthropology, the Soziobiologie and those Bio sociology. Therefore the sociology takes its axioms if not sociologists themselves expenditure-mature so far.
Attempts to sketch already once a sociology for extraterrestrial organisms with manlike mental development as for example the Exosoziologie, are so long purely speculative,until they to be empirically examined can.
see also: Homo Sociologicus
legal seen is humans mostly (“natural”) a person, whose status is differently fixed depending upon state, anyhow is legally responsible he. In the “civil law book“ the Federal Republic of Germany is called corresponding it in § 1: The legal capacity of humans begins with the completion of his birth.There are societies, in which that is not each humans: In master companies for example a newborn child up to the acknowledgment can throughthe father without legal capacity its; in states with slavery slaves apply occasionally as “things “and. A.
The general declaration of the human rights of the United Nations is to give a basic status in each state. In accordance with this people picture each individual humans possessfrom birth to a special, an inviolable and an inalienable became. For this reason each particular has certain rights, for example the right to lives, to physical soundness, on freedom of religion and on liberty of opinion as well as on appropriate wages. ThisIdeally is however not everywhere carried out, because in many states people without legal proceedings are tortured locked up, women and children suppressed prisoners and humans live in poverty. Furthermore the fundamental right on lives becomes, although linked with the term that closely,in no country as inviolable outstanding, since such an inviolability with any armament (army, police etc.) would stand in the contradiction. To the fundamental right on lives see also the decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court for shooting airplanes kidnapped by terrorists.
Some culture areas andReligions do not know generally valid human rights. In particular Judentum, Christianity, Islam, the Indian and the Chinese culture make a difference between “Gläubigen” and “disbelieving ones” or between the rights of the man and those for the woman.
Humans can act even both and believing, praying , rites exercising subject, and as object of religious rites and Anbetungen. In a multiplicity of religions it is considered as direct (and the largest) creation one or several Gods.
Religions andreligious motives almost accompanied, first the entire well-known history of humans as admiration of natural forces, then as Polytheismus and Monotheismus. This led to the philosophical question, into to what extent the religion to the specific characteristics of humans belonged.
That Christianity, the Judentum and the Islam regard the development of humans, like also the entire creation as work of God. For the large Christian religious communities thereby no contradictions between the current conditions of scientific realizations and the Christian faith exist,because according to its view theology and science different questions treat.
From view of Christian creationists, which have an extensive supporter field particularly in the USA, the conception, which humans have themselves over millions of years from animal ancestors developed, in more literal becomes Interpretation of Biblical creation history decided rejected.
In the Buddhismus humans belong to the three of the upper six existence ranges and due to their mental abilities and its possibility own suffering to recognize are considered able, the sorrowful existence cycle (SAM erato break through) and arrive at release (Nirvana) and at awaking (Bodhi).
- to anatomy of humans
- mankind history
- body size
- data of the human body
- people picture
- of human rights
- philosophical anthropology
- Tail human being
- population of world
- peace man Schrenk, Timothy G. Bromage, Henrik Kaessmann: The early period of humans. Back to the roots. in: Biology in our time. Publishing house chemistry, Weinheim 32,2002, 6, S.352-359. ISSN 0045-205X
- Walfried lime trees, Alfred Fleissner: Spirit,Soul and brain. Draft of a common people picture of neuro biologists and spirit scientists. LIT, Münster 2004. ISBN 3825879739
- Charles Darwin: The descent of humans. Swiss beard, Stuttgart 1871 (first German translation of the English original text), Fischer paperback, Frankfurt/Main 2005. ISBN 3-596-50900-9
- Werner Gitt: Fascination humans. Christian literature spreading (CLV), Bielefeld 1996, 2003. (pdf, religiously motivated) ISBN 3-89397-649-3
- Joachim Schüring: Of the other kind. in: Adventure archaeology. Cultures, humans, Monumente. Spektrum der Wissenschaft Verl. - Total one, Heidelberg 2006.1, 32ff. ISSN 1612-9954
(tooNeanderthaler and Homo, out OF africa and gene analysis).
Web on the left of
- Body Surface AREA Calculator (Tool for the computation of the body surface of humans, English)
- 3D anatomy
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