The human


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calls human voice

table of contents 1 the human voice 2 hoarseness 3 literature 4 Web on the left of 5 videos [work on] tail pipe or also Vokaltrakt. In this becomesthe primary laryngeal sound produced in the larynx changes. With many men the larynx is to be recognized clearly asAdam's apple “. It consists of cartilage and is hollow, since the breathing air must flow through. In the larynx two being correct lips are strained: from muscle and fabric layers developed lips, thoseby muscles, cartilages and joints to be adjusted can. They lock the bronchial tube up to a small gap, which one calls glottis (Glottis).

The being correct lips are relaxed when normal breathing and the glottis are broad, so that air can in and leak out unhindered. Overbe correctful tones to produce, become the being correct lips tensely. The glottis is then narrowed up to a fine gap. If now air comes from the lung, the vocal cords transferred in oscillations similarly strings. Air in the tail pipe swings also. A sound (being correct sound) develops.

The frequency range of the human voice amounts to about 100 to 1000 Hertz. The more relaxed the being correct lips are, the fewer oscillations give it and the basic clay/tone of the sound become deeper - they are more strained, speed up the oscillations and the clay/tone become higher. The pitch hangshowever of the length and the thickness of the vocal cords off. The longer they are, the more deeply are the voice. Men have longer being correct lips than women, because the larynx is larger. Children whether boys or girls have, always high voices, since the being correct lips are shorter. Duringthe being correct break become thicker and longer with boys and girls the being correct lips, some has the voice during this time no more under control, do not sound hoarse or be correctless.

The being correct lips are responsible apart from the down-lateral air-flow pressure for pitch and Tonstärke; they supply the basic clay/tone.They produce an undifferentiated overtone-rich oscillation mixture. Like a schnarrendes noise sounds. The sounds, which we need for the linguistic communication, develop in the tail pipe. Mouth and Rachenhöhle, the tongue, the lips and the teeth cooperate here.

For example is with the vowels A, E, I,O and U the position of the being correct lips nearly always directly. The different tone qualities are produced by the change of the mouth and Rachenhöhle. With M and N the oral cavity remains closed and air leaks out by the nose.


hoarseness develops inmost cases by an inflammation the larynx mucous membrane and the vocal cords, at the most frequent in the context of a cold, and fades away afterwards also again. Usually Schleim, which puts on the vocal cords and prevents it from it, forms the glottis in used way to widento lock and. It results to us all well-known hoarse Krächzen of different strength. In bad cases no more sound formation comes off, the patient whispers only (aphonia).

In principle the causes of the hoarseness can be divided into four groups:

A. Inflammations (Viral, bacterially or specific inflammations such as Tuberkulose or Diphtherie)

B. Paralyses (Recurrensparese or Vagusparese)

C. Tumors (property-well-behaved - often Papillome - or malicious (Lippenbandkarzinom)

D. Psychosomatisch (stress)

further one of reasons for hoarseness can be:

  • Virusinfekte of the upper respiratory system in the context of a coldor flu with inflammation of larynx and vocal cords.
  • Chronic provoking and inflammation of the vocal cords with smokers.
  • Acute provoking by strong cold weather or by inhaled types of dust, steams, smoke clouds etc.
  • Too dry and warm room air and to small drinking quantity. The mucous membranes of the upper respiratory system drain andbecome more easily susceptible to Infekte and inflammations.
  • Allergies.
  • Chronic, usually inhalation of chemical attraction materials, due to the vocational activity.
  • Endurance stress of the Sprechapparates when crying, unphysiologischem speaking or singing during a longer period (with a celebration, Sportveranstaltung, public speech etc.)
  • overloading of larynx and vocal cordsHumans with “speaking” or singing occupation with false load of the vocal cords by unphysiologisches speaking.
  • Stimmbandknötchen or other good-like rampant growths.
  • Malicious tumors of the vocal cords, the larynx or its environment.
  • Paralysis nerves, for the movement of the vocal cords and the opening and locking of the glottis is responsible to which.In the context of a thyroid illness and - operation can be damaged it. This concerns the so-called. Recurrens nerve, that at the right and left neck side in direct neighbourhood of the two thyroid rags runs and with a Kropfbildung, particularly in addition, with malicious tumors of the thyroid or thatone pulls to surrounding fabrics in.
  • Psychological factors, those the voice malfunction or them occupied and hoarse to sound leave (uncertainty, nervousness, fear etc.)

one longer than 4 to 6 weeks persisting hoarseness should of a specialist be always examined!


  • God ore, Karl-Heinz: History of the voice, Munich, 1998, ISBN 3770532813
  • Pramendorfer, Ulrike: Tune language joy of life, Linz, 2000, ISBN 3-7058-5084-9
  • Wendler, Jürgen; Seidner, tungsten, Eysholdt, Ulrich: Text book of the Phoniatrie and Pädaudiologie. 4. , completely edition revised. Stuttgart, New York, 2005. ISBN 3-13-102294-9

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