|of these articles treats around the rivers Euphrates and Tigris lain two-current country, for other meanings sees Mesopotamia.|
Mesopotamien (griech. for „between the rivers “, Aramäisch Beth Nahrin = „two-river country “, arab. بلادمابينالنهرين, Bilad mA baynAluminium-Nahrayn or بلادالرافدين, Bilad ِAl Rafidayn ), also two-current country, designates geographically the area around the rivers Euphrates and Tigris in southeast Anatolien (Turkey), Syria and in the Iraq.
Level 2 heading
the farmers predominantly built barley and wheat on. The building of rain fields in the north and the comprehensive artificial irrigation in the south supplied very productive harvests. The fields were bepflanzt only every two years, in order to preserve the soil. The yields of the harvests were remarkable. Already in the 3. Milleniumv. Chr. reached the harvests the 30fache of the sowing. In the course of thousands of years the yields sank, because the soils became ever more salzhaltiger by the irrigation. Nevertheless still up to tenfold of the sowing one harvested. The farmers of the antique Greeceand Rome obtained a clearly smaller relationship with their harvests.
the majority of well-known history Mesopotamiens is coined/shaped by the thrust immigration of various peoples preceding around thrust. Usually the region disintegrated intonumerous city states, similarly as in the antique Greece, which kings managed, who temporarily with one another stood in the war. Further there were phases, which were dominated by large realms, as well as phases, in those powers from the neighbour regions of conquest campaigns led.
The fruitful Mesopotamien luredin the course of history innumerable peoples on. Contrary to Egypt the inhabitants Mesopotamiens could be enough themselves because of, never really partition open borders against new immigrants.
found prehistory first human traces in Anterior Asia from that 70. Millenium v. Chr. Neanderthaler lived here as Nomaden. First firm settlements such as Göbekli Tepe and Nevali Cori developed for end 9. Millenium in Nordmesopotamien in the so-called PPN A. At this time domestizierte animals and plants were still unknown.The settlement of the southern Mesopotamiens begins in the Obed time. Farmers settle the country between Babylon and Persian Gulf, first agriculture are operated. Between 5000 and 4000 v. Chr. the Ubaid develops - culture. Division of labor develops, the Töpferscheibeone invents. Temples in loam brick building method develop. Since the Uruk time (4000 v. Chr. - 3100 v. Chr.) are cities and the beginnings of the writing, which should develop from a system from pictograms to the sumerischen cuneiform script.
major item: Sumer
the first writing certifications in Südmesopotamien are written in sumerischer language. Some language researchers assume that and it leads the sumerische language with the Mongolian one , which could be related Turkish ones or the Hungarian one from it an immigration of the Sumerer inTwo-current country from the east off, where they assume the roots of these languages. Archaeologically there are no vouchers for such Zuwanderung. The theory that the southern Mesopotamien was in the Neolithikum still under the sea level, cannot be held in the meantime any longer,even if it came by the erosion into consequence of field-structural use and over feasting into Taurus and Zagros to a strong order for soil.
End 4. Millenium v.Chr. technologies for a more effective irrigation of the fields were developed and established, so that itself for the first timealso larger cities to form could. The widely distributed duct system was organized by priest princes so mentioned and cultivated together („temple economy “).
Handicraft and trade won ever more to meaning and the cities became ever wealthier. Each of these settlements was politically independent.
The rising requirements of the organization and also the temple economy caused and favoured the development of a writing. First the writing served only the bookkeeping. The most important city of the Sumerer was Uruk, the city Gilgameschs. The Epos of this herois considered as the oldest received literary document of mankind.2700 v. Chr. the cuneiform script in its possibilities was led to the completion.
Starting from 3000 v. Chr. Nomaden from the north immigrated to the southern Mesopotamien. The sumerische king list, thosealso of a Sintflut reported, documents these migrations by emerging semitischer names. The historians call this epoch Frühdynasti period, in 23. Century v. Chr. ended.
In this epoch broke the unit of religious and lay power. Palacesfor the kings were built, who did not only serve the representation. The kings of this time were called lugal (= „large humans “). The rulers showed their claim to power also by its graves, by being able to be buried with their attendants. Several theseOne found king graves in close proximity to Ur.
agreement and bloom time under Akkad
with Sargon of Akkad, a city state king of the Sumerer, a new epoch began (around 2235-2094 v. Chr.). It created the first large frontasiatic realm, by uniting the many city states, so that he today also as Sargon I. one designates. To his sphere of influence belonged completelyMesopotamien as well as parts of Syria, Iran and small Asia. The city Akkad, whose remainder was not found yet, became its seat of the government. The akkadische language displaced Sumeri.
Conquests Sargons led to economic and cultural linkageswith the subjected peoples and the new neighbours. The entrance to Persian Gulf let a flourishing maritime trade develop.
Culturally the life in the realm Sargons I was affected in particular by the Egyptian culture. That showed up both in the figurative representationsand in the admiration of the ruler as God and/or. as deputies of God.
The realm of Akkad did not have long existence. Numerous rebellions and in particular the immigrating mountain people of the Gutäer terminated the epoch.
This first large realm remained into thatMyths of the region alive. Thus report even the Assyrer in their history, arising many later, of Sargon.
Neusumeri realm of the Ur III dynasty
after scarcely 100 years the Gutäer was driven out, and the sumerischen city states regainedto power and size. The city Ur became again the center. Sumerisch became administrative language, which first Zikkuratte develops.
This time drew by a taut administration from and by the definition of statutory orders (Codex Urnammu). It is thoselast epoch coined/shaped by the Sumerern. Their fall is characterized by shrinking the power of the cities, whereby a further Nomadenvolk should get its chance to the ascent. The Ur in such a way specified iii-dynasty lasted 1939 v. from 2047 -. Chr..
it is not well-known, when the city Babylon was created. Only under king Hammurapi in the oldBabylonian period (2000 v. Chr.- 1595 v. Chr.), arrived the city into the center of the Zeitgeschehens andit became so important for the region that the Greeks in the consequence called Mesopotamien completely Babylonien.
Hammurapi is particularly well-known future generations, because he wrote one of the first delivered Gesetzessammlungen, the so-called Kodex Hammurapi. In 280 Paragrafen regulatedthis work of aspects of the civil right, the punishing and administrative law. It defined numerous individual case decisions, which were often characterised by large hardness. The historians are not safe itself, as durably this Gesetzessammlung was considered.
The realm Hammurabis disintegrated in the nextCenturies. The Hethiter erstarkten in the west, attacks Babylon 1595 v. Chr. The Kassiten, a Nomadenvolk their origin yet is secured, did not immigrate. They standardize the akkadische and sumerische cuneiform script. Only starting from that 15. Century v. Chr.reached Babylonagain world validity. Particularly with Egypt there was closer relations, since numerous Babylonian princesses were married to Egypt.
world realm of the Assyrer
major items: History of the assyrischen realm
in 18. Century v. Chr. united Schamschi Adad I.at least inThe north Mesopotamiens completely Assyrien, but in the first half 17. Century disintegrated Assyrien already again, with which the Alta-Syrian realm was decided.
In 14. Century v. Chr. erstarkte as new power Assyrien. The Herkunfts and capital Assur lay toupper Tigris. Historians assume that the city at the beginning stood under the rule Akkads, while the first Assyrer was only Nomaden.
At the point of the Assyrer stood the king, who saw itself also as a deputy of the God Assur. Besides practicedthe buyers an important claim to power in the country out. Assur, geographically favorably been because of important trade routes, acted with Iran, Babylon and the today's Anatolien.
Under I. Assur uballit.(1353-1318 v. Chr.) attained Assyrien its influence back. Numerous conquests led againto an economic upswing. The king Tukulti Ninurta understood itself again as a deputy of the God Assur. It called itself “rulers of the four continents” and made clear thereby his claim to power. With its death however this epoch of the center-read-Syrian realm ended.
Onethe realm with their king experienced last upswing Assur dan III. (935-912 v. Chr.), numerous aramäische cities conquered. The Assyrer took over from the Aramäern however gradually writing and language.
The kings Assurnasirpal II. (883-859 v. Chr.) and Salmanassar III.(858-824v. Chr.) extended the assyrischen sphere of influence until Syria. At some setbacks and internal Zwistigkeiten it succeeded Tiglat more pileser III.(745-727 v. Chr.) Phönizien to conquer Palestine and Israel. Babylon became 689 v. Chr. conquered. The conquest urge found its high point inthe conquest of Egypt by Asarhaddon (681-669 v. Chr.). Assurbanipal (669-627 v. Chr.) was the last important ruler. The Greek historians reviled the ruler as Schwächling. Today's historians cannot confirm this judgement. They see to that in it an experienced politician,very well read was. Its library is an important source for the history of the two-current country.
after the fall Assyriens erstarkte Babylon again. The king Nabopolassar defeats finally Assyrien. 18 years after death Assurbanipals defeated thosecombined Meder and Babylonier the armies Assyriens (609 v. Chr.). Byabylon became again in the consequence the cultural center Mesopotamiens. Assur and Ninive were destroyed and the Assyrer disappeared perfectly finally from the memory of the following generations, to this namefor political-social reasons within the aramäischen people in the east in 19. Century n. Chr. one revived.
Alexander and the Seleukiden
Mesopotamiena Roman and Byzantine province was occasional as part of the Diözese of the east and thus scene of the wars between Rome and the Parthern. 139 v. conquer part ago. Chr. the Seleukidenreich. Südmesopotamien profits from the remote trade with China.
late ancient times and the Middle Ages
due to the Islamic expansion found accomodation MesopotamienArab rule. In the early Middle Ages the cities were Bagdad and Samarra seats of the abbasidischen Kalifats. Later the region the Osmani realm was incorporated. Until it came up after the First World War in the State of Iraq.
culture and society
economics and national economy
in the 3. The priest princes, who held political and religious power in their hands, prevailed to millenium (Sumerer). They organized also the canalization of the country and the agriculture. The household of the state was equivalent to thatthe ruler, one calls this economic system Oikos economy. The organization needed for it a large administrative machinery. Humans, who worked for the priest princes, were paid with material assets.
Private property was only established in the time Babylons. The tasks of the state became inRun of the time partly “denationalizes”, i.e. a tenant took over the work and had for it an achievement (e.g. Silver) furnish.
The farmers in 2. to 1. Their products exchanged millenium against it for necessary food and textiles.
The temples and their priestshad in Assyrien far less influence on the economy. The assyrische state bore the private property and financed themselves by tributes and taxes. The Ländereien was in the possession of aristocracy families, which made the small farmers ever for more dependent ones. A largeAdvantage had the Landbesitz - it was taxfree. Beside Landbesitz this Adelfamlienen possessed usually still large business enterprises.
Also in Babylon there were influential commercial gentlemen, who formed proper dynasties with their families. Only by trade they did not increase their fortune, butalso by cash transactions.
It did not seem surprisingly to have given markets (bazaars) at this time, how one would actually expect it from an eastern country. But the found documents do not report on this commercial form.
Mesopotamien acted with thatadjacent countries. The remote trade relations reached thereby even from the Baltic Sea to the Indusdelta. The goods were brought by ship or with caravans in the country. The caravans transported their commodity first with donkeys, starting from that 1. Millenium v. Chr. carriedCamels the commodity. In the small extent also horses and cars were used. There were roads only since the Neuassyri realm.
First the bartering prevailed forwards, later applied for certain quantities of barley than exchange unit. Starting from that 3. Millenium metals became, in particular Silver for universal currency. Babylonien had the Schekel, mines and talents as currencies. 30 kg silver corresponded to a talent, a Schekel weighed 8.4 G.
Starting from this time is also referring to craftsman, cooks, shoemakers and others Occupations. They servedfirst in the context of the temple economy. Starting from that 2. Millenium worked they also strengthened independently in the private interest.
the position of Mrs
the position of the woman in Mesopotamien is to be specified for the historians despite all sources not clearly.
The future married man closed a marriage contract with the bride father, and the woman brought a dowry into the marriage. The man was the clear family executive committee. The position of the woman depended on whether it brought children to the world. The marriage remainedchildless, the married man could let itself be separated or a Nebenfrau take. If the wife had however children, a divorce was hardly possible. However the right to divorce was entitled to women.
The women could have also possession, them were allowed to act and inherit.Historians assume that the women in Babylon had achieved nearly the equal rights. That applied naturally only to women from the Oberschicht.
The child number of deaths was high, then only two of four children reached the adult age.
language, writing andNumbers
before that 4. The inhabitants of the two-current country Zählsteine so mentioned for the arithmetic problems of the everyday life used millenium.
The expanding trade led in the 3. Millenium for the development of the cuneiform script. First the writing consisted mainly of picture symbols. Became laterit more abstractly. Since many humans could not write, they took the services up of writers for their purposes . The writer became in such a way an outstanding person in the society.
The indications were cut thereby with styluses on clay/tone boards.First one pulled on the clay/tone board senkrechte and horizontal lines. Then one carried the symbols into the developed small boxes, by pressing her with the three-sharp-edged end of a thin wood into the soft clay/tone board. One wrote and one read from leftto the right. The cuneiform script in such a way specified reached around 2700 v. Chr. their completion. The cuneiform script was used over 2500 years long in Mesopotamien and was also in Syria and with the Hethitern, as well as in diplomatic archives of Egypt.
With the Sumerern stood the individual indications of whole words, which could have also several meanings. One combined partial indications, e.g. in order to represent actions. Thus the term was represented „meals “by the symbols „to mouth “and „bread “. This picture writing permitted ithumans to organize the things of the everyday life better.
The writing became in the course of the time more complex, individual symbols could now also sounds and/or. several symbols could represent complete sentences. The made possible the birth of the literature, like it itself alsoin by the whole region admitted Gilgamesch Epos struck down.
Before that 2. Millenium did not prevail in the two-current country of the used languages forwards. Equally Sumeri and Akkadi were spoken. The centuries long settlement and spreading of the verschiendensten aramäischen trunks overthe entire fruitful Halbmond Aramäisch made the prominent language of the Near East. The sumerische language remained up to the turn of an era the language of the education, as it Greek during the Roman realm or as it latin in the Middle Ages was similar. Afterwards wureAramäi inevitably, it was the language of almost all subjects that realms in the front Orient, which developed in the course of the centuries. In the Persian realm Aramäi became consequently the Kanzleisprache, D. h. Office language of the realm.
Alexander the large one conquered finallywidens parts Mesopotamiens. It and its successors banished Akkadi in the consequence, while Aramäisch was explained as the state language. Also the Silbenschrift, which was taken over by the Phöniziern , was introduced by the Aramäer. Only the consonants were written, vowelsit did not give in the associated writing (same applies to the originals of the Bible as well as the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians). In this epoch on papyrus and Pergament one wrote.
the decoding of the sumerischen writing
the Dane Carsten Niebuhr came 1756 to Persepolis. It copied numerous inscriptions in the ruins of the palace. They had been written down in three languages using two different cuneiform scripts. First of these writings was recognized as oldPersian, over approx.600 v. Chr. was usual. German professor Georg Friedrich Grotefend and others began to translate the old-Persian texts.
1835 discovered the Englishman Henry Creswicke Rawlinson of rock pictures, which contained texts likewise in three languages. It began to decode the cuneiform script texts. SecondLanguage turned out as Babylonian, a dialect Akkadi, which was to for instance to the turn of an era used. Now two languages were readable. With the analysis of the akkadischen texts the language researchers encountered ambiguity. One assumed that the used writingfrom the language another people taken over and adapted was.1869 identified Julius Oppert the authors up to then of the not assigned characters as the Sumerer. Numerous later finds should confirm its realization.
- Early advanced cultures
- cradle of the civilization
- lists of the kings of Sumer
- list of the cities Mesopotamiens
- Barthel Hrouda: Mesopotamien. The antique cultures between Euphrates and Tigris. Munich 2002 (3. Aufl.), ISBN 3-406-46530-7
- editorship of the time running books: The floweringCities of the Sumerer. Time running books, Amsterdam 1993, ISBN 90-5390-519-7 (translation of Sumer, Cities OF Eden.)
- Henry William Frederick Saggs: Mesopotamien. Assyrer, Babylonier, Sumerer. Kindler, Zurich 1966, Magnus, meal 1977. (Translation of The Greatness that which Babylon, 1962)
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|Wiktionary: Mesopotamien - word origin, synonyms and translations|