Messerschmitt BF 109

BF 109 E in the German museum Munich
BF 109 G-2 with opened hood
Bf 109 G-2 (ex Spanien, CASA HA 1112 M;) im Luftwaffenmuseum Berlin-Gatow
BF 109 G-2 (ex Spain, CASA hectar of 1112 M;) in the Air Force museum Berlin Gatow
BF 109 G-6 of the Messerschmitt donation
BF 109 G-14/AS or G-10 with Erla hood

the Messerschmitt BF 109 and/or. ME 109 was a single-seat German fighter of the 1930er and 1940er years, which were produced in a number of items of over 33.000. As drive first a Junkers Jumo 210 - carburetor engine with 440 - 515 KW (600 - 700 HP) became, later by compressor of loaded Daimler- Fuel injection engine also at the beginning of approximately 736 KW (1000 HP), at the end of the war up to 1471 KW (2000 HP) uses. The construction work began 1934, as a modern type of fighter was searched around the Air Force to equip. The first flight took place 1935. In addition was the first prototype alsothe strongest at that time V-12-Motor the available, a Rolls-Royce Kestrel V of 511 KW (695 HP) take-off power equipped.

In comparison flies against the Arado an acre 80, the Focke Wulf L.G. 159 as well as the Heinkel He 112 could the BF 109 intersperse itself. Beside the superior, Also the good suitability spoke flight performances and the better wobbling characteristics in the comparison to the main competitor He 112 for mass production for Messerschmitts draft, which had been laid out with at that time uncommon consequence for (at that time likewise uncommon) mass production production.

Table of contents

Of the originally planned Bf-109-A-Serie due to the weak armament compared with that the Hawker Hurricane distance was taken.

The first combat mission of the BF 109 took place with the Legion CONDOR in the Spanish civil war. Thosebefore assigned Heinkel He of 51 hunt double-deckers had lost the air superiority to the more modern Soviet Eindecker of the type Polikarpow I-16, used by the republicans. With the BF 109 the air superiority of the nationalists was restored.

The ME 109 became approximately of the Air Force as air superiority fighters, as interceptors Bomber as well as begun fighter-bomber (low flier) against ground targets. In the air battle around England the Air Force suffered a defeat against the Royal air Force, whose most important hunter types were the Hawker Hurricane as well as in smaller number the more efficient supernavy Spitfire.

In tactical regard was the BF 109 to 1940 the English hunters consider or at least equally. In middle and large heights it was faster than the Spitfire, and in all heights clearly faster than the Hurricane. With an armament of two 20 mm of cannons of the type mg FF andit had two 7.92 mm machine guns mg 17 in addition a larger firepower than the English hunters with their battery of eight 7.7 mm-MGs.

Opposite the British hunters Spitfire and Hurricane possessed the BF 109 E a larger turning circle. The BF know 109 Eup than the Spitfire, but due to their clearly smaller bearing area it had a higher coefficient of lift and a smaller weight at same speed nevertheless one approx. 20% larger turning circle. Regarding the fall speed the BF exceeded 109 E both British samples.

A further advantage of the sample was the Daimler Benz engine with direct fuel injection, which it permitted to press hard into a dive without the engine suspended (defensive maneuvers in aerial engagement tactics). The British airplanes with carburetor engines had the dive with a time-consuming half role to introduce and could not therefore not fast enough to follow.

In the later war process the development of the BF 109 could hold first with the development of the allied hunters step. Only end of 1943/Anfang 1944 the allied hunters, above all the North American P-51, the total output of the BF 109 exceeded substantially. The achievement disadvantage of the BF 109 was to attribute to their outdated aerodynamics as well as to the lack at high speed engines, which could have adjusted these. Only in the autumn 1944 again appropriate engines were to the allied Leistungsniveau at the disposal, which were used in the versions G-10, G-14 and K-4.

Particularly hastily trained new generation pilots camewith the fastidious airplane, its problematic starting and landing behavior under the schmalspurige chassis and the torque of the strong engine only with difficulty by right (see flier monument). Besides white there were the BF 109 a very economical instrumenting up in such a way z. B. no artificial horizon, without which flies with poor visibility is very difficult. The laterally fastened hood could be thrown off for jump in emergency situations together with the being certain rear hood part. The release of the hood was accomplished also before a belly landing, over in case of an estimate from thatTo be able to escape cab.

With no other airplane sample as many firings were obtained as with the BF 109 and/or. ME 109. Thus e.g. obtained. Erich Hartmann of 352 air victories exclusive in different models of the BF 109 (also seven P-51 were under it).

After the Second World War becamethe type further-built, so in Czechoslovakia as Avia S.199. Also Israel used the type (forced) after the war. In Spain it was manufactured of Hispano as HA-1109 and HA-1112. Production ran until 1957. The machines were at least until 1965 in the use.They were propelled by Rolls-Royce Merlin engines.

Version overview (simplified)

Type engine
achievement [1] separating
emergency achievement
contents of
on-board weapons under
wing weapons
BF 109 A Jumo 210 B/D 680 HP in 0 km - 235 L 2 x 7.92 mm -
BF 109 B Jumo 210D 680 HP in 0 km - 235 L 3 x 7.92 mm -
BF 109 C Jumo 210 G 730 HP in 0 km - 337 L 4 x 7.92 mm -
BF 109 D Jumo 210 D 680 HP in 0 km - 337 L 4 x 7.92 mm -
BF 109 E-1 railways 601 A-1 (4.0 km) 990 HP in 0 km - 400 L 4 x 7.92 mm -
BF 109 E-3 railways 601 A-1 (4.0 km) 990 HP in 0 km - 400 L 2x 7.92 mm, 2 x 20 mm -
BF 109 E-4 railways 601 A-1 (4.5 km) 990 HP in 0 km - 400 L 2 x 7.92 mm, 2 x 20 mm -
BF 109 E-4/N railways 601 N (4.85 km) 1020 HP in 0km [2] - 400 L 2 x 7.92 mm, 2 x 20 mm -
BF 109 E-7 railways 601 A-1 or Aa [5] 1045 HP in 0 km - 400 L 2 x 7.92 mm, 2 x 20 mm -
BF 109 F-2 railways 601N (4.85 km) 1020 HP in 0 km [2] - 400 L 2 x 7.92 mm, 1 x 15 mm -
BF 109 F-4 railways 601 E 1200 HP in 0 km [3] - 400 L 2 x 7.92 mm, 1 x 20 mm -
BF 109 G-2 railways 605 A 1310 HP in 0 km [4] - 400 L 2 x 7.92 mm, 1 x 20 mm of 2 x 20 mm
BF 109 G-6 railways 605 A (5.8 km) 1475 HP in 0 km - 400 L 2 x13 mm, 1 x 20 mm of 2 x 20 mm
BF 109 G-6/U4 railways 605 TO 1475 HP in 0 km 1800 HP in 0 km 400 L 2 x 13 mm, 1 x 30 mm of 2 x 20 mm
BF 109 G-10 railways 605Railways 1430 HP in 0 km 1800 HP in 0 km 400 L 2 x 13 mm, 1 x 30 mm of 2 x 20 mm
BF 109 K-4 railways 605 DC 1370 HP in 0 km 2000 HP in 0 km 400 L 2 x13 mm, 1 x 30 mm -

[1] during starting/emergency achievement (for 5 min permissible)

[2] starting/emergency achievement was closed for the railways 601 N. 1020 HP were permissible for 30 min.

[3] Starting/emergency achievement was for the railways 601 E closed. Release by 1350 HP in February1942 possible [1].

[4] Starting/emergency achievement was for the railways 605 A until for instance in the autumn 1943 closed.

[5] A BF 109 E-7 (serial no. 3523) with railways 601 Aa (serial no. 11220) 2003 from a Russian lake were saved. The indication of achievement refers to the railways601 Aa.

Note: Performance data for the Daimler Benz engines are based on Daimler Benz documents from the Second World War. If these from the values often quoted in the literature deviate, are the reasons usually:

  • Reference to a larger height than 0 km in the literature
  • indication of in the employmentnot certified achievements in the literature

technical data

BF 109 G-10:
Characteristic of data
length 8.95 m
wingspan 9.97 m
wing area 16.4 m ²
height 2.60 m
drive Daimler Benz a 12-Zylinder-V-Motor railways 605 railways with maximally 1085 KW (1475 HP)
by methanol/water injection (MW 50) for shortTime 1324 KW (1800 HP)
maximum speed 685 km/h in 7400 m height
of climbing time on 3000 m; 2:54 min
range 560 km
crew 1 men
service ceiling 12,500 m
unloaded weight 1970 kg
flying weight 3500 kg
of armament Two 13 mm-mg mg 131 (ever 300 shot) and 20Mm-MK mg 151/20 (150-200 shot) or 30 mm-MK MK 108 (60-65 shot) by the boss firing. In addition different conversion kits for Unterflügelrohrwaffen (mg 151/20, MK 108), rockets and bomb carriers (50, 250, or 500kg bombs)

BF 109 in the process 2. World war

Messerschmitt designed the BF109 with the following characteristics:

  • Weapons, engine and instrument panel formed a common construction unit, the Hinterrumpf were an independent building group, each of the two bearing areas likewise.
  • The secrecy was facilitated by the separation into independent building groups, since the manufacturers of the building groups know only a small part of the overall constructionhad.
  • The manufacturing individual building groups could be paged out and assigned at subcontractors, in order to use or decentralize around the production to the protection against air raids production capacities outside of the enterprise.
  • Nearly all building groups could be developed further independently, in order to keep the airplane competitive.
  • The subunitspossessed for transport favorable mass and could therefore problem-free be sent away and even on field conditions fast again be rigged.
  • At that time a maintenance good for conditions was reached by the exchangeability of individual building groups, which was exceeded however later by improved samples like the Focke Wulf L.G. 190.

Messerschmitt had recognized that at that time the again developing high-speed bombers could be intercepted only by fast fighters. Contrary to the competition drafts conception (in the contradiction for the express desire of the realm aviation Ministry) lay the emphasis particularly on higher with the BF 109 due to MesserschmittsSpeed and a high climbing rate (and thus acceleration).

The maneuverability of the BF 109 was relatively small in relation to the competition drafts therefore. The range of the BF 109 was short, since the role of the long-distance hunter in the Air Force was filled out by the destroyer.

On-board weapons attached in the trunk, twoMg 17 (calibers of 7.92 mm with ever 1000 shot) and the wing weapons, two mg FF automatic cannons (calibers of 20 mm with ever 60 shot), offered a superior firepower opposite the past hunters. The two mg 17 were steered by an electrical firing giver, that with circuit breaker transmissionsusual firepower losses to a minimum limited. The automatic cannon however fired engine-independently. The 20 mm garnet ammunition the basic structure of an airplane goal was to be destroyed, an important advantage in relation to a pure mg armament able.

The retractable landing gear was operated hydraulically. The chassis legs were fastened at the cell andwas laterally tilted up, where they disappeared in the wings in bays. Thus entire hydraulics could be shifted inside the trunk, without hydraulic lines had to be led into the wings.

In the assembly plant the weapons, the engine, became the chassis, the flight instruments, etc. into thatTrunk inserted and on the basis fixer standards adjusted. Wings and propellers came from other production plants, where the same standards applied. With the final assembly the airplane with driven out chassis was hung up set up, which installs wings, beaconing cable, fuel pipes, control cables stuck on (error-proof coding) and the push pull cables for the flaps(which were already before-trimmed). Only the two oil coolers under the bearing area stump had to be attached, forced away and aired out. Thus the wheel base was very narrow with all remarks.

See also

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